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THE J. PAUL GETTY MUSEUM LIBRARY 



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PALESTINE 
EXPLORATION FUND. 



Patron— THE QUEEN. 



^arterly Statement 

FOR 1879. 



LONDON : 

PUBLISHED AT THE 

SOCIETY'S OFFICE, ii and 12, CHARING CROSS, S.W., 

AND BY 

RICHARD BENTLEY & SON, 8, NEW BURLINGTON STREET. 



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INDEX. 



Ai, 103 

Ain Kadeis, 69 

Artificial Tels, 142 

Arabia Petrsea, 59 

Black Stone of Mecca, 21 

Bonomi's Visit to the Haram, 51 

Capernaum, 131 

Colonies in Palestine, 8 

Dome of the Rock, 25, 27 

Emmaus, 105 

Esdraelon, 13 

Fellaheen, The, 33, 72 

Flint Flakes, 68 

Gerizim, 20 

Hagar's Fountain, 67 

Haifa, 12 

Jacob's Well, 87 

Jebel Mugrah, 69 

Jerusalem, New Discoveries in the 

North of, ISS 
Jordan, Bridges over the, 138 
Khurbet el Hai, 120 
Legends connected with the Sakhra, 20 
Loreto, Sancta Casi of, 23 
Meeting of General Committee, 162 
Moab, Journey into, 187 
Magharet el Jai, 121 
Mohammedan Traditions respecting 

Joshua's Place of Sepulchre, 193 
Nahum, Birthplace of, 136 
Nameless City, The, 130, 171 
Nehemiah's Wall and David's Tomb, 

176 
Nephtoah and Kirjath Jearim, 95 






Nimrin, 143 

Notes and News, 1, 55, 109, lo7 
Notes on the Two Pools, 179 
Palestine, Peasantry of, 9 
,, Colonisation of, 8 
,, its Present Condition, 6 
Agriculture in, 10 
Roads in, 14 
,, Modern Researches in, 138 
,, Water Supply and Irriga- 
tion, 139 
Populousness of Country East of Jordan, 

149 
Rimmon, 170 

Pomegranate, Rock of the, 118 
Sacred Cubit, The Test Cases, 181 
Sea of Galilee, Notes on the Topography 

of the, 168 
Shittim Plain, 143 
Sulphur Springs, 141 
Survey of AVestern Pales-tine, 109 
Suez, 48 

Subscribers, List of, 160 
Sydney, Meeting in, 115 
Syria, Population of, 7 
The Stone Hat-toim on tlie Ecce- 

homo Arch, 195 
Tomb of David, The, 172 
Tomb of St. Luke at Epliesus, Tlie 

Supposed, 184 
Transference of Sites, IS 
Zeboini, 101 
Zion, 104 
Zoar, 15, 99, 144 



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THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND: 

A SOCIETY FOR THE ACCURATE AND SYSTEMATIC INVESTIGATION OF 
THE ARCHAEOLOGY, THE TOPOGRAPHY, THE GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL 
GEOGRAPHY, THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS, OF THE HOLY LAND, 
FOR BIBLICAL ILLUSTRATION. 



PATRON : 
HEE MAJESTY THE QUEEN. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE: 
ARCHBISHOP OF YORK, Fresident. 



Dr. H. W. Acland, F.R.S. 

iPiEV. W. Lindsay Alexander, D.D. 

Rev. Henry Allon, D.D. 

The President OF the American Association 

"VV. Amhurst T. Amherst, Esq. 

Capt. Anderson, R.E., CM.G. 

Rev. Joseph Angus, D.D. 

Duke of Argyll, K.T. 

Key. Joseph Barclay, LL.D. 

James Bateman, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Hev. Canon Birch 

Samuel Birch, Esq., LL.D., D.C.L. 

Eev. W. F. Birch 

Rev. H. M. Butler. D.D. 

Marquis of Bute, Iv.T. 

Archbishop of Canterbury 

Earl of Caenarvon 

T. Chaplin, Esq., M.D., lion. Sec. for 

Jcrusalevi 
Bishop of Chester 
Dean of Chester 
Dean of Christchurch 
IjOrd Alfred Churchill 
IjOrd Clermont 
J. D. Grace, Esq. 
Lieut. Condeh, R.E. 
John Cunliffe, Esq. 
Duke of Devonshire, K.G., F.R.S. 
Earl of Ducie 
W. Hepworth Dixon, Esq. {Chairman of 

Executive Committee) 
Professor Donaldson 
Earl of Dufferin, K.P., K.C.B. 
F. A. Eaton, Esq. 
S. Jackson Eldridge, Esq.. Hevrout 
5S1R Howard Elphinstone, K.C.B. 
Bishop of Exeter 
Rev. Canon Farrar, D.D. 
James Fergusson, Esq., F.R.S. 
A. Lloyd Fox 
H. W. Freeland, Esq. 
M. C. Clermont-Ganneau 



F. Waymouth Gibbs, Esq., C.B. 

Rev. C. D. Ginsburo, LL.D. 

Cyril C. Graham, Esq. 

George Grove, Esq., D.C.L. {Hon. Sec.) 

James Glaisher, Esq., F.R.S. 

Samuel Gurney, Esq. 

H. A. Harper, Esq. 

Rev. J. C. Harrison 

Rev. F. W. Holland (flow. Sec.) 

Col. Home, R.E., C.B. 

A. J. Beresford Hope. Esq., M.P. 

Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.I. 

HoLMAN Hunt, Esq. 

Lord Lawrence, G.C.B., G. C.S.I. 

E. H. Lawrence, Esq. 

Right Hon. Sin A. H. Layard, K.C.B. 

Sir F. Leighton, P.R.A. 

General Lefroy 

Rt. Hon. Lord Henry Lennox, M.P. 

Professor Hayter Lewis 

Bishop of Lichfield 

Dean of Lichfield 

Bishop of Llandaff 

Samuel Lloyd, Esq. 

Bishop op London 

John MacGregor, Esq. 

W. McArthur, Esq., M.P. 

Duke of Marlborough, K.G. 

Rev. Samuel M.\nning, LI .D. 

Master of University College, Oxford 

R. B. Martin, Esq. 

Henry Maudslay, Esq. 

Edward Miall, Esq. 

Rev. Dr. Moffatt 

Sir Moses Montefiore, Bart. 

Noel Temple Moore, Esq., H.B.M. Con. 

sul, Jerusalem 
Samuel Morley, Esq., M.P. 
W. Morrison, Esq. {Treasurer) 
Rev. J. Mullens, D.D. 
John Murray, Esq. 
Sir Charles NicHOLsoy, Bart. 



Gexerat. Cohmittee (conti/med) — 

Duke of Northumberlaxd 

Dean of Norwich 

Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommanney 

Professor Owen, C.B., F.E.S. 

Professor E. H. Palmer 

Bishop or Peterborough 

Sir S. Morton Peto, Bart. 

Eev. E. H. Plumptre 

Rev. Professor Porter, LL.D. 

Rev. C. Pritckard, F.R.S. 

Eev. Prof. Pusey, D.D. 

Ma.tor-Gen. Sir Henry Rawlinson,K.C.B., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Professor Rawlinson 
Henry Reeve, Esq., C.B. 
Marquis of Ripon, K.G. 
Bishop of Ripon 
Bishop of Rochester 
Db. Sandreczky 

Rt. Hon. Viscount Sandon, M.P. 
M. De Saulcy 



Lord Henry J. M. D. Scott, M.P. 
Earl of Shaftesbury', K.G. 
"William Simpson, Esq., F.R.G.S. 
William Smith, Esq., LL.D. 
W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 
Major R. W. Stewart, R.E. 
Rev. John Stoughton, D.D. 
Viscount Stratford de Redcllffe, 

KG., G.C.B. 
Duke of Sutherland, K.G. 
Lord Talbot de Malahide 
William Tipping, Esq. 
Rev. Canon Tristram, LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., F.R.S. 
The Count de Vogue 
Colonel Warren, R.E., C.M.G. 
Dean of Westminster, F.R.S. 
Duke of Westminster, K.G. 
Major Wilson, R.E., C.B., F.R.S. 
George Wood, Esq. 
Bishop of Winchester 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 
^Y. HEPW^ORTH DIXON, Esq., Cliairman. 



H. A. Harper, Esq. 

John MacGregor, Esq. 

Walter Morrison, Esq. 

William Simpson, Esq. 

Rev. Canon Tristram, F.R.S. 

W. S. \V. Vaux, Esq., F.R.S. 

Major Wilson, R.E., C.B., F.R.S. 



Captain Anderson, R.E., C.M.G. 
Samuel Birch, Esq., LL.D. 
J. D. Grace, Esq. 
F. A. Eaton, Esq. 
Jaaies Glaisher, Esq., F.R.S. 
George Grove, Esq., D.C.L. 
Samuel Gurney, Esq. 
Rev. F. W. Holland 

SanJcers— Messrs. Coutts and Co., 59, Strand. The Union Bank of London, Charing 

Cross Branch, 66, Charing Cross. 

Treasurer — Walter Morrison, Esq. 

ffon. Secretaries— Rev. F. W. Holland, and George Grove, Esq., D.C.L, 

Acting Secretary— W a-lter Besant, Esq. Office, 11 and 12, Charing Cross, S.W. 



Cheques and P.O. Orders paj-able to order of Walter Besant, Esq, It is particularly 
requested tliat both cheques and orders may he crossed to Coutts and Co., or to the Union 
Bank of London, Charing Cross Branch, Post Office Orders may be made payable at 
Charing Cross, 



NOTE.— The Price of the "Quarterly Statement" is Half-a-Crown. 

Sent free to Subscribers, 



Quarterly Statement, January, ]8T9.] 



■) 1 1 1 



THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND 



NOTES AND NEWS, 



It is suggested to subscribers that the safest and tlie most convenient manner 
of paying a subscription is by means of a bank. A form is enclosed which may 
be filled up and sent to the banker as an instruction. Subscribers adopthig this 
method will not receive any official receipt, but will see their names regularly 
acknowledged in the Quarterly Statement. Among ether advantages, this method 
removes the danger of loss or miscarriage, and saves the Society's office the 
labour and expense of acknowledgment by official receipt and letter. 



"VVe repeat what we said in the notes of the Quarterly Statement for January,. 
1878, that the payment of subscriptions early in the year greatly strenghtens the 
hands of the Committee. 



The reduction of the large map is complete, and the small map, which "will be 
engraved in six, not in three sheets, as originally proposed, is already in the 
hands of Mr. Stanford, who will lose no time in executing the work. The time 
required for engraving will be certainly not less than eighteen months. 



The special work for the year 1879 will be the publication of the materials now 
in the hands of the Committee. Estimates have been prepared of the cost, and 
although it is as yet imj^ossible to state the exact sum required, it is clear that 
an amount will be required at least equivalent to the expenses of a party in tlie 
field for a year and a-half or two years. Of course, publication of the results 
must be regarded as a necessary part of the work. The Survey of Western 
Palestine must not therefore be regarded as complete until it has entirely left the 
hands of printer and cartographer. 



The Expedition to Galilee, proposed for this winter, has been postponed for the 
present. The amount specially subscribed is transferred to deposit account as a 



4'.,* r ;','♦,; , .' •; ; .' ;■ 'iforjis and news. 

■ I < ' , ■ I < cc « 'c ' ' • 

t * o *■ € e O t 9 t c cc c c< 

separate, fivad, and \>^i)l not bo used for any other purpose without permission of 
thedokor.'^.-; I>?^aTiibG'aoid;'];roniises of support for this expedition are received at 
the otae; bat it'iliust"b6 Tiliderstood that the regular subscriptions of the year 
will be devoted to publications. 



A new edition of " Tent Work in Palestine " has been prepared, and is now 
ready. Those subscribers who wish for a copy at the reduced price are requested 
*o send their names to the Secretary as early as possible. 



A meeting was held at the Eoyal Institute of British Architects on December 
the 2nd, at which Lieutenant Couder read a paper on the architecture of the 
Haram area. A discussion followed. The paper has been published in the 
Transactions of the Institute and in the Builder. 



The engagements of Mrs. Finn with the Committee have for the present ceased. 
Xadies' Associations will therefore be hencefoith connected directly with the head 
offices of the Society. 



•Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly Statement regularly are asked to 
send a note to the Secretary. fJreat care is taken to forward the periodical to all 
who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes give rise 
to occasional omissions. 



The income of the Fund from all sources, from September 19th to December 
":31st, 1878, was £916 lis. 9d. The expenditure was as follows : — Paid on account 
of "Tent Work," £562 6s. lid. ; office expenses, £163 18s. 7d. ; bills, £210 Os. Id. 



Tt has been asked whether, since the Survey is finished, the Qnnrterhj State- 
^mciit will be discontinued. The Survey, as stated above, will be actually com- 
pleted when it is entirely published, and not before. But its completion does 
not mean the completion of the work of the Society, as reference to the original 
prospectus will show. And there is, more than ever, need of a periodical devoted 
to the special line of research which is the raison d'etre of this Quarterly Statement. 
It will therefore be continued as long as the Society exists and there is work of 
the kind which it represents to be done and reported. 



Several cases have been at various times discovered of po.stage stamps beiu'-'- 
lost on their way to the office. The only way to avoid such loss, unless subscrip- 
tions are paid through the bank, is to send money by P. 0.0. or by cheque, 
in every case j'fcnjnhle to the ord^r of IValter Besant, Esq., and crossed to Coutts 
,and Co., or the Union Bank, Charing Cross Branch. 



The ninth thousand of " Our "Work in Palestine " is now ready (price Ss. 6d.), 
i^nd may be ordered of booksellers. This book carries the work down to the 
commencement of the Survey, but does not embrace M. Ganneau's discoveries 
nor the results of the Survey itself. 



NOTES AND NEWS. O- 

The foUoAving are at present Representatives and Lecturers of the Society, in 
addition to the local Hon. Sees. : — 

Archdeaconry of Hereford : Rev. J, S. Stooke-Vaughan, Wellington Heath. 
Vicarage, Ledbury. 

City and neighbourhood of Manchester : Rev. AV. F. Birch, St. Saviour's, 
Rectory. 

Lancashire : Rev. John Bone, St. Thomas's Vicarage, Lancaster. 

London : Rev. Henry Geary, 16, Somerset Street, Portmau Square ; and Mr. 
C. Stuart Lockhart (address at the office). 

Norwich : Rev. "W. F. Creeny. 

Suffolk : Rev. F. C. Long, Stow-upland, Stowmarket. 

Peterborough : Rev. A. J. Foster, Farndish Rectory, Wellingborough. 

Worcester : Rev. F. W. Holland, Evesham (Member of General and Executive 
Committee, and one of the Hon. Secretaries to the Fund). 

Diocese of Ripon : Rev. T. C. Henley, Kirkby Malhaui Vicarage. 

North AVales : Rev. John Jones, Treborth, Bangor. 

Yorkshire, Durham, and the North : Rev. James King, 13, Paradise Terrace, 
Darlington. Mr. King has recently returned from the Holy Land ; communi- 
cations for lectures, &c., can be sent to the Office at Charing Cross. 

Ireland.— Rev. G. J. Stokes, Blackrock, Dublin. 

Scotland. — Rev. R. J. Craig, Dalgetty, Burntisland. 

The Rev. Horrocks Cocks, The Parsonage, Egham Hill, Surrey, has also kindly 
offered his services among the Nonconformist churches. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee beg it to be distinctly understood that they 
leave such proposals to be discussed on their own merits, and that by publishing 
them in the Quarterly Statement the Committee do not sanction or adopt them. 



Annual subscribers are earnestly reqiiested to forward their subscriptions for 
the current year when due, at their earliest convenience, and without waiting for 
application. 



The Committee are always glad to receive old numbers of the Quarterly State- 
ment, especiaEy those which have been advertised as out of print. 



Attention is called to the statement already advertised, that subscribers t& 
the Fund are privileged by the publishers to receive both the " Literary Remains 
of the late Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake," and the " Underground Jerusalem " of 
Captain Warren, at reduced rates. The former book will be sent for ten 
shillings, the latter for sixteen shillings, postage paid. But letter asking for 
them must be sent to the office at 11 and 12, Charing Cross only. 



6 PRESENT CONDITION OF PALESTINE. 

Cases for binding the Quarterly Statement are now ready, and can be bad on 
application to Messrs. R. Bentley and Son, 8, New Burlington Street. Tbey 
are in green or brown cloth, with the stamp of the Society, uniform in 
appearance with "Our Work in Palestine," and are sold at the price of 
eighteenpence. 



Lieut. Kitchener's Guinea Book of Biblical Photographs can be bought at Mr. 
Stanford's establishment, 55, Cliaring Cross. It contains twelve views, with a 
short account of each. They are mounted on tinted boards, and handsomely 
bound. 



THE PEESEXT C0XDITI0:N' OF PALESTINE. 

[Reprinted from the Jeivish Clironicle, by kind permission of the Editor.] 
I.— The Present Condition of the Country. 

Since the completion of the Sui-vey of Palestine — which is on the same 
scale and which aims at giving the same amount of detail given for 
England by our Ordnance Survey — we may be said to possess more 
detailed and accurate information regarding the present condition of 
Palestine than exists in the case of any other Asiatic or African countiy. 
The waste lands, forests, and deserts are distinguished on the great map 
from the cultivated districts. The olives, figs, vines, and enclosed vege- 
table gardens are all shoAvn, the spi-ings and streams have all been sur- 
veyed, and the memoirs which accompany the map give detailed accounts 
of the Avater supjily and cultivation. We have, therefore, at the present 
time reliable data ready for publication for a true estimate of the 
present condition of Palestine, and of its possible future value. 

The desolate condition of the countiy has been over-estimated. It 
has been supposed that a great change in climate has occurred, and that 
there has been a great destruction of former forests. Both these state- 
ments are far beyond the true facts. The seasons of Palestine are'*iden- 
tical mth those described in the Mishna, and although we have no 
ancient observations to compare, and cannot therefore say with 
certainty that the rainfall is the same as in older times, still the springs 
and streams mentioned in the Bible are all yet floAving with water, and 
the annual rainfall of about twenty inches would be quite sufficient for 
the wants of the country if it were stored in the innumerable ' ' broken 
cisterns," which only require a coat of cement to make them serviceable. 

The climate is, no doubt, far more unhealthy than formerly, but this 
is due in great measure to the destruction of the splendid old system of 
drainage and irrigation, and to the loss of trees raised by cultivation. 
Good drainage and tree 'planting would do much to restore the land ty 
its former condition as regards climate. 

Palestine is by no means bare of trees, and its Avater supply is most 
abundant in the cultivated districts. A forest of oaks covers the hiUs 



PRESENT CONDITION' OF PALESTINE. 7 

west of Nazareth — a beautiful woodland extends westwards from the low 
iills into the plains of Sharon. On Carmel and in the Hebron hills the 
thick copse has spread over former vineyards and orchards, and in lower 
Galilee many districts are clothed -ndth a dense tangled brushwood, and 
Tvith oaks and mastic trees. This luxuriant wild growth floimshes in 
•spite of Avholesale destruction by the fire-wood sellers, and unprotected 
l)y any forest laws, evidencing the richness of the soil where it grows. 

This richness of the soil is also attested in the plains by the beautiful 
<5rops of barley and wheat, raised by merely scratching the ground with 
the light native plough ; and the oil from the long olive groves on tho 
low hills (of which 1,800 tons were exj)orted in 1871), is said to be the 
finest in the world. On the high Hebron hills, and on Hermon, the vine 
grows most luxuriantly, and good %\dne is even now manufactiired in 
liebanon. The fruits of the country are numerous and delicious, and 
•cotton, tobacco, indigo, mUlet, and sugar cane can all be grown easily. 

The riches of the land are mainly agi-icultural. Mines have been found at 
Sidon and in Lebanon, copper, coal, and even tin having been discovered, 
but the quality of the mineral does not appear to be very good in any 
«ase. It seems, however, that rock-oil may be expected in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Dead Sea (where indications of its presence are said to 
have been noticed), and bitumen and salt are already obtained from the 
same vicmity. 

There is one particular in which a marked difference is observable. 
'This is in the amotmt of cultivation as compared mth that of former 
times. The ancient terraces so carefully built up or hewn in the hill- 
sides now produce rich crops — but crops of weeds and thistles. For every 
inhabited village ten ruined towns are found. In the copses and on bare 
hill-sides the ancient wine-presses are cut in rock. The site of the vine- 
yard of Naboth at Jezreel is marked on the Survey map by a collection 
of these ancient presses on the hill above the city, where not a vine plant 
is now grown. Old orchard walls and watch-towers of huge stones 
stand half ruined in the wild districts, and the same story is repeated 
throughout the length of the land — the cultivation has shrunk with a 
■decreasing population. 

The population of Syria is stated in consular reports not to exceed the 
incredibly low figure of two and a quarter millions in 26,000 square 
miles. In the countiy the people are packed in villages, containing 100 
to 500 inhabitants, and the groimds of a village will average about 10 
■acres per soul. Two-thirds of the peasantry are Moslem. About 40, COO 
Jews are said to live in Syria, and in Palestine they are found chiefly in 
the four sacred cities, Jerusalem, Hebron, Tiberias, and Safed, and in 
the coast towns. The greater number are poor, and many are supported 
Tjy the Halukah. The richer class are merchants and traders. The 
majority of the Jews are Ashkenazim, from Germany, Poland, and 
Russia. 

It is said that if fully cultivated, even after the native fashion, 
Palestine is capable of supporting ten times its present population. 



8 PRESENT CONDITION OF PALESTINE, 

The question which really requires to be answered is : In what manner 
can this cultivation be carried out ? It is proposed to show, in the suc- 
ceeding articles, the reasons why former attempts have failed, and the- 
true principle to be adopted, whether on a small scale under the existing- 
government, or on a large scale, under a more enlightened and juster 
administration. It has been already proved that none are better fitted 
to carry out these improvements, and to direct the present population in. 
agriculture, than the descendants of the ancient conquerors who made 
hewers of wood and drawers of water of the aboriginal population. Th& 
energy, industry, and tact, which are so remarkable in the Jewish cha- 
racter, are qualities invaluable in a country Avhose inhabitants have sunk 
into fatalistic indolence ; and Palestine is still so cheap a country, and. 
requires so moderate a capital for investment, that it may well attract 
the attention of the middle class among its rightful owners. 

Of late years the Jewish population in Palestine, and in Jerusalem* 
especially, has greatly increased in numbers. The community has also 
gained in power and importance. A building club has been established,, 
and houses have, by means of Jewish co-operation, been built outside the* 
city on the west. Many of the Jews are under British protection, and 
the total Jewish population of the Holy City is estimated as being frona 
8,000 to 10,000 souls ; the trade of the town is rapidly falling into their 
hands, and they arc buying up all the available land in the vicinity. 

II. — Previous Attempts at Colonisation. 

No attempt to develop the resources of Palestine has as yet proved 
successful, though several have been made. The reasons of the various, 
failures will be seen on examining the method of the various com- 
munities which have made attempts at cultivating and civilising the 
country. 

A favourite idea among writers of late has been that the land 
should be colonised by the Jews. Colonel Warren proposed that the 
Morocco Jews — who are known to have made excellent Avorkmen in. 
Gibraltar — should be induced to emigrate to Palestine. But this 
was actually attempted, without success, long before he visited 
Palestine. In 1850, A.D., a colony of thirty families of Mugrabee Jews- 
settled at Shefa 'Amr in lower Galilee, near Nazareth — a town famous in 
Jewish literature as being the ancient Shafram where the Sanhedrin sat 
after leaving Jamnia. These colonists, or peasant Jews, cultivated com 
and oHves on their own land ; yet, in a few years, they relinqmshed 
agriculture, and gradually withdrew to the seapoi-t of Haifa, where their 
children are engaged in trade. The Jews in Palestine themselves remind 
Europeans that they are not an agricultural people. 

Two important colonies have been founded in Palestine by a society of 
German Protestants, who denominate themselves the " Temple Society.'* 
In si)ite of the curious religious tenets of these peasants and mechanics, 
th(!y liave shown themselves very practical in their method of proceeding. 
The sites for the first settlements were wisely chosen in tolerably healthy 



PRESEXT COIS'DITIOX OF PALESTINE. 9 

positions at tte two ports of Jaffa and Haifa. Two neat villages have 
been erected, and in 1875 the Jaffa colony numbered over 200 souls and 
cultivated 400 acres ; wbile that at Haifa numbered 300, and cultivated. 
700 acres. 

Yet although both communities consist of sober, haixl-working, 
domestic men, many being skilled artisans and all energetic and enter- 
prising, they cannot be said to have been successful in theii* ambitious 
schemes for colonising the whole of Palestine and finally gaining posses- 
sion of Jerusalem. They are divided among themselves ; they have no 
leader of any capacity; and their cause is prejudiced in the eyes of 
practical and sensible men by their claim to repi-esent the " true Israel," 
for whom they say the prophecies of a return to Palestine Averc intended 
—an idea not peculiar to Germans, but also shared by certain persons in 
England. 

The Germans have never made friends with the native'peasantry, whom 
they despise. They are, therefore, subject to continual persecution from 
the surrounding villages. They have never obtained title deeds to their 
possessions froiu the Turkish Govorniuent, and are liable to eviction at 
any time. Finally, want of money, and the entire unfitness of Euro- 
pean constitutions for hard work in the fields under an Oriental sky, in- 
ternal dissensions, mixed marriages, and individual self-seeking, are un- 
dermining the very existence of the community. 

Near Jaffa are the lands of the " Mikveh Israel," better known as the- 
Jaffa Agricultural School of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, consisting- 
of 780 acres of market gardens, where Jewish children are trained and 
educated. This institution has also suffered from the hostility of the 
native population, and from the corruption of the Turkish Government. 

It is said that 100,000 plants have been raised in the gardens of the 
Mikveh Israel and half a milKon vines. Unfortunately, however, the 
land is close to the great sand-dunes which bound the shore of Palestine, 
and which are being gradually blown inland by the S€ia breeze, advancing, 
it is said, a yard eveiy year. These dunes threaten to invade the pro- 
perty, and to swallow up the gardens unless their course can be stayed 
by plantation. 

The native peasantry are well worth a few words of description.. 
They are brutally ignorant, fanatical, and, above all, inveterate 
bars ; yet they have quahties which would, if developed, render them a 
useful population. They are naturally a clever and energetic race, in- 
dustrious, and possessed of immense powers of endurance ; theii- forti- 
tude in bearing pain is remarkable, and their temperance and frugality 
enable them to endure the great heat of the sun Avhen employed in the 
fields in a manner impossible for Europeans. They are good-natured 
and very docile under recognised authority. What is really wanted to 
improve their condition is: 1st. Impartial administration of justice; 
2nd. A just system of taxation ; 3rd. Security from the violence and 
exactions of the irregulars employed in levying the taxes. These three 
points are all included in the English scheme of reforms, which has bcea 



10 PKESENT CONDITION OF PALESTINE. 

signed by tlie Sultan, and it is earnestly to be hoped that the execution 
of these reforms, under the eye of England, may bring relief and pros- 
23erity to the down-trodden peasantry of the Holy Land. 

In dealing with the fellahin, Jewish settlers would have one great 
advantage. They would probably learn the language easUy, for the 
peasant dialect is very close to the Aramaic or Chaldean, which we 
Tniow was spoken as late as the fourth century in Palestine, and which 
is called in the Talmud "the language of the ignorant." 

Two attempts at agriculture have been made on the sounder principle 
of employing native labour. The northern half of the plain of Esdraelon 
was bought by a Greek banker named Sursuk about 1872. He is said to 
have obtained possession of seventy square miles, with twenty villages, 
for the sum of £20,000. The taxes alone of the villages are rated at 
£4,000 a year, and the income, taking good and bad years together, 
cannot be less than £12,000 per annum. How so one-sided a bargain 
came to be made is a piece of secret Turkish history, perhaps never to be 
cleared up, but the title cannot be considered secure under the ordinary 
government of the country. 

The well-known Jewish banking firm of Bergheim in Jerusalem have 
cultivated their farm of Abu Shusheh on the same principle observed by 
Sursuk, namely the employment of the natives of the place. A very little 
justice and kindness is enough to secure the affections of these poor 
peasants. The Bergheims own 5,000 acres, and have already introduced 
various European improvements. The native sheikh, or chief of the 
village, holds the position of foreman on the property, and the rest of 
the population obey him cheerfully. The yoimger Bergheims, well 
acquainted with the peasant dialect and with the customs and traditions 
of the country, are eminently fitted to manage the property. This set- 
tlement, conducted on sound principles by men who have command of 
money and experience of Palestine, ought to be a success. 

The Bergheims, however, experience the same difficulty which lies at 
the root of every past, present, and future failure — the coniiption of the 
Turkish Government. From the pacha down every official is venal and 
tyrannical. Nothing can be done with them without " buksheesh," and 
all their efforts are directed to the hindrance of an enterprise from which 
these harpies can gain nothing. 

Native trade is killed by taxes on raw material, the peasantry are 
ground down by unjust taxation and shameless spoliation, agriculture is 
ruined by the conscription. The hills of Palestine might be covered 
with vines and the valleys nin with oU, the plains might be yellow Avith 
com and the harbours full of ships, but for the greedy pacha and the 
unjust judge. 

III. — The Pkoper Method. 

In the previous notes attention has been drawn to the capabilities of 
Palestine, and to the reasons why former attempts have faUed to 
develop those capabilities. It is not any sterility of the country, any 



PRESENT CONDITION OP PALESTINE. 11 

change of climate, or any absence of cheap labour, which has to be feared. 
The failures have been due, first, to Avant of money ; secondly, to the 
false principle of endeavouring to introduce foreign labour Avhich could 
always be undersold by the peasantry ; thii-dly, to the hostility of the 
natives, which was only natural towards those Avho threatened to dispos- 
sess them of their land ; last, but not least, to the passive resistance of 
Turkish bm-eaucracy and to the insecurity of title which has deterred 
capitalists from embarking money in the attempt to develop the land. 

The true principle to be wrought out is not that of superseding native 
labour, but of employing it under educated super\dsion. The peasantiy 
are an energetic and very stalwai-t race, with immense powersof endurance, 
seasoned to the climate, temperate, good-natured, and docile. They are 
accustomed to obey their chiefs and elders, and when they see any pros- 
pect of fan- pay and just taxation they can be made to work verj' hard, 
as has been proved in more than one instance. They are a people capable 
of great improvement, their faults are those of an opi)ressed race, and 
their natural quickness and power of adaptation would "render it easy 
to accustom them to European improved methods of agricu.lture if 
gradually introduced and not forced upon them. 

The best way of enriching the country is by purchase of estates in con- 
venient and fertile districts, and the emplopaeut of capital in cultiva- 
tion of the native products. The richness of the crops and the variety of 
the produce would then yield an ample return, and Palestine might 
become the garden of the world, situate as it is in so accessible a position, 
with the great Mediterranean waterway so close to its corn plains and 
olive yards. 

The policy of the owners of property in Palestine should be to encou- 
rage the revival of the ancient native chief families whom the Turks have 
endeavoured to exterminate, and to rule the people throiigh their native 
chiefs, whom they are accustomed to respect. Responsible agents would 
be required in every village, and these should be selected from among 
Europeans, and not from the upper class of Syrians, nor from the 
mongrel Levantines, Greeks, or Maltese, for an enterprise committed 
to the honesty of such men, would, from the first, be doomed to failure. 

In choosing the best centre for such operations, the two main requi- 
sites would be accessibility and healthiness. The country has no roads 
and no drainage. It is, therefore, necessary to begin in a district easily 
reached from the shore, and, at the same time, to avoid the malarious 
districts along the coast. For this reason the plains of Sharon and of 
Acre, the Jordan Yalley, and the Jerusalem mountains, should be avoided 
at first. Jaffa is not a good port, for during the winter it is almost 
entirely closed, and the rugged mountain wall, west of Jerusalem, makes 
communication with the coast difficult. 

Modem Palestine has only one real harboiir. The ports of Tj-re, 
Sidon, Csesarea, and Jamnia, are closed, choked with sand, or artificially 
filled up. But in the centre of the coast line, the Bay of Acre is three 
mUes broad, at the mouth of the Kishon, and eight miles long, and on 



12 PRESENT CONDITION OF PALESTINE. 

its south side tte ridge of Carmel, reaching an altitude of 1,700 feet 
above the sea, runs out north-west and forms a promontory which 
breaks the force of the sea, while the hill affords shelter from the wind 
during the winter or autumn storms which beat from the south-west. 

Under Carmel, in "the hollow of the bay, lies the town of Haifa, the 
ancient Hephah of the Talmud ("the Haven"), famous for its Hilzon 
fishery, whence the Tyrian purple was derived. The town is walled, and 
has a population of 4,000, of whom 1,000 are Jews. It has a Jewish 
esmetery, and from the middle ages has been a favourite resort of 
the Hebrews. The Carmel bay is even now a roadstead which good- 
sized vessels can visit throughout the wdnter. At a small expense it 
might be converted into a valuable harbom*. A mole running out in con- 
tinuation of the Carmel ridge might easily be built of the limestone from 
the mountain, and there are still ruins of an ancient port near this head- 
land. Not only is the harbour good, but the position of the place is 
most favourable as regards the remainder of the land. The broad plain 
of Esdraelon — the richest ground in Palestine — lies^ immediately inland, 
and joins the plains which stretch northwards from Carmel. The river 
Kishon runs down from Esdraelon to the sea near Haifa, and along its 
course the roads to the interior rise with easy gradients. Haifa has on 
the other side easy access to the plains of Sharon. The gi'cat com 
harvest of the Hauran is brought on camels by the Arabs, by the high- 
way from Jordan, to Acre, at the north end of the bay ; the main roads 
to Damascus, to Beyi'out, to Upper GalUee, and to'Nablus, all lead from 
Haifa. 

It has lately been proposed to start the Eujohrates Valley Eailway 
from this port, and although the steep gradients in the Jordan Valley 
and the waterless deserts beyond may make this route impracticable, 
there can be no doubt that the railroad to Jerusalem should start here. 
The Jaffa-Jerusalem railway would be a work of great engineering diffi- 
culty, because of the sudden slopes of the hills, which have a rise of JOO 
feet in less than half a mile. A railway to Nablus from Haifa, and 
thence along the backbone of the country, would be more easily con- 
sti-ucted, and would form a more important line of communication 
leading to a better port. If the Jaifa line is ever made, it must follow 
the course of the Valley of Sorek, or it would never reach the watershed 
at all. It would be about fifty miles long, while the watershed line 
through Palestine would not be more than eighty, connecting Nablus 
and Jerusalem with Haifa. 

It is in the proximity of the Haifa jiort that the first possessions of 
our farmers would be situate. Not, indeed, on Carmel itself, which is 
rugged and steep, covered Avith copses and having little arable soil, 
though that soil is of excellent quality. Nor would it be in the mala- 
rious plains of Acre and Sharon, which should be reclaimed gradually, 
like the Maremma, by drainage and plantation. 

South of Cai-mel, about twenty miles from Haifa on the south eiTi* 
border of lower Galilee, there is, however, a district well suited as h' 



PRESENT COXDITIOX OF PALESTINE. 13 

•starting lioint. It is called the " Breezy Land," and consists of open 
downs of chalk, the feet clothed on the west by a beautiful open wood- 
land of oak. The downs rise to a height of about 1,000 feet above the 
sea ; the village lands extend into the plain of Sharon on the one hand, 
■and to the plain of Esdraelon on the other. Further south is the rich 
plain of Dothan, and further east the well-watered valley of Jezreel, 
full of springs and extending to Beth Shan, of which Eabbi Simon ben 
Lachish said, "If Paradise is to be found in Palestine its gate is at 
J3eth Shan." 

The western side of the plain of Esdraelon runs with water in fresh 
sparkling streams, and clear springs which, even in autumn, swell the 
Kishon. The ground is in many parts only occupied by wandering 
Tui'comans, and is not cultivated at all. Towards the north the villages 
belong (or did in 1875) to the Sursuk family, and the rich com harvests 
and peasant prosperity of the Sursuk villages contrasts forcibly with the 
•desolation of the Tui-kish hamlets. 

At the south end of the great plain is the charming village of Jenin 
(En Gannim) with its palm groves and little stream. Com, sesame, and 
^nillet, cotton, tobacco, and castor oil are cultivated in this district. The 
■soil is a rich friable basaltic mud from the extinct volcanoes of Gilboa 
and Sheikh Iskander east and west of the plateau. Sugar mio-ht be 
grown at least in the Valley of Jezreel, and oHves and figs abound on 
the western hills. This fertile district is easily reached either by the 
main road at the foot of Gunnel, or by the route along Sharon, which 
intersects two ancient highways across the "Breezy Land." 

The plain of Esdraelon is the part of Palestine which, if any military 
operations should be undertaken in the country, must bo the scene of the 

decisive battle. Palestine is the natural bulwark of the Suez Canal 

-a country scarcely larger than Cyprus, surrounded by deserts and 
through which any hostile army mast advance in order to reach Port 
.Said. 

An English occupation of this part of Palestine would have the great 
■advantage that it would not conflict with French interest in the Holy 
Places. Jerusalem and Bethlehem are far south, Nazareth is north of 
this central district. The industrial and military centres are not in the 
towns which Christians agree in holding sacred. English occupation, or 
protection, would be an assistance to colonisation, or rather to farmino- 
by means of native labour. The EngHsh are favourites in the countr^. 
^' England is the Sultan's sword," the peasants say, and wliile the Sultan 
as " head of the faith " holds a secure place in tho affections of his people 
the native Syrians are only too eager to carry out the " bag and bag- 
gage " policy, and to drive out the whole tribe of currupt andltyrannical 
rulers whom the Turks send to administer the country. 

Insecurity will always deter capitalists from sinking money in the 
East. Given a strong, wise, just govemment, and the country may be 
•trusted to assert its ancient reputation for fertility. So long as an uniust 
and weak tyranny prevails, the BedaAvin nomads will from time to time 



14 PRESENT COXDITION OF PALESTINE. 

range over the fertile plains and the peasant will not dare to till the 
land. The only radical change required is the total abolition of the 
present official staff, from the pacha down to the lowest mudir or 
kaimakam. 

The gradual change which might be wrought even by private enter- 
l^rise would be astonishing. The ancient cisterns, wells, and aqueducts 
would first be cleaned and repaired, and the system of irrigation ex- 
tended. The old Roman roads would be re-made of the good material 
which lies ready to hand ; wheeled vehicles could then be introduced, 
tram-lines and railways would follow. 

The headquarters would be fixed in the healthier hill villages, but the 
uncultivated districts in the plains would gradually be taken in ; the 
ancient system of drainage which carried the streams through the low 
rock-wall west of the plain of Sharon, would be repaired, and thus the 
stagnating water would run into the sea again and the marshes would 
be reclaimed. Quick growing grass would check the encroachment of 
the sand dunes on the coast, and as there is no frost in the plains the 
blue gum tree (Eucalyptus Globulus) with other fast growing trees 
would be planted, and must materially affect the climate in time. As 
the colonisation spread to the higher hills, where frosts occur, the old 
vine cultivation would be revived, Beth Laman and Beth Eima might 
again be famous for their wine, Tekoa and NetoiDhah for their olives, 
IMichmash for its wheat, and Jericho for its palms. 

The scheme thus proposed may, however, appear too large to be of 
any great present interest, and unless a general movement towards the 
country occurred, the change effected in its climate and productions 
would be very small, but the preceding remarks will serve to show that 
there is nothing in the present physical condition of the country or in 
the character of its native inhabitants to deter those who may be inte- 
rested in the development of the country. Palestine requii-es nothing 
but good government, an increased population and civUised cultivation 
to restore its prosperity. 

The double object of promoting agricultural and mechanical educa- 
tion and enterprise is of primary importance for the future of the land, 
and it cannot be doubted that the remarkable linguistic talents of the 
Jews would give them greit advantages over other Europeans. Palestine 
is said to have been so drained of men and money during the late war 
that the present time cannot fail to be a good one for the introduction 
of even moderate capital into the country ; but the condition of the 
country, without roads or public works of any kind, seems to render 
agriculture luore probably remunerative than mechanical employment. 
There is, however, no doubt an opening for such trades as smiths, car- 
penters, joiners, weavers, &c., for the native work is rude and clumsy, 
while the German productions are too expensive for general use. 

It is with a sinccrt' interest in the future of Palestine that these lines 
are written, and with a conviction that the duty of that influential 



ZOAR. 1 5 

people wMcli once ruled the land, is to support with the who'e weight 
of their influence those projects for reform which at present seem to give 
the only hope of prosperity for the Holy Land. 

C. E. Co^^)ER. 



ZOAE. 

"Where was the little city to which Lot escaped from Sodom ? 

It may be visited from Jericho without much trouble, unless the rapid 
Jordan be swollen with water and Sheik Goblan with greed. Only a 
mighty man among the Gadites would defy both. (1 Chron. xii. 15.) 

We propose to demonstrate the precise position of the long-lost survivor 
of the cities of the plain, grateful to the American Exploration Society 
for a name which is the very name we want, and hopeful that an 
intelligent traveller will carefully describe its rains, of which we can 
speak only at a venture. 

(A) As to the position. 

The Biblical evidence is conclusive ; it is, needless, therefore, to refer 
to Josephus, Jerome, &c. As camp-followers or prisoners, they are in 
this case but encumbrances. 

Geological investigation has brought to light the fact that the Jordan^ 
within historic times, can never have flowed into the Eed Sea, but must 
have terminated in the Dead Sea, now 1,300 feet below the level of the 
ocean. 

1. From the heights near Bethel, Lot "beheld all the plain of Jordan, 
that it was well Avatered everywhere, before the Lord destroyed Sodom 
and Gomorrah," &c. (Gen. xiii. 10). As the southern end of the Dead 
Sea and the western side of the plain near Jericho are hidden from these 
heights by intervening mountains, we shotJd be predisposed to think 
that Zoar near Sodom was at the north end of the Dead Sea and on the 
eastern side of the plain. The expression, "Lot journeyed east," also 
inclines us to infer the same. 

Abraham, near Hebron, " looked toward Sodom and Gomorrah and 
toward all the land of the plain " (Gen. xix. 28). It is not said of him, 
as of Lot, that he beheld Sodom, &c., so that this i^assage is neutral in 
the controversy. 

2. The four kings returning from Kadesh (from the south) "smote 
also the Amorites that dwelt in Hazezon-Tamar "—which is Engedi 
(2 Chron. xx. 2). "And there went out the king of Sodom . . and 
they joined battle with them in the vale of Siddim " (Gen. xiv. 7, 8). If 
the cities of the plain were at the south end of the Dead Sea, then the 
invaders must have marched half way up on its western side to Hazezon- 
Tamar, then turned back to Sodom, and then retraced then- steps 
northwards once more. This is absurd; therefore we conclude that Zoar 
and the cities of the plain could not possibly have been at the southern 
but, of necessity, at the northern end of the Dead Sea. 



1 6 ZOAR. 

The Hebrew word for i^lnin. {ciccar) points to the same conclusion, 
l)eing used topographically only of the valley of the Jordan. 

3. The magnificent panorama visible from the top of Pisgah settles the 
question before us once and for ever. " The Lord showed Moses all the 
land of Gilead, unto Dan, and all Naphtali ; and the land of Ephraim, 
and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah unto the utmost sea, and the 
south, and the plain (Heb., riccar) of the valley of Jericho, the city of 
palm trees, unto Zoar " (Dent, xxxiv. 1-3). Prof. Paine, the American 
explorer, correctly observes : " The order in the demonstration of the 
land was from a neighbouring district on the north to the extreme south, 
and round by a return to the nearest place in view, Jericho, and then 
naturally it went on to Zoar, a point nearer the land of Gilead, the place 
of departure. It would bo unnatural and unaccountable to go back from 
Jericho to a point at the southern end of the Dead Sea, having once 
passed over that region, and then stop there. . . Let Zoar be in the 
plain on this {i.e., east) side Jordan northward near the base of the 
mountains. It will then be in full view from Pisgah." Dr. Tristram 
("Land of Moab," 333) had previously observed: "The narrative is 
describing the panorama from north to south, and ends by the feature 
nearest the spectator — i.e., the city in front of him. Now we detected 
these ruins (Zi'ara) while standing on Nobo." 

What Mr. Grove first, I believe, declared to be highly probable, these 
arguments, old and n3\v, demonstrate to be perfectly certain — viz., that 
the Zoar of the Pentateuch was at the north end of the Dead Sea, and 
on the east side of tho valley. We arc sure now of its general position ; 
v.-e have yet to discover the very spot where it once stood. 
(B) As to the name. 

"Zoar we seem to owe to Dr. Tristram," so wrote Lieut. Conder. 
But what is the force of ''seem"? Does he question the identification 
or the identifier ? To solve the mystery I referred to a " Land of 
Moab," unhappily mapless^or rather, happily so for Zoar. 

It is identified with Zi'ara (p. 330), and (329) it is also stated : " The 
ground fell in terraces for 3,000 feet to the Jordan valley." 

This identification is cruel, because it wovdd compel poor Lot and 
Iiis tender daughters to traverse at least four miles of dreary mountain, 
and climb some 3,000 feet in order to be safe, and all this in the 
short hour between "when the morning arose," and when "the sun 
was (just ?) risen upon the earth." The angels first said, "Escape to 
the mountain." Lot then pleaded for something less; Zi'ara would 
require more. 

Its elevation is too great, for Zoar was obviously one of the cities of 
the plain and in the plain. 

For lack of the map in the " Land of Moab " I was driven to refer to 

that of the American Society, 187o, in the hope of first finding Zi'ara, and 

then some name at the foot of the mountains which might stand for Zoar. 

The best I could find was Tell esh Shaghur, situated at the point where 

"Wady Hesban opens into the plain. 



ZOAR. 17 

In Jer. xlviii. 34, we read: "From the cry of Hesbon even unto 
Elealeh, and ereii unto Jahaz, have they uttered their voice, from Zoar 
even unto Horonaim," &c. 

As Elealeh is north of Hesbon, and Jahaz apparently south, it was 
easy to conjecture that ^' from Zoar even unto Horonaim" was a line 
from west to east, and the mip gave Tell esh Shaghur as nearly west of 
Hesban. This was another point gained. 

The LXX (with but one exception) render Zoar, by the word "Znyup 
(Segor), a still nearer approach to Shaghur. But the last shadow of 
doubt as to the fact that Tell esh Shaghur really means the " Hill of 
Zoar " seems to vanish, when we find that the Hebrew equivalent for Z 
becomes at times in Arabic Sh — e.//., Shufa, derived from Zophim(QMarier?// 
Statement, 1877, p. 39), and the equivalent for " A" in Zoar becomes Gh. 
in Arabic — e g., Azzah (Hebrew for Gaza) becomes the modern Ghuzzeh. 

It seems, then, to me that in Tell esh Shaghur, happily marked on the 
American map, we have the very site and name of ancient Zoar. The 
native name clings to the neighbourhood. Mr. Finn speaks of Um 
Sheggar; Dr. Tristram of M'Shuggar; the American map also gives 
Mushaqqar. 

Sodom must have been near Zoar on the west, and there are other 
TeUs in that direction. " The vale of Siddim, which is the salt sea," is, 
as the woi'ds stand, a geological impossibility, if " whieh " refers to the- 
'^ vale." But as the doctors (Aben Ezra, Gcnesius, &c.) disagree as to 
the meaning of "Siddim," why not maintain that "ivhich" explains-. 
*' Siddim " as being the " Salt Sea," so called in the language, it maybe, 
of the Emims (Deut. ii. 11), or else if Sidd means a cliff, translate " the- 
valley of the cliff of the sea " — i.e., the salt sea, if such a rendering be 
possible. Siddim can hardly bo an Hebrew word, from the difficulty 
there is in dealing with it. When a great thinker ventures to hold 
the New Testament responsible for monkish tradition — e.g., in regard to 
the place of the baptism of the Ethiopian Eunuch ("Supernatural 
Eeligion," vol. iii.), surely it is better not to maintain a geological 
impossibility in the Old Testament by continuing to assume that " whidC" 
refers to " vale," and not to " Siddim," or its last syllable "im." 

With Zoar is associated the ascent of Luliith. Isa. xv. 5, states : " His 
fugitives shall flee unto Zoar . . . for by the mounting up of Luhith," 
and Jer. xlviii. 5: "In the going up of Luhith" (see Ixx. 4, 5). I 
believe nothing whatever has been kno%\ni about Luhith. 

At Tell esh Shaghur begins the ascent of the pass to Hesbon. 

Consul Finn travelled this way in May, 1855, and reports (" Bye-- 
ways in Palestine," p. 11) : — 

" Our road lay up the hills, constantly growing more steep and pre- 
cipitous, and occasionally winding between large rocks, which were- 
often overgrown -with honeysuckle in full luxuriance. The Arabs 
scrambled like wild animals over the rocks, and brought down very 
long streamers of honeysuckle — Lmvdyeh, as they call it — which they 
wound round and round the necks of our horses." 



18 TKi\:N'SFERENCE OF SITES. 

Shall we hesitate to see in the name Ltiwayeh the modern repre- 
sentative of Luhith, and to believe that the pass derived its name from 
the honeysuckle, in which it doubtless abounded then, as now ? 

Just as in the English Lake District a natural object has given us the 
Elrkstone Pass, so another gave to Palestine the " Honeysuckle Pass." 

Luhith is commonly derived from a Hebrew word meanmg " boards," 
but from the above coincidence I suspect it really comes from another 
veiy similar word signifying to Aveave or twist as a crown or garland. 

(C) As to the ruins. 

TeU esh Shaghur is merely marked on the American map as a hill, 
just on the south bank of Wady Hesban, near the foot of the mountains, 
a mile east of Tell er Rameh. No description is given of it, as far as I 
know. 

It seems to me, however, so extremely probable that Canon Tristram 
("Land of Moab," 347) imconsciously describes Zoar (or else its 
cemetery), that at the risk of being wrong I transcribe his words. He 
had been descending Wady Hesban on its south side, and (on the same 
side, we may hope), to use his own words, "We descended on the edge 
of the Ghor Seisaban and entered on an oi)en, undulating plateau. 

" On the last rocky eminence which pushed forward into it were the 
most perfect primaeval remains we had found in the country. E,ound 
the slightly-elevated crest at the western end of the ridge was a perfect 
circle of dolmens, each composed of three upright and one covering 
stone. Several of them had fallen, but the stones were in theii- places, 
and it was clear that they had been arranged in a cii-cle round a gi-eat 
cairn, or central pile of stones, which crowned the " tell," and doubtless 
marked the burial-place of some hero, famous in his day, but who lived 
before Agamemnon." 

If this hill shovild indeed prove to be Tell esh Shaghur, then the Gospel 
harmonists AviU perhaps hereafter allow that our Lord previous to passing 
throiijjli Jericho may have beheld these very momiments of ancient Zoar 
or at least the j)lain of Sodom while ho uttered those solemn words, 
" Remember Lot's wife." W. F. Biech. 



TKANSFEEEXCE OF SITES. 

Talking the other day about the traditions of the Holy Sepulchre, 
and that many of them were traditions which belonged originally to the 
Temple Mount, it was suggested that a few notes on the Transference 
of Sites would be interesting. On considering the subject, it is doubtful 
if this is a correct title to express in all cases the true idea relating to 
this matter ; Transference of Tradition would be even more doubtful. 
Identity of Tradition attached to Sacred Sites comes nearer, and the 
question of transference would be thus left out, or at least would not be 



TKANSFEliEXCE OF SITES. 19 

■assumed as a necessary inference by the writer. The title adopted is, 
however, the simplest, and with this explanation it may be retained. 

The sacrifice of Isaac is undoubtedly an event which belongs to the 
Temple Mount ; the name Moriah is given in connection with it in 
Gen. xxii. 2. Josej)hus (Ant. i. 13. 1, 2) states that it was " the mountaiti 
Moriah," and that Abraham took Isaac " to that mountain, upon which 
King David afterwards built the Temple." This event is, at the present 
day, located at the Holy Sepulchre ; the bush where the ram was 
'Caught entangled is now shown in the Abyssinian Convent ; it is an old 
thorn, and pilgrims hang rags of bright colours on it. Here is what 
would be called the Transference of a Site, or the Transference of a 
Tradition. This is not the only case ; Jerusalem was considered to be the 
•centre of the earth. Where would that central point be ? It could not 
iiave been at the spot which was afterwards to be the Holy Sepulchre, 
for that was " without the wall," and consequently not in Jerusalem. 
"We must naturally conclude that it wotild be in the Temple, — ^for it was 
"to the Temple that the Jews turned in prayer when in places distant from 
Jenisalem. We have an illustration of this in the Jews' wailing-place 
at the present day. Benjamin of Tudela associates the spot as connected 
with the Holy of Holies. The centre to which they turn is within the 
llaram Area, and not at the Holy Sepulchre. It is also the custom of 
the Jews to "orient" their synagogues to Jerusalem. That the Jews 
and Christians also accepted the same idea we can prove, according to 
Eutychius, from the words of Sophronius, the patriarch of Jerusalem, to 
Omar, who describes the i:)lace which he allots for the building of a 
Temple : — "I give to the Commander of the Faithful a place where he may 
build a temple, which the Grecian Emperors were imable to build ; viz., 
the Eock on Avhich God spoke to Jacob, which Jacob called the Gate of 
Heaven, and the Israelites the Holy place of Israel, and is held by them 
in such veneration that, wherever they are, they turn their faces towards 
it when they pray. ' ' This quotation gives us, so far, the ideas entertained 
on this point by Jews and Christians towards the end of the ninth century. 
Under a theoretic form of govermuent, the centre was the seat of 
religion and power. It is a symbol to which many oriental ideas can be 
traced and explained. The Emperor of Delhi was called the " Centre of 
the Universe." Buddha was a Chakra-varta Eajah, but the Chakra is 
the wheel or circle of universal power, and the Chakra implies a centre. 
In the Judaic system, the seat of supreme power was the Temple, that 
was the true local of the centre. According to the Mohammedan belief 
the Sakrah is the centre of the world (see " History of Jerusalem," 
by Walter Besant and E. H. Palmer, p. 419). At this day, however, the 
centre of the world is jjointed out to pUgrims in the nave of the 
Greek Church, at a point facing and not far from the door of the Holy 
Sepulchre. Adam's Grave seems to be a purely Christian tradition ; but 
had the Jews made use of that as a type or figure, the Temple ought to 
have been the shrine of this holy place. Perhaps this may not be a 
familiar subject to most readers, and it would lead far beyond the limits 



20 TEANSFEEEXCE OF SITES. 

of this article to deal witli it. At present the position of Adam's grave 
is shown in the Holy Sepulchre, and in connection with the rock of Cal- 
vary. The traditional grave of Adam has been transferred, or, it might 
be better to say, is believed also to exist in Hebron and in Mecca. For this 
last, see Quarterly Statement, April, 1877, p. 92. For Adam's Grave at 
Hebron, see Conder's " Tent "Work in Palestine," vol. ii., p. 83, accord- 
ing to which Adam's tomb did exist in Hebron, but has now disappeared. 
It Avas shown in the time of Arculfus, as " not far " from the tombs of 
the patriarchs (Bede, B. V., chap, xviii). The place where the red earth 
was taken from to make Adam is shown at Hebron ("Tent Work," v. II. 
p. 84), and according to Dr. Manning's work on Palestine, p. 101, pub- 
lished by the Religious Tract Society, the same spot is shown in the 
Holy Sepulchre. 

At Mount Gerizim we have another transference or identity of 
tradition. Rivalry of closely allied faiths seems to have something to» 
do with the matter — for here the Samaritans believe that "King Joshua" 
founded their temple, on this mountain they have their Sacred Rock, 
the counterpart of the Sakrah at Jerusalem — this they believe is the 
site of their altar, and to this "they turn in prayer, wherever they 
may be" ("Underground Jerusalem," by Captain Warren, p. 218). 
Close to this is the spot Avhero, according to the Samaritan tradition, 
Abraham offered up Isaac; "here also Melchizedek met Abraham and 
received his tithes." "Here Jacob dreamed his dream, and he called 
the name of that place Bethel ; but the name of that city was called. 
Luz at the first." " Here, also, was the altar that Jacob built on his 
return from Padan-Aram, and called Elelohe Israel. On this holy of 
holies the Ark rested," &c. , &c. {Ilnd. p. 219). Thus we find what seems, 
to be a natural tendency of these traditions to gather round what may 
be called a sacred centre of worship. 

Connected with the Sakrah at Jerusalem there are associated all the 
principal events of Scripture history, such as the Creation of Adam ; it 
was the site of Paradise ; Noah's Ark rested on the spot ; Abraham's 
Sacrifice was offered ; and it was also the place of Jacob's dream ; all 
the rivers of the world flow from under this Sacred Rock — clearly a 
transference of the symbolical four streams of the first Eden. The 
mediaeval travellers who visited Jerusalem repeat all these traditions. 
Sir John Mandeville gives a very long list of events connected with the 
Sakrah, making it the scene of New Testament as well as Old Testament 
histoiy. The Mohammedans have long held this sacred spot, and to them 
we no doubt in this case get the localising of some of these traditions — ■ 
and it is important to note that this tendency is not peculiar to any one 
faith. 

Tlie Sakrah, according to some theorists, has nothing to do with the 
original temple. The Bordeaux Pilgrim mentions a " lapis pertusus," to 
■which the Jews came and wailed ; this, Mr. Fergusson thinks, was a 
stone, "bored with two holes," mentioned in the Middoth, which stood 
at the south-west comcrof the spot where his theory places the altar of 



TRANSFERENCE OF SITES. 21 

the Temple. This was the comer stone of the altar, and "was the 
Sakrah not only of the Jews, but at one time of the Saracens also " 
("The Temples of the Jews," p. 184). Now the present Sakrah is a 
*' holed stone," or lajn's pvrtnsus ; a large hole communicates with the cave 
"below, but it stands about 500 feet to the north of the position given to it 
"by Mr. Fergusson, thus suggesting, according to his theory, a very 
important transference of site. In the Black Stone at the Kaaba of Mecca 
we have perhaps some of the earlier traditions which the Mohammedans 
transferred to the Sakrah. This Black Stone is the " corner stone" of 
the Kaaba ; it is a veritable bit of Paradise, and will return to whence 
it came on the last day. Here is no doubt the source of the tradition 
that when Mohammed made his " night journey " from the Sakrah, that 
the Holy Eock Avished to ascend with him, and was actually doing so 
"when the Angel Gabriel held it down, leaving the impression of the 
liand, which is shown to pilgrims at the present day. At least Ave have 
liere an identity of tradition in the belief that both are to go to heaven 
at the last day. The Mohammedan pilgrims perform the TaAvwaf, or 
•circuit round the stone, as they do round the Kaaba, Avith its 
stone, the only difference being, according to Professor Palmer 
("Jerusalem," p. 418), that they must be careful to reverse the 
•direction of the circuit ; at Jerusalem they must pass round Avith 
their right hand to the rock, and at Mecca Avith the loft. The Black 
Stone is the sacred object which makes the Holy House— the "Beit 
Allah " — the Kibleh, or the central point of prayer, and to that spot 
the faithful turn in prayer from all parts of the world. This Ave have 
seen is the case Avith the Samaritans at Mount Gorizim, and it is a very 
important identity, for it tends to confirm the tradition Avhich comes to 
lis that the Jcavs had also a Sacred Eock, the Eben Shatiyeh, or " Stone 
•of Foundation's Foundation," in their temple, and which no doubt Avas 
their sacred centre. In the Mishna it is stated in relation to the Holy 
of HoUes, that, " Avhen the Ark AA^as removed a stone Avas there from 
the days of the first prophets, and it Avas called "Foundation." It was 
three digits high above the earth, and lapon it he (the high priest) put 
the censer. This may find confirmation in the repeated use of the rock 
in a symbolical sense in the Old Testament. Dent, xxxii. may be referred to, 
-vvhere it Avill be found as a type of the Most High. Strange to say that 
the Hadjis pray to the Black Stone, and although in all other cases they 
are true to their idol-abhorring rules, yet they address it as " Allah." 
Burton in his book says that in thus praying to it, and asking for mercy 
and pardon, in which case he did Hke the others, he raised his hand to 
the stone and kissed the finger tips of his right hand. Near the same 
comer Avhere the stone is placed is the "Well of Zem-Zem, the Avater 
of AA-hich the pilgrim drinks and also uses to Avash Avith, thus destrojang 
all power of sin. Here no doubt is the source of the Mohamedan 
tradition of the Avaters imder the Sakrah. Exodus xvii. 6 might also be 
the original storj'. 

In some of the cases mentioned the Transference of Site is evident; 



22 TKAXSFEEEXCE OF SITES. 

in one or two of the instances we see that the tradition has been trans- 
ferred from one side to another, while, on the other hand, many of these 
sacred spots are of such an antiquity that we cannot say which was 
the earliest. No doubt but there must have been priority somewhere, 
but many of these ideas began so far back in the past that we can only 
now speak of their similarity as the identity of tradition. We can see- 
clearly enough that there Avas a tendency to locate certain traditions at 
each holy place. There seems to have been a common property in the 
ancient religious history of these people, but at times they differed as 
to the scene of the event, and we see that it was the position of the 
Sacred Centre which led to this. Wherever their Central Temple was, 
there they placed the scene of the main events of their sacred history. 
When this important principle is realised a ruling idea is reached, which 
may serve so far as a guide, and when applied to any of these sacred 
localities one may almost predicate a certain set of traditions as belong- 
ing to them. It is not very difficult to give suggestions which will so 
far explain why the cne spot was the supposed scene of so many events. 
The Temple was the accepted j)lace of the Divine Presence. Being so, 
it became the scene of His works, and more especially of those great 
typical events which had a reference to Man and the Divine System. 
The Temple or Church is the theatre of the sacred drama, and as all the 
scenes have as types the same meaning to enforce, they belong naturally 
to the one piece, and there was no incongruity to the primitive mind in 
supposing that they were all performed on the same stage. When the 
subject is considered from a symbolical point of view, this becomes the 
true way of regarding it. The craftsman is taught that everything 
takes place on "the floor of the lodge," and the floor of the lodge- 
is the top of Mount Moriah, thus jpresonting us with a most effective 
illustration from the region of " signs and symbols." It will also be 
noticed that this gives us a case of "Transference of Site" which 
takes place at the opening of every masonic lodge, and the explanation 
of which is to be found only in symbolism, and does not require us to 
fall back on the knavery of Priests and the blind credulity of Mankind, 
which are the usual modes of accounting for such thmgs. This pro- 
duction of a site in virtue of some function, or from ceremonies being 
performed at it, is of importance as explaining the probable cause of 
transference. In some cases we can have no hesitation on the subject, 
but there are others where the figurative phrase may, from our scant 
knowledge, lead us to believe that the spot is the real and original site 
of the event. A good illustration of this may be given. Not long ago 
I saw over the door of a church in Brighton, noted for its tendency to a 
high ritual, the words " This is God's House and the Gate of Heaven." 
Now these are the words applied by Jacob to Bethel. The slightest 
consideration will bring home to the mind the idea that " Gate of 
Heaven" is a title which belongs to the Church, or it might be applied 
to any house of prayer, and that there need be no dispute between 
Brighton and Bethel as to whicli of them has got the portal leading to 



TRANSFERENCE OF SITES. 23 

a better world. " The keys of St. Peter," supposed to be in the 
possession of the Pope, would imply that the " Gate of Heaven " was at 
Rome; but it is only a continuation of the symbolism contained in Jacob's 
words. We have seen that Sophrinius spoke of a rock at Jcu'usalem, on 
which God spoke to Jacob, and " which Jacob called the Gate of 
Heaven." Sophrinius was the Christian patriarch, but the Mohammedans 
believe that Mohammed began his night journey from, the Sakrah, thus 
givmg it a claim to be the Gate of Heaven. They also accept it as the 
locale of Jacob's di-eam. This is often referred to, in language bordering 
on contempt, as being " only a Mohammedan tradition," but the dif- 
ference is scarcely perceptible between the traditional Mohammedan and 
the ritualistic Christian. In the one case there is no danger of oiu' 
being led astray, but in the other, if we had not accurate knowledge, 
we might be led into a difficult question as to whether Jerusalem or 
Bethel was the real site of Jacob's dream. Another good illustration of 
this tendency to evolution is found in the making of Calvarys, and 
known in many cases as the "Holy Sepulchre," all over Eui'ope, each 
with the ''Stations," at which the worshipper prays as at the Holy 
Sepulclu-e. This Transference of Site is still more completely carried out 
at Easter by the construction of a tomb in the churches to represent the 
Holy Sepulchre. In England these were called " Easter sepulchres," 
and in some cases the angels, soldiers, and the three Maries were all 
represented by priests, who acted and spoke, repeating the words at the 
tomb as given by the evangelists, thus dramatising the story to make it 
more realistic; and all this was done without the shghtest idea of 
impostui-c. If such things were done in Jerusalem there could have 
been but small difficulty, supposing that the real sepulchre had been 
lost, in thus evolving a new one. It would be one of the sunplest, and 
at the same time one of the most natural of operations ; and it is this 
very simplicity — this natural action of the human mind — which has led 
to the complicated puzzle about the site of the Holy Sepulchre. If, as 
Mr. Fergusson thuilcs, the dome of the rock had been the real sepulchre, 
and had been taken from the Christians, and they were left without a 
shrine, it would have been almost impossible for them to avoid evolving 
a new one. The reahstic character of the ritual, and the natural ten- 
dency to represent locahties as well as persons, which was essential to 
the dramatic style of the ceremonies, would requii-o but a vciy short 
space of time to clothe any spot with all the attributes of a sacred place. 
Let any one go to Jerusalem at Easter, even in our OAvn day, and watch 
the Russian pilgrims, unlettered peasants, to whom archseological doubts 
and difficulties are unheard of, and we have a fair example of what the 
early pilgrims must have been — point to a stone, m^itter the name of a 
saint, and they are on their knees m an instant kissing it. With such 
conditions sacred sites come quicker into existence than a crop of 
mushrooms. 

The Santa Casa of Loreto comes in as a good case of the transference 
of a site. A visit I made to that shrine about a year ago led me to 



24 TRAJS'SFERENCE OF SITES. 

consider the problem as to how such a story could have come into 
existence, and the conclusion I arrived at was that of natural growth, 
instead of the usual one of a concocted imposture. The house at 
Nazareth existed as late as 1291, but in that year the Saracens, under 
the Sultan Khalit, took the place, and the monks were no doubt turned 
•out. The tradition is that the house went first to the town of Tersate, 
or Flumen, in Dalmatia, where it remained for three years, coming over 
to the Italian side of the Adriatic on the 10th Dec. 1294. Now, supposing 
that when the monks left Nazareth, and they carried off whatever they 
could belonging to the church, the figure, " framed by St. Luke," of the 
Virgin ; * would no doubt be carefully preserved. Such a precious relic 
would certainly have been an object of sanctity wherever it went. Crowds 
would be attracted, and the place would become a shrine. We can 

'easily imagine how the monks would be questioned about such a sacred 
spot AS the house where the Virgin had lived in. How often they 

-would have to describe every detail, and it would not be long till the 
'idea would occur of making a house of similar size and appearance, 
^uch a proceeding would be in perfect keeping with the times. No 
deception would be intended, but when the house once existed, the step 
from its being understood as only a representation, till it was believed 
io be the veritable house from Nazareth, would be very short indeed. 

'The story of a house flying through the air is not one that would occur 
to any person who wished really to deceive, something nearer to the 
limits of probability would have been selected. It is by getting the 
figure of the Virgin coming from Nazareth as a starting point, and the 

• dates given above make it likely that it was brought from the Holy 

"Land by the monks, which suggests a reasonable and probable origin of 
th« i:radition, and in this we have one of the most remarkable trans- 

"i2erence of a site on record. Supposing the theory here suggested should 
"be correct, it would give some interest in the Santa Casa, for being 
made by the men who had just come from Nazareth, it may be assumed 
to be a fair copy of the original. In this view it becomes a record of 
some values. It is formed of stone, and not of brick, as generally de- 
scribed. There are some remains of old paintings on the walls. Loretto 
naturally recalls the Scala Santa at Rome, in which, according to Murray, 
the " stairs consist of twenty-eight marble steps, stated by the Church 
tradition to have belonged to Pilate's house, and to have been the 
identical ones which our Saviour descended when he left the Judgment 
Seat." In these cases a new site is produced by the transference, or at 
least supposed transference, of the structures connected with events. In 
the Coronation Stone at Westminster we have the transference of an 
object, and with its legendary character of being " Jacob's Pillar," we 
have transfered with it some of the attributes which have been already 

* Tliis celebrated "viei-ge noire," is said to be made from cedar, and the work 
of St. Luke. It is 2ft. Sin. high, and stands in a shrine over the altar, for the 
Santa Casa lias been made into a chapel. It was carried ofi' to France by the 
Trench in 1797, and brought back to Loretto on the Sth Dccomber, 1802. 



TRANSFERENCE OF SITES. 25 

alluded to as belonging to the Sakrah, the Sacred Rock of Gerizim, and 
the Black Stone of Mecca, as central points of faith. At the present 
time there is no religious signification attached to it, but as the Corona- 
tion Stone, it becomes the centre on which our monarchs receive their 
power and authority to rule over the kingdom. It is thus, in a secular 
sense, the Eben Shatiyeh, or " Stone of Foundation," of the Government 
of this country. The attributes possessed by this stone can no doubt be 
explained from what we know of Celtic archaeology, still the identity of 
ideas is in this case, as it gives us a sacred stone, with something of the 
character of a Sakrah, which has been transferred within an altar, so 
close to the centre of our political system, is worthy of consideration m 
relation to this subject. 

To return to the dome of the rock. The Cathedral at Bosrah, 
which is figured in Fergusson's last work on "The Temples of 
the Jews," the date of whose completion is 512 A.D., presents 
such an identity in its general design, as well as in its details, 
that it should be considered that in this there is at least one point 
settled. The section of the Baptistery of St. John Lateran, given 
in the same book, is a further confirmation on this head. There is 
one point which weighs strongly with me as evidence that the build- 
ing was not erected as a mosque, and I am rather surprised that I have 
not seen it noticed by any of the numerous writers on this subject. 
When I visited the spot, on the theory that the place was a mosque, I 
looked out for the Mihrab, but in its place there is a door opening towards 
the Kihiah at Mecca, and the Mihrab is placed on the loft hand, where no 
Mohammedan architect could possibly have arranged it, if ho had designed 
the building at first, and proving that it is a later insertion.* 

If the architecture of the dome of the rock permitted of the theory 
that it was built by Mahomodans, the only supposition that would ex- 
plain it would be that it was constructed as a Kiblah, like the Caaba, 
which is not an ordinary mosque, and changed afterwards. According 
to the Mahomedan historians, Omar seemed to have been uncertain as to 
what ought to be the direction of prayer at Jerusalem. The tradition of 
the Night Joui-ney, which had been related by the prophet himself to 
Omar, I should say, must have been the reason of this, for that story 
gave the spot a claim to the character of being " the Gate of Heaven," 
and as the rock tried to ascend with Mahomed it thus got transferred to 
it the attribute which belongs to the Black Stone, of being a veritable 
bit of paradise, and that it will go upwards on the last day. 

Wo have here the suggestion of a possibility that the building 
forming the visible centre of a faith may be of a peculiar construction, 
and entirely diff'orent from all its other temples. 

Lieutenant Condor's statement of the rock levels round the Sakrah is 

* Tt has been pointed out by the Count de A^ogiie, and it is strongly insisted 
by Prof. Palmer (see Jerusalem, Besant and Palmer), that the dome was never built 
for a mosi^uc at all, but is identical with a wely or oratory, over a Muslim saint's 
tamb. 



26 TRAXSFEKENCE OF SITES. 

of some value, and tells so far, but does not seem to me to be demon- 
strative evidence — ^perhaps I undervalue its force. At the same time I 
would say tliat the absence of rock on the sitrface, or on the level, at the 
point where Mr. Fergusson's theory places the Holy of Holies, is a weak 
feature on his side. I allude to these only before giving what has all 
along been to me the greatest 'difficulty in Mr. Fergusson's views. The 
position Mr. Fergusson gives to the Temple, in order to leave the present 
Sakrah "without the gate," or without the wall, till the cave under it 
became the Holy Sepulchre, is to ] me very hard to accept. The cave, 
according to this theory, could not have been ever used befoi-e as a tomb, 
' ' for it was a ne w one in which no man had lain. " It is, I think, difficult to 
believe that such a very remarkable rock, and its singular association 
with a cave, forming the summit of the mount, could have been left out, 
and receive no functional character in connection with the Temple and its 
worship till the death of Christ. The force of this point of view is a 
matter of probabilities, and I submit that this must have been highly 
improbable. Mount Gorizim has a cave on its summit in connection 
wth its sacred rock. The region all round is noted for its sacred caves. 
Mr. Fergusson's own ado^^tod term of " Tree-Worship " may be followed, 
and Palestine might be called a land where cave-worship is the striking 
pecidiarity. In our own day Christian and Moslem have their shrines in 
caves. In Hebron, and Bethlehem, and Jerusalem almost every holy 
place is a cave, and yet, perhaps, the most remarkable of all these caves 
is that which exists on the highest point of the Temple Mount ; so striking 
a feature is it that I cannot believe but that it must from a very early 
X^eriod have been looked upon as a sacred spot. Indeed, if the question 
were put, why did this height receive its iirst character of sanctity, the 
probability, I should say, was owing to this remarkable circumstance of 
the cave on its suiumit. I do not think we must necessarily assmno that 
the Temple stood on the highest point, it may have been lower down, but 
were I to attempt a restoration of the old j)lan of Jerusalem the waE 
would be made to enclose the Sakrah. As a question of defence I should 
think that the milit;i.ry engineers would take this view of it also. On the 
north side of the platform on which the Dome of the Eock stands there 
is yet visible a depression, and it is this lateral hollow which gives to the 
ground on the south of it the character entitling it to be called a " mount." 
The Middoth calls it the "Mountain of the House." I think I am 
supported in this by the Avords of Josephus (A. J. xv. 11. 3), where ho 
says : " This hill it was which Solomon, who was the first of our kings, 
by Divine revelation, encompassed with a wall." Immediately after he 
repeats this: " This hill was walled all round," and again he distinctly 
declares that these walls were joined together " as a part of the hill to 
the very top." Ezckicl's vision is supposed to have been based upon 
the Temple, and he confirms the words of Josephus, "This is the law of 
the house ; upon the toj) of the mountain the whole limits thereof round 
about shall l)e most lioly. Behold this is t'he law of the liouse" (Ez. 
xliii. 12). A passage in Condor's "Tent-Work in Palestine" (vol. i.. 



TRANSFERE^^CE OF SITES. 



27 



p. 366), on the separation of the Temple hill luight mislead. He there 
refers to a rock-cut trench forty feet deep, which separates the traditional 
Antonia from the Mahomedan quarter. This may be the military and 
defensive separations, but the lateral valley on the north side of the Dome 
of the Eock is the original condition Avhich made the spot a " mount : " 
^vithout this depression the site of the Temple would only have been the 
lower end of a spur. 

The Dome of the Eock, considered as a temple, is one of the most 
impressive shiines I have seen. No doubt but the dim Hght and 
the rich mosaics and colour from old stained glass help much to 
produce part of the effect, but the real source of the influence is^the 
rough-looking mass of rock which forms the floor under the dome. At 




SECTION OF TA.T MAHAL, AGRA. 

first it looks as origuial and untouched with a tool as the top of a high- 
land mountain. A canopy of green, red, and yellow silk hangs pic- 
turesquely above it, and no marble floor, however artistically designed, 
or minutely or carefully wi'ought, could possibly affect the mind of the 
visitor as this grey and solemn mass of rock. I could accept a sanctity as 
belonging to it which could never be derived from sculptured stones or 
anything built by the hand of man. I know of no temple equal to this 
for its effect on the mind, and my experience of such places extends over 
the whole of India, and as far as Tibet, China, and Japan. The curious 
thing is that this splendid place of worship is as yet a puzzle, an 
archaeological nut of the hardest kind to crack — not that we are deficient 
in theories — the difficulty is as to which is the true one. One explana- 
tion offered is that it is the building erected over the Holy Sepulchre 
by Constantino. This idea is supported by the theory that the archi- 



♦28 



TBANSFERE^"CE OF SITES. 



tocture agrees with the period of that Emperor, and also by the fact 
that the arrangement of the builduig is identical Avith so many oriental 
tombs, and strikingly so with all the principal tombs of India. There 
seems to have been a tj-pical idea of a tomb, which maybe traced all over 
the east, and which in large and important examples assumed certain 
main featvires, and these features are to be found in the dome of the rock. 
If we take the Taj Mahal at Agra, or the tomb of Mahmad atBeejapoor, 
we have a large square or octagonal structure surmounted by a dome. 
Instead of the sepulchral cave, as in the Dome of the Eock, there are ia. 




DOME OF THE EOCK. 

these cases constructed chambers below the surface which contained the 
body ; under the dome is a cenotaph, and which occupies the same position 
as the Sakrah. In fact, a section of the Dome of the Hock and the Taj 
Mahal present a remarkable resemblance, so far as the parts just described 
a^e concerned ; and these are the essential features of such structures. 
Xow, the curious thing is that the Holy Sepulchre contains all these 
characteristics, that of course is natural from its being a tomb ; but the 
striking fact is that of its being in this respect a repetition of the Dome 
of the Rock. It belongs to quite a different period of architecture, and is 
a ruder kind of work. The sepulchral chamber is of the kind now knowa 



TRANSFERENCE OF SITES. 



29 



under tlie old name of Kolcim. They were small tunnels, arched in form, 
cut into the rock, and the body was pushed into them. In the Holy 
Sepulchre the upper portion of the rock has been cut away to make the 
interior of the tomb larger, so that it could be entered, and the whole has 
been covered with marble, and now none of the rock is visible, but origi- 
nally it was an artificially formed cave as a sepulchral chamber,* covered 
with rock. Had the rock not been cut away, and the marble edifice not 




^y////'////////////^"///,//^/-',v, ///'■ 

HOLY SEPULCHUE. 

been constructed, the Holy Sepulchre would have been another Dome of 
the Rock. 

Although this seems very like a Transference of Site, yet there is no 
reason, at least from what has been here stated, to suppose that an 
imitation was intended. There is a similarity in these oriental tombs, 
and this one only repeats the usual features. Caves and rock-cut tombs 
being a peculiarity of the locality will explain why the remarkable coin- 

* " In the middle space of the inner circle is a round grotto cut in the solid 
rock." — Areulf. 



30 TRANSFEEENCE OF SITES. 

cidence, just described, would have existed. The Holy Sepulchre be- 
coming the Head, or Centre Church — the Mother Church of all Churches 
— becomes the successor of the Temple. We are apt to look upon the 
Temple as the early Christians did, as a place to be hated, and 
are thus led to forget that the one is only a continu.ation of 
the other. The Church is the legitimate heir of all that belongs 
to the Temple. The Temple was the centre for the Jews, and now the 
centre of the earth is at the Holy Sepulchre. It is the same with the 
story of Abraham's sacrifice, and with all the typical events — they are 
all fulfilled in the One Death. The Holy Sepulchre thus becomes by the 
smgle event the representation of a great many, and hence the reason 
why so many sites are transferred to it. Soewulf, who on visiting 
Jerusalem in 1102, writes of the Holy Sepulchre,— " For all things 
which were foretold and forcwritten by the holy prophets of our Saviour, 
Jesus Christ were there actually fulfilled." The realisation of the idea 
which has been here dealt with is not without some practical value, and 
I can give a good instance to illustrate. Many of those who go to Jeru- 
salem, and are not satisfied with the present Holy Sepulchre, begin to 
study the ground ui order to discover the true site, and one idea seems to 
guide them all — that it must be a mound in the shape of a skull, which 
is the mode in which they interpret the word Golgotha. By referring 
to the old pictures of the crucifixion, wo sec always at the foot of the 
cross the representation of a skull. This is understood to be Adam's 
skull. In some pictures the whole figure of Adam is given ; there is, to 
give an example, a group of this kind over the central west door of 
Strasburg Cathedral : He is rising to life again from the blood which is 
«hed. By a reference to 1 Cor. xv. 22, wo find that in Adam all die, and 
in Christ all shall be made alive. Here we have the simple connection 
between the Crucifixion and Adam's grave. It is a piece of veiy beauti- 
ful symbolism. Its consideration will save explorers from wasting 
time which may be better spent than trying to find a rock shaped 
like a skull. Accordhig to the rule of the Eoman Catholic Church, 
tliis site is transferred to every altar where the mass is celebrated. 
According to the decrees of the Church, the sacrifice of the mass cannot 
be perfoi-med without a relic, that is, a poi-tion of a dead body, being 
placed on the altar. This is one of the essential rules, from which there 
is no deviation, and by it the altar becomes a Golgotha, the place of the 
<load Adam, over which the cereniony is performed. 

The twelve columns in the Sakrah are said to be one for each of the 
twelve sons of Jacob. And I find in Mr. Bonomi's diaiy the tradi- 
tion, no doubt a Mahomcdan one, that the twelve heads of the Beni 
Isi-ael are buried under the Sakrah. This helps the tomb theory of 
the Dome of the Eock. Perhaps the breastplate of the high priest 
(Ex. xxviii. 9) is the starting point of this typical number of stones, and it 
is repeated in the crossing of the Jordan, whore Joshua connnands that 
twelve stones be brought up out of the river, "according imto the 
number of the tribes of the Children of Israel " (Jos. iv. 5). These stones 



TRAK'SFERENCE OF SITES. 



31 



were erected at Gilgal. Tlio Siimaritans say that Josliiia brought these 
twelve stones to Geiizim. All they can show now of their Temple is a 
part of the foundation formed of these traditional " Twelve Stones." 
In 1 Kings xviii. 31, Elijah, is described as taking twelve stones 
"according to the number of the tribes of the Sons of Jacob," and 
built an altar with them. The Christian also found an attraction in 
these twelve stones, for Arculph, as early as A.D. 700, mentions the 
church "on the site of Galgalis," and that Avithin it Avero the twelve 




XJ 



PLAN OF SEPULCHEE. 

A Slab on which body lay. B Fragment of stone which formed door of tomb. 

C Coptic Chapel. D Centre of the Earth. E E Greek Church. 

F Tomb of Josepli of Armathen. 

stones which Joshua ordered to be carried out of the Jordan. 'Willibald, 
who was only a few years later, mentions Galgala, which had a "wooden 
church," in which were these twelve stones. Sir John Mandeville 
describes Eachel's tomb as having in his day twelve great stones, which 
Jacob had placed over her in token that she had borne twelve children. 
Sir John forgets here that this one of Jacob's wives was not the mother 
of all the twelve sons. Benjamin of Tudela again says that the tomb 
was constructed of " eleven stones, equal to the number of the Children 



32 TRANSFERENCE OF SITES. 

of Jacob." At the pi-esent day there is a Mahomedan mosque at Nabhrs 
dedicated to "the ten sons of Jacob." Here the one idea is preserved in 
JoAvish, Christian, and Mahomedan symbohsm. There is an identity of 
Avords in the Hebrew connected with son, and stone, or rock ; and there 
resiilts from it the use of the term to "build up a house," meaning- 
thereby the children, which are the stones, by which the family is built 
up. Euripides makes Ijjhigenia say, "For sons are the pillars of the 
house" {Ipliigenia in Tauris, v. 57). Showing that the notion is not 
peculiar to the races of the Holy Land. 

We have it stated by Arculph that the Holy Sepulchre "is encom- 
j)assed by three walls, and supported by Twelve Columns " (Bede v. 117). 
According to Mr. Fergusson's theory this Avould be the Dome of the 
Eock, because he believes that the transference took place in the- 
eleventh century, and Arculph's date is about A.D. 700. But if the- 
transference did take place most probably the twelve pillars, which we 
have seen has been such a favourite number with Jews, Mohamme- 
dans, and Christians, would have been transferred also in constructing- 
the new shrine. At least it might bo put that if the twelve columns 
were found in the new shrine it would not surprise any one. The 
Dome of the Eock rests not only upon twelve columns, but there 
are also four strong i)iers, one between every three columns. In the 
present Holy Sepulchre the complete design of the columns is broken 
into by the Greek Church on the east side, but on the western half the 
arrangement is still entire, and if we take the two square columns at the 
cardinal points to represent piers, it Avill be found that it leaves four 
di-visions of three columns, which if continued all round Avould give the 
oft -repeated twelve. This avUI be understood better by the shading on 
the plan, which is done to convey the idea. This, I know, is far too 
speculative to be assumed as a certainty, and I only give it as an idea 
which o-rew out of this question of Transference of Sites. 

One curious j)oint is worth calling attention to here, and that is that 
the tomb turns to the left hand on entering, which is the angle at 
which the altar or chancel of so many old churches diverge from the 
line of the nave. If that angle, which has had so many theories by 
way of explanation, could be traced back to the Holy Sepulchre it would 
in itself be a very interesting transfer. 

I have tried to show that in the multitude of traditions and the con- 
fusion of sites, although seemingly a maze, that it is not altogether at 
tinics A\^thout some indication of a plan, and that by study and classifi- 
cation something may be made out of them which is of practical value, 
and that the whole subject may be worthy of more careful and serious 
attention than it has yet received as a branch of Biblical archaeology. 

William Simpson. 



33 

THE FELLAHHEE^T^ OF PALESTINE. 

Notes ox their Claxs, Waef.vee, Eeligiox, axd Laws. 

By JIrs. Fjxx. 
It is impossible to live for any length of time in the Holj' Land ^^^thout 
being struck by the diverse character of its present inhabitants — that is 
to say, of the settled popiilation, as distinguished from the pilgiims who 
annually resort to the Moslem and Clu'istian sanctuaries. 

Not only in Jerusalem, but in the rural districts all over the land, the 
careful obsei'\'er perceives that in this small country are collected together 
people of differing creeds, and of various perfectly distinct races. Not 
now to dwell upon the peculiarities that mark the difference between 
Samaritans, Maronites, Druses, we pass on to those commonly classed 
together as ^' Arabs," because the various dialects which they speak have 
been supposed to be "Arabic," because they profess the faith of Islam 
propagated by Arabs from Arabia, and because of Oriental customs 
which they all have in common. 

The inhabitants of Palestine are di%dded into three very distinct classes. 
First, the Bedaiveeu, "Arabs of the Arabs," who Hve in tents and roam 
the deserts. 

Second, the FeUaliheen, "Ploughmen," or agricidtural peasantiy, who 
live in villages, and are freehold owners of the soil which they cvdtivate. 
Third, the BeUudecn, " Townsfolk," who Hve, and who have lived from 
generation to generation, in cities, generally in their ovm freehold houses. 
The first of these classes is fully entitled to be considered of Arab race. 
Many among the third class are also Ai-abs, being lineal descendants of 
the Arabs who came from Arabia as conquerors in and after the seventh 
century, and who settled in the towns, where we now find their children. 
But we had not been long resident in Palestine before we found various 
reasons for doubting whether those specified in the second class, the 
FeUahheeyi, or peasantry, were Arabs at all. Both eye and ear began to 
note dissimilarities between them and the Arabs of the other two classes, 
those from the desei-t and those of the towns ; and these differences were 
found in costume, features, stature, habits of life, and in speech. Nay, 
more, as we became better acquainted with the coimtrj-, we found that, 
although kno^vai by the common name of Fellahheen everywhere, there 
were, in reality, many perfectly distinct clans, or rather tribes, 
inhabiting the land ; and that these several clans could also be distin- 
guished to some extent from each other. Their peculiarities were found, 
on a nearer acquaintance, to lie veiy interesting, and well worthy of in- 
vestigation. 

Palestine is divided into districts, all existing independently of each 
other under the Turkish authority. The districts are after the Lebanon 
temtory in the extreme north, and the Bekaa' or plain between the 
western range and the Anti-Lebanon. 

(1) The country of the MetaA\dla. (2) The district north of Esdraelon. 
(3) The Jeneen District, including Northern Samaria. (4) " The 

D 



34 THE FELLAIIIIEEX OF PALES tlXE. 

Mountain of Nablus." (5) " Tlie Mountain of Jerusalem," including- 
"The Mountain of Hebron." (6) The Gaza or Philistine District. 
(7) The Plain of Sharon as far as the Bay of Acre. 

The Jordan Yalley is chiefly peopled by wild Bedaween, and is, 
therefore, not included in the above districts. 

In the "Jerusalem Mountain" district the Fellahh clans are the 
following :—Beni Hassan, Beni Zaid, Beni Kurrah, Beni Salim, Beni 
Malik, Beni Harith. 

Besides the Wadiyeh, or vaUey people, who are grouped around the- 
Kedron Valley and its adjacent hills, the Beni Hassan on the south-west 
and the Beni Mselik on the north-vv^est were the clans with whom we 
came into most frequent contact in Jerusalem. We also saw a good deal 
of the Wadiyeh, of Siloam, Olivet, Bethlehem, &c. In travelling we 
became acquainted, more or less, Avith the other more distant clans, and 
we had abundant opportmiities for observing that the Fellahheen do not, 
properly speaking, fonn a nation. There is among them neither 
coherency nor spirit of patriotism. Just as the wild Bedaween are 
divided into distinct and generally hostile tribes, so the Fellahheen are 
divided into clans governed by their respective sheikhs. They speak a 
common language ; they possess a common religion ; theii' manners and 
customs are generally the same all over the coimtry. Yet of national 
unity there is absolutely none. They never combine for any purpose,, 
excepting v/hen occasionally some clans aid each other in their faction 
fights. They are all classed, it is true, under the two great di-visions of 
Yemeny or Kais, weaiing white or red as the badge of these parties ; 
but even then there is nothing among them approaching to the 
co-oi)eration of patriots as a nation, ready and Avilling to join hand m 
hand for the mother country. The Turkish Government well understand 
this important fact, and take it into laractical account in their method of 
ruling the land. This state of things is enough to explain, in great 
measure, the backward condition of the people at large. They have no 
national life. Eveiy district lives in and for itself, and wages its ,_own 
petty wars with its neighbours, but has neither interests nor action in 
common with any other. The people of the various districts differ 
considerably from each other in outward appearance, in character, and 
in speech. They resemble each other just so far as to indicate descent 
from a common stock. They differ as the fragments of a nation may 
which has been broken up at an extremely remote period into distinct 
and hostile clans. All are Fellahheen, and yet all are apart from'^eacli 
other, independent, and commonly at enmity. 

Though they have with each other no national cohesion, the Fellahh 
Arab clans cleave to the land with the tenacity of aboriginal inhabitants. 
No clan has for a long time overpassed the boundaries of its own district, 
and they show no disposition to do so. The gradual decrease of 'popu- 
lation, moreover, renders it unnecossaiy for them to extend the limits of 
their territory. They cling to the hills and the plains where ^their 
fathers Uved and died. Nothing but the strong arm of government can . 



THE FELLAIIHEEX OF PALESTIXE. 35 

ever induce a Fellalih to quit his native village, and this only for com- 
pulsory service in the army. From the moment that he finds himself 
drawn by lot under the rules of the conscription his one idea is how soon 
he may contrive to get back again. 

They reverence the Sultan as the Klialif of Mohamed, as their civil and 
spiritual sovereign, but they care nothing for the emj)ii-o of Turkey. 
Many of them do not even so much as know the names of the villages a 
district or so from their own homes. They are influenced by no patriotism 
for Turkey. The very name is unknown to them. The empire as a 
whole has no name. The Government, whose seat is at Stambool, and 
whose head is the Sultan, is called Bowlet el Osmanli (the Ottoman 
Government), whose rule is respected. But the phrase Belad et Trak, 
" Countiy of the Turks," is a popidar tenn of contempt to mean " the 
world's end," the remote cradle of the Turkish hordes that overran the 
East in the middle ages. Nevertheless, as above mentioned, the Fel- 
lahheen are loyal to the Sultan. 

When Ibrahim, Pasha of Egypt, took possession of Syria for his father, 
Mehemet Ali, he had a good deal of trouble with the Fellahhecn in 
some districts, esiaeciaUy with those of Bethlehem, whom he found a 
very different kind of folk to the meek and dispirited Fellahheen of 
Egypt. The sturdy mountaineers of Palestine had never been subjected- 
to the ii-on hand of despotism by their Turkish i-ulers in the fashion that 
the Egyptians were governed, and many of them resisted Ibrahim 
Pasha, not only when first he occupied Syria, but at all convenient 
opportunities afterwards. 

In the outbreak of 1834 the Fellahheen actually got possession of 
Jerusalem for a while. They entered by the sewer, from the south- 
east, and thus got (after some little difficulty in enlarging a passage for 
exit) into the Armenian quarter. They broke their way out into a house 
where there was a mill at work grinding com. Subbuhh Shokeh, one of 
the Bethlehem Fowagri chiefs, was one of the foremost to emerge. He 
seized the astonished miller by the throat and silenced him, while the 
rest of the band made good theii- entrance. There was great confusion 
in Jerusalem for some time, but the regular troops of Mehemet Ali were 
in possession of the citadel, and their cannon and musketry were too- 
strong for the Fellahheen. 

One of our own men who had been there in service in the Egj^ptian 
army used to tell with glee how effectually Ibrahim Pasha disposed of 
the Fellahheen when he was encountered on the heights of Scopus with 
his troops and one or tAvo field pieces. Seeing a crowd of the hostile 
Fellahheen, he would call his gunner, and bidding him drop a shot or 
two among them, disperse them like sheep. But it was not always so. 
Though in mortal fear of cannon shot, they would fight well when it 
cam3 to a hand to hand encounter, as the Egy^jtians found on more 
than one occasion when the Fellahheen were only overpowered after a 
fierce struggle. The men of Lifta and those of Bethlehem fought well 
before they were subdued. 



36 THE FELLAnnEEN OF PALESTINE. 

The introduction of the conscription was the measure which above all 
things embittered the Fellahheen of Palestine against the Egj'ptians, and 
caused them to favour the restoration of Syiia to the direct rule of the 
Sultan, whose milder rule they greatly preferred to the tyranny of the 
Egyjjtians. 

Fond of fighting as the Fellahheen are when they can fight in their own 
fashion and ujjon their o^vn native mountains, they abhor being taken 
away from home to be put into the regular army, subjected to drill, and 
compelled to wear a uniform. Until lately the Sultan drew very few 
conscripts from Palestine. Indeed, in former years the attempt to levy 
any considerable number of recruits would have caused a popular insur- 
rection. We witnessed one of the earliest attempts at a levy after the 
Turks regained the direct rule in Palestine. A couple of regiments were 
sent down from the north to obtain conscripts in place of those, whose 
time of service having expired, had been recently discharged. Great 
was the consternation among the natives, and yet the levy was in itself 
light enough. Very few were taken, and the term of service was only 
"for five years. But the Moslem Fellahheen did not come in to market, and 
it was amusing to see, on the day that tlie regiments sent to make the 
levy arrived, while the troops were marching in at the Damascus Gate, 
north of Jerusalem, the Fellahheen were running out in streams at the 
opposite Gate of Zion the moment that they heard the soldiers' drums. 
Our two acquaintances, Khaleel of Lifta and his brother, owners of our 
camping ground, came and sat down on our doorstep to take sanctuary, 
and implore protection from the soldiers. When told that it was wrong 
to refuse to serve their Sultan the I'oply was, " On our head and our 
eyes be his service. He is our lord ; but let us not go away as soldiers." 

One of the sheikhs of Malliha brought his younger brother to the 
English hospital and begged the doctor to cut off a joint of his thumb in 
order to unfit him for service. On the doctor's refusal the lad went out 
of the city and actually laid his right hand on a stone and chopped off 
his thumb with his his own khan jar (short sword worn by all the 
Fellaheen). 

So great was the terror of the conscription, that we were told some 
1,500 of the Fellahheen had sought shelter (only for a time, of course) 
with the Bedawecn on the other side of Jordan, having been met at 
Jericho by an Arab force which had encamped there to assist their 
flight. 

Our Christian Fellahhah from Bethlehtsm fully shared in the joy of the 
Jerusalem Christians that their sons were ineligibh;. It was anmsing to 
hear her by turns chuckling over and sympathising with the griefs of the 
Moslem mothers. Indeed, generally spciiking, she agreed with her to'v\'ns- 
folk, tlu! Christian Bethlehemites, that the Moslems were altogether an 
inferior i>eople, and worse off than they, who had ever in time of need 
their sure refuge in the powerful protection of theii- convents, "which 
may God coiitinuf; to Iniild up ! " 

After the Crimean War, and when the prestige and moral strength of 



THE FELLAIIIIEEN OF PALESTINE. 37 

Turkish government in Palestine had been considerably strengthened, 
conscription was enforced more thoroughly. The men were chosen by 
lot ; and great was the grief of those who were so unfortunate as to draw 
the fatal paper consigning them to sei-vice and temporary exile. 

But even ttien permission could be obtained to purchase substitutes, and 
the long hidden hoards of money, accumulated during a lifetime of saving, 
buried away in the ground, were resorted to. It was astonishing to find 
what large sums a mean-looking fellahh would command when engaged 
in the serious business of purchasing his exemption from foreign service, 
whether in engaging a substitute, or, in some cases, by simply bribing 
the officer in command to let him off. If all these means failed to effect 
a release, there was still a chance left of escaping durmg the march tc> 
the sea coast, where the conscripts were to be embarked. The conscrip- 
tion has fallen with far greater severity upon the Fellahheen of Palestine 
duiing the late war -with Eussia. Whole villages have been drained of 
their able-bodied men ; the scenes during the period of recruiting were 
painful in the extreme — the despair of the men themselves, the agony of 
their wives and children, theii- aged fathers and mothers, when they were 
marched off manacled like criminals, to prevent escape. These pooi 
IDCople, after a brief period of military instruction, were sent into active 
service against the Russians. Hmidreds of them perished in battle, 
hundi-eds more from the hardships of the campaign among the ice-bound 
iields and snowy defiles of Europe ; in some cases they ended their days 
as womided Turkish soldiers m the hospitals prepared by English kind- 
ness, blessing with tears in their eyes the noble lady who ministered to 
then- dying hours, and could, alone of all around her, understand, because 
she had herself been in the Holy Land, what they meant, when in their 
own tongue, all unknown to their Turkish officers and comrades, they 
babbled of el Kuds esh Shereef — Jerusalem the Holy City — which they 
were never to see more, or the sunny vineyards and the mountains, now 
desolate for want of hands to till them. 

And these men bore their suffei'ings patiently and bravely. 

Under discipline, and especially under kind and firm treatment, the 
fellahh is capable of much good service, whether as a soldier or as a 
cultivator and builder. We found that they made excellent agricultural 
labourers and builders, and Captain Warren has spoken very highly of 
the Fellahheen who worked under his staff of English engineers in 
smking shafts, driving galleries, and all the other arduous work con- 
nected with his excavations in Jerusalem. 

These people are not the mere cowards which their un^villingness to 
serve in the regular army might lead one to suppose. The Fellahheen, 
though sometimes quite ready to run away and postpone the carrying 
on of a fight to some more propitious occasion, do, nevertheless, display 
considerable dash and bravery in warfare ; and when beaten and taken 
prisoners they face death with fortitude. 

It sometimes happens that the victorious side has many lives to claim 
from the vanquished enemy. The piisoners are well aware of the fate 



38 THE FELLAHHEEX OF PALESTINE, 

before them, and tliey submit with almost apathetic resignation — in 
accordance with the cardinal doctrine of Islam — to the destiny ordained 
for them, as they firmly believe, by Divine decree. 

They allow themselves — big brawny men — to be laid down in a row, 
with the foot of the enemy literally " on their neck," to be slaughtered 
A\'ith the sword, like so many sheep, while, their faces turned towards 
Mecca, they pronounce the Moslem formula of faith, thus attesting with 
their last breath their belief in the Unity of God and the mission of the 
Prophet Mohamed. 

The religion of the Fellahheen is nominally that of Islam, but they are 
generally speaking extremely ignorant of the Koran, being unable to 
read for themselves and dependent upon what they can jjick up from 
their sheikhs, who are somewhat better instructed. There remain 
among them, however, superstitions and religious rites — relics of some 
ancient systems of religion — which are of the highest interest, and to 
which we shall refer again. There is generally a little mosque and a 
guest-chamber in every village, besides the "Place" {Makdm) oi some 
ancient saint or hero. Lieut. Conder has dra^vai attention to the im- 
portance of these latter sanctuaries, for such they are. 

The clans are governed by their own hereditaiy sheikhs. The 
succession does not always descend to the eldest son ; a father will 
not rmfrequently nominate one of his younger children to the chieftain- 
ship, if he seems to be fitter for the office ; but, of course, the choice 
must be ratified by the Turkish Government, who occasionally regard 
or encourage the claims of rival claimants. Hence arises many a feud, 
and enmities (exemplified by the fellahh saying, "Though your sister's 
son were but mortar (utterly weak and insignificant) choke him, for he 
is your bitterest enemy." 

The sheikh rules his people by a code of unwi-ittcn traditional laws, 
some of them derived from those of the Koran, called the " Laws of 
Mohamed" {Hherhjat-MnlKinn-d). But there are many local and special 
rules. Among these the most interesting- is the follahh code of traditional 
laws in South Palestine, which is called the S/icHi/at KluilecJ — "Law of 
Abraham" — (literally " the friend," this being the ejMthet by which 
Abraham is known in the oountiy — Khalccl AllnJi, " the frien<l " of God). 
This code is thus called in distinction from the S]ie}'ii/ii/i Molnuiwdiyth 
(" Law of Mahomed "), always administered in the courts of law in the 
great cities. The peasantry always prefer the law of Abraham to that 
of the Koran, and it is administoi-ed by the sheikh and the elders 
{Iklitidriyeh). They look upon it as peculiarly s.-icred, and even in towns 
it is so much respected that neither the kmli (" judge" of Mahomedan 
law) nor the courts of the Sultan's Tanzimat will over directly reverse a 
sentence of the law of Abraham pronoiniced by the eldq^ s of the jDeasantry. 
Indeed, we have heard of cases in which the civil authorities interfered 
to enforce the " Abrahamic" code as against that of Mahomed. For 
in.stanco, in 1858 a certain number of families' from Hhalhliul Noba, 
Beit Umma, &c., jireferring to follow the 7>ff'r ';/' Molmnivil (which they 



THE FELLAHHEEN OF PALESTINE. 39 

thought would be more fiivourable to them m a certain question of 
landed property), were expelled by their neighbours, and went to rebuild 
an ancient village at a distance. The effendies of Jerusalem, for some 
factious reason, induced the pasha to compel them to return. He 
aoeordingly, went and destroyed their village, which they had newly 
rebuilt. (This kind of expvdsion is called Sahh't Mashhootin.) 

The courts of justice held by the sheikhs with the village elders are 
accompanied by Avell-kuown formalities, and are conducted with care. 
The sessions are in public, and open to all comers. The sheikh who 
•obtains a character for legal acumen and impartiality is resorted to by 
litigants from the whole country side. On the other hand, shoidd he utter 
a decision or express an opinion contrary to the traditionary code, he is 
liable to be corrected, and to have his sentence questioned by the merest 
child present. 

For a lawsuit of Fellahheen the necessary preliminaries are — 

1. The Erzah, or trifling deposit, representing a larger sum or 
■"property," which is to be the real forfeiture if so decided. 

2. The kuf'lah, or securities (two persons or more), that the case shall 
be begun and continued and the sentence be obeyed. 

3. The sdmci (" listener") or assessor. 

4. The kadi or judge {i.e., the sheikh chosen to decide the caiise). 
Besides these there are the plaintiff and the defendant. The parties all 

appear before the judge. The plaintiff says, "Ihavecometo thee, our judge 
— this and thus — and appealing to the seventy-two prophets from all 
crooked ways and path of crooked ways. May retribution not have to 
•*)vertake thee in thy pastoral property, or in thy most desirable of sons."* 

Then the plamtifF tells his tale. The defendant tells his afterwards. 

The judge, after hearing all, and receiving the evidence of witnesses, 
if any are brought forward, sums up the matter to his assessor, the 
sdma', in such a manner as, without pronouncing sentence, shows which 
way his mind lies. 

The assessor turns to the two belligerent parties, and says, " Speak ye 
to each other in the way of reconciliation." If they do not make it up 
the judge gives sentence, and the fine is levied. This is divided between 
ihe judge and the assessor. 

Appeal can be made to a new court by either party sajing, "The 
truth of God is with another than thee." But this is rarely done, 
inasmuch as it reflects great disgrace on the fii'st judge to have his 
sentence reversed, or even brought into suspicion. 

It is always a subject for pride to a sheikh that his decisions are 
sought after and respected, and we have known cases in which profligate 
and unjust men have maintained their public character as shrewd and 
impartial judges. Many stories are told of the sagacity of the sheikhs 
in their mode of administering justice. 

In the days of old Abdu'l Hady, grandfather of the present family, 

* Thi.s is the form used by way of adjuration to the judge to act justly and 
impartially in hearing the cause and in giving sentence. 



40 THE FELLAHHEEN OF PALESTINE. 

while he was governor in Nablus, a shop in the town was robbed, and 
no one could discover by whom it had been done. So the old fellow — 
peace be upon him, for he was truly a wi-jC man — commanded the door of 
the shop to be taken off its hinges, and to bo well bastinadoed. This 
was done in his own presence. A crowd gathered round, and he con- 
tinually ordered the punishment to be continued, until nearly aU the 
toAvn had assembled, marvelling at the strange proceeding. 

At length Abdu'l Hady, the governor, leaned down, and asked the 
door Avho had done it ? who was the thief ? Then he put his ear to 
listen for the answer. Turning and addressing the multitude, the 
governor then said, " The door declares that it was done by a man who 
has a cobweb on the top of his tarboosh." The people looked at each 
other, but one man unconsciously put up his hand to feel the top of his 
tarboosh. The governor instantly laid hold of him, and the man in 
astonishment confessed that he had indeed done it. He was the thief. 

Sometimes noble traits of humanity and generosity were shown in the 
fellahh character. 

A remarkable instance occurred during the scarcity and famine ui 
1854, when the war had raised the prices of provisions, and when the 
effendis of the city, by buying up the wheat stores, had caused extreme 
distress, especially to the poor Jews. 

A fellahh then resolved to do what in him lay to mitigate the suffeiings 
of the poor, and, though he himself was not rich or powerful, to reduce 
the price of com. He brought his little store of Avheat, a single camel 
load, into the market of Jerusalem, and spreading his o^vn aba (cloak) 
on the gromid, emptied the grain out of the sacks, crpng aloud to the 
poor to come and buy, for that he had "lifted up his hand to the Most 
High God " to sell this his corn at a cheap rate in smaU quantities to the 
poor, in order to biing down the price and succour the starving. 

Blessings were iioured upon that poor man's head, and he went home 
happy to his village. 

We had many oj^portunities of obsei-ving the conduct of the Fellahheen 
when engaged in warfare. The clans inhabiting the country districts 
where our summer encampments were established, were constantly at 
feud, and when the Turkish pasha at Jerusalem happened to be old and 
weak, or when he had not sufficient soldiers or sufficient influence to 
enable him to maintain order among the rival sheikhs, they usually broke 
out into fighting. The immediate cause was often trivial enough, but 
there was sure to be some well nourished quiirrel of old standing ready 
to be fought out, and only awaiting opportunity. 

On one occasion we had noticed an unusual chattering among the 
women near our tents, and in the evening, just before dark, a number of 
goats, cows, donkeys, and camels, were driven up by some women and 
girls. 

"Who arethese,Haj Ali?" "Truly, my lord, I know not— Fellahheen," 
was our groom's reply on being questioned ; but he soon bi'ought us 
word that " there is a great fight; all the Aboo Ghosh people are at it 



THE FELLAHHEEX OF PALESTINE. 41 

SO the women have brought their cattle hero for refuge till it is over. 
No one will take them from the Ingleez," As he spoke another party 
came up, and the women in command on either side began to abuse and 
curse each other as soon as they came in sight. 

' ' Are these friends of the first people ? " "La — a ," laughed our groom ; 
' ' they are of the opposite side, but they come also to take shelter \vith 
the English." 

We saw and heard no more of that fight except that the Aboo Ghosh 
side were defeated with the loss of forty men. "When all was over both 
parties fetched away their cattle, and said "thank you" for the pro- 
tection enjoyed. 

Another time a fellahh came to our tents to carry off the young fellow — 
one of the owners of the land upon which our tents were pitched — whc> 
was our sei-vant, to the war, as one of the contingent of 100 men required 
from his village. He said that 2,000 men were to march that day agamst 
the Ibr Simhhan territoiy. 

That day there were none left to work upon the threshing-floor close 
by save an old man with white beard and the little boys his grandsons ; 
all the middle aged and the young men had disappeared and gone to the 
war. 

A fellahh family had taken up their summer quarters in a sepulchral 
cave close by theii* threshing-floor, and a very few days afterwards we 
saw one of their women standing mounted on the top of a bank screaming 
for nearly an hour : " Come, O ye brave, and take revenge I " 

The Shafat people had been fighting those of Lifta, and had captui-ed 
two goats. They had also attempted to take this woman's donkey from 
her. Blows had been exchanged, and at least one head broken. They 
fought their fight out, but did not molest us. 

On another occasion we watched the actual progress of the fight going 
on between the villages north-west and those south-west of Jerusalem. 
Several himdred men were engaged on both sides. There was but little 
bloodshed, however, and, as in many other instances, the mediation of 
the British Consul was effectual in obtaining a temporary truce, and 
after some little time, a settlement of the disputes existing between the 
belligerents. 

During this fight one of the enemy challenged the sheikh — Ali Shaikha 
— to smgle combat. The mode of challenge was characteristic : "Come 
on, thou rider of Sbl-adesh" (hack horse); thus offering affi-ont both to 
the rider and to his valued mare. Ali knew well what his beast could 
do, and put her at the loose stone wall several feet high, riding at his 
adversaiy -with the retort, " At least, I am not the son of a gipsy." 
The mare scrambled up, carried her rider safely on, and his adversary 
fell pierced by the bullets of himself and his followers. The fighting 
was carried on in the early morning and forenoon, after which the men 
went to their agiicultural labours. 

The watch fires were burning at night in every village, and one could 
A hear the shrill voices of the women as well as of the men joining in the 



42 THE FELLAHHEEN OF PALESTINE. 

Avar, or war ciy. In the morning by daybreak the forces mustered. 
"When a -well-known champion joined them, the women would break out 
as he rode forward into improvised verse: — 

" Oh, thou Khaleel, thou art welcome ; 
All these swords art thine, oh, Khaleel. 
"We will defend thee and fight with thee. 
"Welcome, welcome, oh, Khaleel," &;c., &c. 

The men, and more especially the women, encoui'age the combatants 
during the actual fight, by improvised verses paising their favourite 
warriors and recounting theii* deeds of prowess. But in case of hisitation 
or of cowardice they fling at them every epithet of contempt or scorn 
that they can imagine or invent on the spur of the moment, and many 
a one has dashed afresh into the thickest of the fight, stimg by the bitter 
jests and gibes of the girls and women from his village who were on the field 
■carrjnng fresh supplies of gunpowder, succouring the wounded, and 
■cheering on the men of their side wdth the invigorating scream of the 
^' El-el-el-el-loo." 

"We always found that the women took the keenest interest in the 
warfare, that they acted as scouts and conveyed intelligence with great 
rapidity and accuracy over the hills, aud that they were quick in 
■detecting plots or secret movements of the enemy. Here is one of their 
impromptu battle songs : — 

" "\\Tiat does the coward's wife say to her hushand ? 
' Oh, husband, remain in the hindermost ranks, 
For if thou shouldest press forward thou mayest be hit, 
And thus shall my children be made orphans.' 
These be the words of the coward's wife to her husband." 
The custom, common among the Bedaween, was also known among 
the Fellahheen, by which women have the right and privilege of giving 
protection and of saving the life of any who might appeal to them, or 
whom they choose to claim as their jjvotege . Formerly, he who attempted 
to slay another in the presence of a woman would have been branded as 
a coward. The men also hurl opprobrious epithets at any warrior who 
evinces symptoms of fear or of hesitation. During a fight at Brit 
Nattey, one of the combatants seemed to his comrades in the fray to be 
hanging back. Immediately one of them shouted at him, "Siknag!" 
which is the native form of the word " Ashkenaz," the appellation of the 
Eussian or German Jews, as distinguished from the Sephardim, or 
Spanish Jews. 

The Ashkenazim are generally small of stature, and are, for the most 
part, extremely timorous. They have only been recognised of late years 
as belonging to the same people as their proud, though also timid 
brethren, the Sephardim (who are the Jews recognised of old by the 
Turkish Govemjuent and by the natives). Hence the term "Siknag" 
was meant to imply utter derision and contempt. 

Before and during the fighting individual champions often challenge 
•each other to single coudiiit. Great interest natui-ally attaches to these 



THE FELLAHIIEEN OF PALESTINE. 43 

encounters, Avhicli are watched with keen attention hj both sides. 
Sometimes the dispute is decided by the event, but more commonly the 
struggle between one or more pairs of champions on either side ends in 
a general vtclc'c of the excited hosts, who cannot rest.-ain their ardour 
beyond a certain point when watching the efforts of their chosen heroes. 

Sheikh Nimmer el Amleh was noted for his high courage. Many 
anecdotes were told of his nuiichalance. One day, in the height of battle, 
he happened to look up at the sun, and saying " It iS' noon," he 
dismounted, sjjread his aba (cloak) on the ground, and began to say his 
prayers, though guns were levelled at him all round, and some not 
twelve paces off. Of course, no one would be so impious as to shoot him 
while actually saying his prayers. Another celebrated sheikh , Abd el 
Naby, coming up, found him thus engaged. — "Oh, Nimmer, what art 
thou doing!- This is a time for fighting." Nimmer rejoined, " Wby 
should fighting hinder praying '- Let me finish, and then will I teach 
iiiem." And so he did " teach " the enemy, as soon as. he had finished 
prayer, leaping on his mare, rushing. into the enemy's. ranks, and slaving 
on all sides. 

Of course, the victorious army are greeted, when they return home to 
their villages, by j)rocessions of the women, who go foi-th to meet; them 
singing songs of triumph. The woman most skilled, in improvisation 
leads the song with a couplet or so extolling the acts of the hero and of 
the victors. Her companions then take up the chorus, ending wdth the 
Zughareet (the shrill El-el-el-loo), waving their long aleeves over their 
heads, and clapping their hands with frantic joy. Another couplet is 
then given, followed by the chorus as before. The men, meanwhile, 
""burn as much powder" as they can, firing off their long guns at 
random in every direction, and as the guns are loaded to make the more 
noise, accidents sometimes occur. Each man carries, besides his gun, the 
short sword, or khanjar, of native manufacture, stuck in his leathern gii-dle. 
They are generally provided -with powder of their o^vn making. The 
■wood of the vine, though useless generally, is considered to fiu-nish the 
best charcoal for gunpowder. Brimstone and nitre are products of the 
country. 

The combatants are for the most part infantry, only the sheikhs on 
either side being mounted, with perhaps their sons and cousins as 
retinue. The Fellahheen do not possess many horses or mares. The 
sheikhs, however, arc usually well movmted, and their mares are not 
xmfrequently thorough-bred Arabs, related to the desert race. 

Prisoners are of course frequently taken in battle, and sometimes they 
are slain at the end of the fight. Any one considering himself "a man''' 
would disdain to ask mercy. But if there be not much angry passion 
aroused, or if there be a mediator sufficiently honourable to command 
respect, lives are spared, and a council is held at which the claims for 
blood fines, &c., are heard and adjusted. Then the prisoners are only 
kept as hostages till the amount has been paid. 

A computation is generally made of the losses on either side by death, 



44 THE FELLAHHEEN OF PALESTINE. 

wounds, &c., &c., and the balance is paid to the victors. A truce is 
then made, or terms of peace adjusted. Of course, if the victory has 
not been decisive the fightmg is continued — sometimes for weeks, some- 
times for months, and even from one season to another — with intervals 
of formal truce, made and respected by both parties, in order to allow of 
crops being sown or reaped. 

Fewer lives are lost in these fights than might be expected. There is 
but little deliberate aim taken. Most of the Fellahheon think it wrong to 
aim at the sheikh, and the casualties occur chiefly during a general melee 
or charge, or the storming of a rising ground, sometimes, though more 
rarely, in assault on a village. 

The dead are buried by their own relations as soon as possible after 
the engagement. But it sometimes happens, esp ecially in the Nablus 
district, and we have also known it in the B'lad Arkob among the Beni 
Hassan, that the dead are injured after battle by their enemies. This 
only happens when bad passions have been called out by long-continued 
war or in retaliation for special acts of ferocity. A peculiarly savages 
and vindictive enemy will not only cut his fallen foe to pieces, but wUl 
prevent his burial, causing the body to be exposed to the sun by daj- 
and to the dews and cold of night. Sometimes the removal of the dead 
is not permitted, but a grave is dug on the spot where the man feU, and 
a cairn of stones is raised to mark the spot. This is sometimes done in 
cases of assassination, whether the deed was done to avenge a blood 
feud or gratify private enmity. But commonly the slain are taken to 
their own village by the relations, and there honourably buried amid 
the lamentations of the women. 

The amount of the blood fine, according to fellahh usage, is 
4,000 piastres for a man, and 2,000 for a woman (about £35). Accord- 
ing to the law of the Kadi in the city, the amount is much greater — even 
30,000 piastres — but in this, as in many other things, such as calculation 
of taxes and government dues, the fellahh proverb holds good — 

' ' Fee f ark bain 

Hhusab es-scrai 
Wa-Hhusab el kurai " 

( ' ' There is a difference between palace-reckoning and village-reckoning "). 
According to the Fellahheen, " Seraglio (Palace) Law " is " no law." 
In various cases that we obseiwed, the pasha for the time being 
happening to be strong and vigorous, imposed the blood fine, 
according to the Government Seraglio code. But this arrangement only 
lasted at th& most till liis time had expired ; or till from some other cause 
the Turkish Government became weak. The Fellahheen, then taking 
advantagf! of the want of power manifested by the Tui'kish authorities, 
reverted to their own more ancient system. Those upon whom the blood 
fine had been imposed, and who had very rarely paid more than an 
instalment of the amount, refused to pay more than their own code re- 
quired of them; and those on the opposite side, who had been compelled 



THE FELLAHHEEN OF PALESTINE, 45 

to compound with their adversaries, and to accept money for life, or, as 
they would phrase it, for " blood," now seized the opportunity of vindi- 
cating their " honour " by exacting " blood " besides, and by slaughtering 
on that pretext any male relations of the man who had killed their rela- 
tion, if they were unable to fall iu "w-ith the criminal himself. They 
would often justify this procedure by means of a technical point. To 
make an arrangement by blood-fine valid, there should be " guarantors 
of the pajTuent " [Kufalah ed-defa), also " guarantors of the prohibition " 
(to shed blood), and further, " Asliah el Arood." In the absence of 
these (whom the Turkish oflficials, as being ignorant of native rules, had 
of course omitted to appoint), the avengers of blood claim the right to 
treat the compromise by mere payment of money as null and void, in- 
formal and invalid. Where all those persons have been duly appointed, 
the opposite party cannot exact blood for blood. Each of the guaran- 
tors is entitled to a fee : so that the expense of settlement is considerable. 
Should the person slain happen to have been a woman, the expense in- 
volved in the settlement is greater than in the case of a man, especially if she 
be a married woman ; for in that case the slayer must provide another wife 
for her husband, as well as a wife for her brother or her nearest male rela- 
tion. If she was unmarried, he has only to provide a wife for the nearest 
relation, and this, of course, lessens the expense. 

But even after all this has been done, blood is sometimes exacted, and 
this by treachery, and it is supposed that the person thus acting is only 
vindicating his honour in taking life for life. 

Cases have been known in which after the Deeyeh has been formally 
paid and accepted by a man for the murder of his brother, and after he 
had been apparently reconciled to the murderer, saying, "What has 
happened has happened ; my brother has gone, let us be friends ; " and 
all seemed to be settled and over, the avenger even going so far as to 
stay with his quondam enemy ; that he would arrange ^\•ith a friend who 
is trusty and able to keep his secret, to come at night in the dark and 
try to break open the door, the first man rushed out as if to di-ive off the 
intruder — who was informed where and how to fire — and killed the enemy, 
while the avenger of blood — the relation and instigator of the treachery — 
tore his garments, and pretented to deplore the sad event, and escaped 
suspicion, or at least punishment. 

If the Bethlehemites who are Fellahheen kill a Ta'amri, it is not usual 
to j>a.j Deei/eh (" blood fine") according to fellahh code, but Khuwweh 
(" dues of brotherhood "), according to Bedawy or wild Arab code. For 
the Ta'amri, though cultivators of the soU, have among them many 
Bedawy usages. 

Eedress, or at least the payment of a fine, is considered to be due for 
bloodshed, even when injury short of actual loss of life has been inflicted.* 

Until lately, if a man was pursued by the avenger of blood, and was 

* The Thar, or "blood revenge," is obligatoiy upon relatives of the slain to 
the fifth degree of consanguinity. 



46 THE PELLAHHEEN OF P^VLESTINE. 

trjTng to escape, he was safe if lie could succeed in catching hold of the 
dress of any woman, even though she might be his own wife. But times 
are altered, and that would probably be disregarded now. But a man 
in such circumstances could save himself even at the last moment by 
crying out, " I am the BtdieeV (" one who has entered the abode of") 
" So-and-so," invoking some powerful person or one of high rank, whose 
protection is at once secured by the bare fact that he has been thus 
called upon. It is then accounted as if the fugitive had actually entered 
(dakhal) or taken sanctuary in the camp or in the abode of that person. 
(Compare -with this usage the verse, " The name of the Lord is a strong 
tower; the righteous runneth into it and is safe.") Supposing, however, 
that the pursuers disregarded the appeal, and slay their victim after all, 
pajdng no heed to the fact that he has invoked the aid of a protector, 
the personage called upon has certain rights which he must exercise, and 
duties which he must perform. Before the victim is slain he will call 
on some bystander in these words, " Ana dakheel fulan, el amaneh 
andak," " I am the Daklied {'' 2)7-oteije") of So-and-so — this trust is with 
thee," meaning that he, the dying man, has committed to the other as a 
trust the duty of going and reporting to the protector invoked that his 
jirotege had been killed m despite of the honour of his name. The 
bystander is bound to accept, even against his will, the trust laid upon 
him. To be faithless to an amdueh ("trust") is a sin unpardonable in 
this world and in the world to come. " Khayin el amaneh. Wa naku" el 
wadda" — " the breaker of a trust and the denier of a deposit" {i.e., he 
who denies that he has a deposit left in his safe keeping), is the most 
infamous character that can be given to the vilest of men. 

When the news reaches the oars of him who was invoked, he has the 
right of assembling all his allies to help him in vindicating his honour. 
" AVho is on my side r — who ? " is the cry with which he calls upon theui 
to arise and join their forces with his. According to the unwritten code 
of honom- by which these matters are determined, the aflfronted chieftain 
should now ride to the place wher<' his protege was slain, and should 
exact vengeance duiing three days and a third by killing every male and 
taking all their property. The offenders have no right afterwards to 
claim either revenge for blood or the price of blood, nor the value of 
their property — all is forfeited and lost. At the end of the three days 
and a third, the relatives of the man who was slam (the j^iroteijc) -pat up 
a white flag in honour of the protector who has thus avenged then- 
loss and vindicated the honour of his own name. Those who 
remain alive of the ofi'cnding jnirty arc now safe in returning to gather 
up whatever may be left of their propertj-, or those of their people who 
may have escaped with their lives. Justice and honour are considered to 
have be(in satisfied. 

The privileges of "sanctuary" arc universally recognised. A jjerson 
may either claim " sanctuary " or protection from a person as in the case 
above described, or from God or some saint by resorting to th(^ mosque 
or Makdni ("Place") dedicated to the saint. Stores of grain or fruit, and 



THE FELLAnnEEN OE PALESTINE. 47 

even valuables, arc sometimes deposited within some sanctuary vmder the 
supposed guardianship of the saint, and things thus deiDosited are safe. 

We had once an interesting case of some F(!llahheen (members of the 
family of one of the chiefs in the district) seeking sanctuary in the house 
of a British subject, Mr. Meshullam, in the valley of Urtas, near 
Bethlehem. They barely succeeded in crossing the threshold, or rather 
in falling over and within it, so close were the pursuers with drawn 
swords behind them — so close that one of Meshallam's servants got a 
sword-cut by accident from one of the enemy, in theii- pell-mell eagerness 
to come up -with their intended victims. But the sanctuary was respected ; 
the open door was not violated, or the threshold crossed, and the refugees: 
were sheltered until the affaii- was so far settled that they coiUd leave 
without danger to Hfe. They then acknowledged the kindness shown to 
them, according to the custom of the country. Taking leave vsrith great 
ceremony, they set out for their own village, parading a white flag on a 
pole (it is sometimes tied to a spear), amid rejoicings and the firing of 
guns, and proclaiming as they went, "Here goes the honour, 'the 
white ilag,' for Meshallam. May God increase his good," &c., &c. Thus 
all the country round was informed that the appeal for refuge and 
protection had been duly met. They then invited their late host to a 
feast specially prepared for him. 

But had the latter failed in his duties, or in honourable treatment of 
his guests, or in any way broken faith or trust %vith them, a black flag 
would have been hoisted instead of the white one, and would have been 
carried through the district amid jeers and curses, as representing the 
(^i/s-honour of the offenders. His name would thenceforward be a scorn and 
a by-word among men. We knew of a similar instance in which the black 
flag was put up over the Khan at Solomon's Pools. Proclamation wa& 
at the same time made aloud, '• Here is the honour of Sheikh So-and-so, 
oi So-and-so ; and this disgi-ace will cleave to him unless he make 
amends, and thus repair the good name he has lost." A black-and-white 
dog with a black tip to his tail was then taken and publicly named after 
the offender. The news spread all over the country, and he became a 
proverb even to his own slaves. " Sheikh So-and-so a man ! Let him go 
and make his honom- white; let him go and take his name off that 
black-and-white dog — then v/ill Ave hear what he has to say. Till then 
who will receive his testimony or acceiDt his suretyship ? " 

To take and give suretyship is very common in all kinds of transac- 
tions among both the Fellaheen and the Arabs. 

Not only is a liafed (or rather more than one kafeel) requii-ed in 
transactions involving the payment of money, but in many other things, 
the performance of a promise, the carrying out of a contract, the execu- 
tion of any stipulated agreement ; all these are very commonly 
strengthened by the nomination of sureties, '' Jcn/alah" on either side, 
for the parties engaged. No man is considered worthy to be a l-afoel, 
unless he has good reputation for honour and honesty, and he must 
moreover be competent to execute his obligations if necessary, or power- 



48 THE FELLAHHEEN OF PALESTINE. 

fill enough to oblige the person for whom he has given his kufdlah 
(" suretyship "), to fulfil his agreement, whatever it may be. 

A builder will give the guarantee of sureties for the due completion of 
his contract. A seller, for the strict observance of the terms of the sale. 
The parties to a truce after war, or a treaty or agreement of peace, each 
give the guarantee of responsible kufalah that all will be done as has 
been stipulated. 

It is considered an honour to be nominated hifeel, or surety for a 
personage of importance. Cases sometimes occur where such a person 
will reply when the opposite side say, " Who will be thy l-a/eel ?"— 

"lamw^ own kafeel." The words sound haughty, but a man of 
position would scorn to break the guaranty thus given, and he woiddbe 
eternally disgraced if he were to do so. 

The suretyship is not always given in writing, though that is the 
usual form, by writing the name and affixing the seal to the document, 
whatever it may be. But it is quite enough if a person declare himself 
before witnesses to be kafeel. He is as much bound to fulfil the obliga- 
tions as if he had set his seal to the contract. 

And how if a man breaks a trust ? was a question which we asked of 
our native friends one day. The reply was as follows :— 

" In case of a man (among either Bcdaween or Fellahheen) breaking 
trust in regard to a sum of money deposited with him (God forgive us 
for thinking of such a thing I), he would be brought before a judge, who 
would ask him the reason. 

" Hunger would not be accepted as a sufficient reason, but he might be 
excused if he would prove that it had been taken from him by violence 
of enemies, or by Turkish soldiers ; but this would have to be fully proved. 

"In all other cases he would have to repay fourfold, and he and all 
his posterity would be stigmatised ^^•ith the name of ' Khayin amanet-ho' 
('He who betrayed his trust'). And no character can be given viler 
than this to even the meanest of men." 



SUEZ AND ITS DESERT. 
Xotes by Mr. William Andrews, of the Peninsular and Oriental Company. 

The desert near Suez is extremely arid ; the rainfall is very small, 
and the sky rarely clouded. In summer the air becomes intensely heated, 
and owing to the great dryness of the climate desiccation is rapid, a dead 
camel drying up before the vultures can dispose of it. 

Before the canal was made, the only drinking water was from brackish 
wells at distant intervals, and there was no agricidtural class amongst 
the inhabitants, vegetables and fruit b(nng brought from Cairo. After 
the completion of the sweet-water canal, cultivation commenced, and 
the o-ardens now cover 40 or 50 acres of land bordering the canal, sometimes 
beneath its level and sometimes above. The gardens are let out in 



SUEZ AND ITS DESERT, 49 

patches of from one quarter of an aero to six acres at rents, in tlio 
form of taxes to Government, of from £1 to £o per acre. 
Latterly, land at a distance from Suez has been taken u^^ ui:)on the verbal 
promise of some official that it Avill be free from taxation for seven years, 
but this promise appears lively to be broken, and the poor but deserving 
cultivators declare that they will give it up should a threatened taxation 
be imposed upon them. 

Several acres of the cultivated gTound are covered with luxuriant crops 
of white clover, and between January and May no less than eight cut- 
tings are obtained from it. Lettuce, cauHflowers, cabbage, turnips, 
carrots, beetroot, cucumbers, celery, &c., grow well, and are supplied to 
the shipping. 

The maritime and sweet- water canals have had no appreciable effect on 
the cHmate of Suez ; the annual rainfall seldom exceeds one and a half 
inches, and m some gardens does not reach half that amount. The ranges of 
Jebel Attaka and Jebel Tih are subject to a heavier rainfall ; their 
ravines show evidence of fearful torrents ; fig trees grow out of the rocks, 
and a line of desert vegetation follows the bed of each watercom^se. In 
March, 1874, the summits of those mountains, and of ranges down the 
Eed Sea were covered with snow, a sight unprecedented in the history of 
Arab tradition, and at mid-day from the plains of Suez, a cataract of 
many hundred feet in height may be seen pouring from the cliifs on the 
Attakas. A week later, while on a visit there, an insect would. have 
perished of drought. 

In October, 1877, a day without rain, but with thmider- clouds around, 
the outskirts of Suez, about nine o'clock in the evening, were alarmed by a 
flood dehberately and effectively makuig its way over the desert, regard- 
less of gardens and huts, towards the sea. Some 200 of the latter collapsed 
under the solution of their mud foimdations. Not only was a large 
portion of the railway swept away, but the flood cut into the fresh-water 
canal, and instead thereby of emptying it, filled it to overflowing, making 
it a channel for its waters. This torrent was generated at the Gineffe 
mountains, about twenty-five miles inland, and the dry desert has no 
absorption, but is a famous river bed ; but fresh water for some weeks 
after was undrmkable m its brackishness. 

Eeferring agam to the fertihty of the soil, I must observe that pre- 
liminary washing is necessary to carry off the surplus salt, or to raise it 
to the siu'f ace and then decompose it. I presume, when it loses its savour, 
as it does under a bui-ning sun, it is good for the dunghill, and for its 
influence on crops. Nor in levelling the land, as is sometimes necessary, 
does the subsoil present any inferiority of fertility ; the gravelly portions 
alone seem to have the power of resisting the fructifying influences of the 
smi and water. 

As a specimen of an arid desert, probably the plains of Suez are 
imequalled. Only slightly above sea-level, with the Gibel Attaka on 
the west and Gibel Tih in the east, it is subject to the minimum of rain- 
fall and basks in a rarely clouded sky, every pebble and stone on its 



50 SUEZ ANl) ITS liESEBT. 

sui-face radiating heat until the aii* becomes intensely heated, and on fi 
hot summer day it is enHvened. each morning by whirhvinds of sand, 
Although not sandy as a rule, each stone on its gravelly sui-face has its 
sloping line of accmnulated sand in reserve for the sj)ort of the north 
or south-winds, as they occasionally get up a storm, obscuring the sun 
and the sky with their clouds of impalpable dust. The dead camel 
desiccates in a few days under the extraordinary dryness of the air, even 
before the vultui'e has time to fulfil its sanitary mission. Water there 
was none except of the most brackish nature in wells dug at distant 
intervals. 

However, as isthmus- cutting became the order of the French mind — ■ 
as it Was the bugbear of the EngHsh — so Suez, as a preliminary process, 
had the sweet waters of the Nile brought to its door by means of a 
canal. Being a seaport, and its inhabitants of the coolie class, the 
agricultural element was wanting to utilise the advantage for some 
years. Vegetables and fruit reached us by rail from Cairo. As the 
Maritime Canal, however, was completed and bad times set in for Suez, 
necessity drove a few of the natives to the banks of the fresh-water 
canal to eke out a few onions and a little salad for daily bread, and the 
ships' demands for such articles stirred up enterprise. The gardens now 
extend to about 40 or 50 acres, bordering the canal — some beneath its 
level and some above — in patches let out to various holders of from 
1 quarter acre to 6 acres, and at rents, in the name of taxes to Govern- 
ment, for from £1 to £o per acre. Latterly, more distant land along the 
canal has been taken up upon the verbal promise of some official that it 
Avill bo free from taxation for seven years, but this pronuse appears 
likely to bo broken, and its poor but deserving cultivators declare 
, that they will give it up should a threatened taxation be imposed upon 
them. 

I have seen many lands known as sterUe, but nothing equal to thig 
desert ; and I have seen many crops known as luxui-iant, but nothing 
equal to the Bm-selem or white clover which now covers acres of this 
ground. Between January and May about eight cuttings of this crop 
are obtained, and its solid green mass is a delight to the eye. Lettuce 
seems the next most suitable vegetable, but there is no lack of excellent 
specimens of cauliflowers, cabbage, tui-nips, carrots, beets, cucumbers, 
Celeiy, &c., &c. English peas are one continual crop duiing the winter 
inonthf. 

The soil is calcareous, and gypsum is a favourite of all clover plants, 
and hence its fertility. Some credit, however, must be given to the 
cesspools of Suez^the accumulations of generations — and these find 
outlet now to the gardens of the canal to the double advantage of the 
town. 

As regards the climate of Suez, not the fresh- water canal, nor the 
Maritime Canal, nor the limited vegetation, has exercised any appreciable 
influence. The rainfall seldom exceeds 1.] inches per annum, and often 
not half that amount. Doubtless the Gibel Attaka and Gibel Tih have 



YlSlT OF BONDMl TO JEKUSALEM. ol 

lieavy rainfalls, but not so the plain of Suez. The ravines in these 
mountains at all times of my visit were as dry as a bono, showing 
evidence in their piled up boulders of fearful torrents, and fig trees gi'oW 
out of the clefts of these rocks, and a line of desert vegetation follows 
the course of their wadies. 



THE VISIT OF B0N(3MI, CATHEEWOOD, AND AEIJNDALE 
TO THE HARAM ES SHERIFF AT JERUSALEM IN 1833. 

The Quarterly Statement for April last noticed the death of Mr. 
Joseph Bonomi, and it contained some details of the visit which he 
made to Jerusalem in 1833 with Catherwood and Arimdale. According 
to the paragraph it is made to appear that although Mr. Bonomi had 
visited the Haram in the dress of a Mahomedan pilgrim, he was unable 
to do anything, and that he and Arundale only assisted Mr. Catherwood, 
who introduced them into the Mosque for that purpose. Mr. Bonomi's 
diary, written at the time, has been placed in my hands for the purpose 
of writing a memoir of his life, and judging from the entries in it, the 
above statements scarcely seem to convey the exact facts of the case. As 
the Work of these three gentlemen at that time may be called the starting- 
point of our reliable knowledge of the Haram es Sheriff, a few 
i^xtracts from Mr. Bonomi's diary may be worth giving as 
bearing on that subject ; at the same time they give information 
which is interesting in itself, and as a record of what may be 
now called "early explorations" in that spot they possess some 
value. It may be here premised that Bonomi had been, at the date 
when he went to Jerusalem, a good many years in Egypt, and had 
acquired Arabic so that he was able to speak it freely ; he had also 
adopted an Eastern costume and lived in many respects the same as the 
people around him. This had made him familiar with their habits, as 
well as with the forms of their faith, and on coming to Jerusalem he 
took advantage of it as giving him a chance of getting an entrance to 
the Haram, which was difficult as well as dangerous for non- 
Mahomedans to attempt. At first he seems to have avoided being seen 
in. the company of Catherwood and Arundale, as well as of others who 
were known as "Erangis" and Christians; and he appears to have 
succeeded so well, and passed for such a good Mussulman, that an old 
man asked him to stay there and marry his daughter. On Tuesday, 
15th October, 1833, there is an entry in the diary that Mr. Bonomi was 
sent for by the Moufti Effendi, who, as weU as those around him, were 
so pleased at inspecting a camera, with which BonomiJ always made hia 
sketches, that he was allowed afterwards to go into "the area of the 
Holy Mosque, walked all round, and made a view of the back of the 
Porta Aurea and a Minaret." This sketch of the Golden Gate is amons 
Mr. Bonomi's papers. A report got current that he had come to draw 



52 VISIT or B3N0MI TO JERUSALEM. 

all the places tTiafc -watited repairs. Bonoini encouraged them in this 
belief, and some of the guardians took him all over the place to show 
him the spots where repairs were required. An entry made two days 
after describes all this, and states that one of the guardians " took me 
into the holy place and under the great stone," — the cave under the 
Sakhra, — " and left me to say my prayers. Unfortunately there was a 
man in this dark room who must have seen my awkwardness, for he 
had been there longer than me, his eyes had become used to the dark, 
and by the time my iris was expanded I had made all the mistakes and 
found this witness of my errors staring at me. What wUl be the con- 
sequence ? Shall I be turned out of the to^vn ? " Bonomi passed a 
sleepless night owing to this adventure, but nothing seems to have 
come of it, for we find him two days later discussing points of 
Mahomedan theology with the Mouf ti Eifendi. Some of those present 
on this occasion seemed to be angry with the Moufti for allowing a man 
born in Frangistan to sit among the select company of his divan ; the 
Moufti felt himself rebuked, and therefore told his friends that although 
" I had the misfortune to be born in Londra I was a Moslem, to which 
my talkative friend bore witness. I took my leave and went into the 
Haram Essiriff, drew a view in which the celebrated cupola is tolerably 
conspicuous, and which I began to colour. Finished a pencil view from 

another point 20th October. Continued my view of the 

Temple (Dome of the Eock) th's morning. While I was working, several 
pilgrims dressed in the costume of the Hejaz were conducted by the 
dervish, crying out as they went hurrying up the steps, ' Ya Beit 
Allah ! Ya Allah ! ' It seems to me part of the ceremony to hurry up 
the steps into the place, perhaps because one should seem desirous to 
enter the house of God as soon as possible." From the diary he seems 
to have gone to the Haram every day, and made his sketches wherever 
he wished. He made sketches of the Dome of the Rock, but he never 
uses that name, he calls it " the Temple " or " the Mosque." Some of 
his drawings of the Dome of the Eock I have seen ; they are still 
in the possession of his family. Later on there are entries of sketching 
the exterior as well as the interior of the Aksa. On the 23rd October 
he states that he ' ' finished the two views of the Temple, and after 
dinner the little church in the corner of the sepulchre. While I was 
drawing a young Turk sat by me some time. He told me the drawing 
was all proper except one part of it, pointing to the figures. I always 
endeavoured to keej) them covered, so I could not work at them, they are 
merely sketched in ; it shows considerable penetration and judgment on 
the part of a Turk to have discovered them to be figures at all. He 
■was a good-natured fellow ; I told him I hoped God would forgive 
me, for he is the Most Merciful, at which he laughed. But the worst 
thing that has happened for my character is the discovery of figures in 
my other drawing, made by the dervish who is the conductor of 
pilgrims to the Beit Allah, so many crimes added to my being the 
associate of Christians who begin to venture to draw within the sacred 



VISIT OF bo:n'omi to jeutjsalem. 53 

enclosure, for Catlierwood went there yesterday evening. The Governor 
saw him and spoke to him familiarly in presence of the dervish, who 
would have turned him out but for the patronage of the great man. 
He is so bold that I think I luust make my escape before any examina- 
tion should take place, for I should be found wanting." A note is added 
to this in the diary, that " Catherwood was within the wall but not on 
the platform of the Temple," meaning not on the platform of the Dome 
of the Eock. 

These quotations are clear evidence that Bonomi got in to the Haram 
under the character which he had assumed, and that he made sketches 
where he desired. Later on he mentions copying ornamental inscriptions 
in the Octagon, and one day " helped to measure the Great Stone." 
No doubt but this is the Sakhra. This and other entries show that he 
assisted his friends when he could be of service ; but that he was 
dependent upon them for facilities, is an idea which does not seem to 
have any probability after these quotations. If Catherwood got in 
under the pretence of measuring the Dome of the Rock by order of 
Mehemet Ali, and with a view to its repair, this was simply carrying out 
the queue started by Bonomi. 

Judging from the extracts I should conclude that Bonomi was the 
■first European who managed to enter the Haram and make sketches 
of the buildings within it. On the other hand, by referring to Mr. 
Fergusson's first work, published in 1S47, it will be found that the 
drawings upon which he founds his theory have attached to them the 
names of Catherwood and Arundale. Hence, whatever merit is due on 
this account, belongs to the work done by them at that time. 

It may be worth stating that Mr. Catherwood afterwards accom- 
panied J. L. Stephens to Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan, and 
made a very extensive series of drawings connected with the archaeology 
of that region, a large number of which are published in Stephen's 
accounts of his travels. Catherwood was lost in the wreck of the 
Arctic in 1854. 

The extracts from Mr. Bonomi's diary tell in a very distinct manner 
what was the feeKng of the Mahomedans at that time in regard to 
Christians entering within the Haram ; and by contrasting it with the 
present state of things we see a great advance which has been made, 
leading us to hope that more will yet be gained, and that the prejudices 
which still stand in the way of excavations in the Haram will at last be 
overcome, and those explorations which are so essential to clear up the 
questions connected with it will some day or another be permitted. 

William Simpson. 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION EUND: 

A SOCIETY FOR THE ACCURATE AND SYSTEMATIC INVESTIGATION" OF 
THE ARCHEOLOGY, THE TOPOGRAPHY, THE GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL 
GEOGRAPHY, THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS, OF THE HOLY LAND, 
FOR BIBLICAL ILLUSTRATION. 



PATRON : 
HEE MAJESTY THE QUEEN. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE : 
ARCHBISHOP OF YORK, President. 



Dr. H. W. Acland, F.R.S. 

Rev. W. Lindsay Alexander, D.D. 

Rev. Henry Allon, D.D. 

TiiePresident OF THE American Association 

W. Amhurst T. Amherst, Esa. 

Capt. Anderson, R.E., C.M.G. 

Rev. Joseph Angus, D.D. 

Duke op Argyli, K.T. 

Rev. Joseph Barclay, LL.D. 

James Bateman, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Rev. Canon Birch 

Samuel Birch, Esq., LL.D., D.C.L. 

Rev. W. F. Birch 

Rev. H. M. Butler. D.D. 

Marquis of Bute, K.T. 

Archbishop op Canterbury 

Earl op Carnarvon 

T. Chaplin, Esq., M.D., lion. Sec. for 

Jerusalem 
Bishop of Chester 
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Dean of Christchurch 
Lord Alfred Churchill 
Lord Clermont 
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Lieut. Condeu, R.E. 
John Cunliffe, Esq. 
Duke of Devonshire, K.G., F.R.S. 
Earl of Ducie 
W. Hepworth Dixon, Esq. {Chairman of 

Executive Committee) 
Professor Donaldson 
Earl of Duffkrin, K.P., K.C.B. 
P. A. Eaton, Esq. 
S. Jackson Eldridoe, Esq.. Beprout 
Sir IIoward Eldunstone, K.C.B. 
Bishop of Exeter 
Rev. Canon Farrj^r, D.D. 
James Ferqusson, Esq., F.R.S. 
A. Lloyd Fox 
H. W. Freeland, Esq. 
M. C. Clermont-Ganneau 



F. "Waymouth Gibbs, Esq., C.B. 
Rev. C. D. Ginsburg, LL.D. 
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Right Hon. Sir A. H. Layard, K.C.B. 
Sir F. Leighton, P.R.A. 
General Lefroy 

Rt. Hon. Lord Henry Lennox, M.P. 
Professor Hayter Lewis 
Bishop of Lichfield 
Dean of Lichfield 
Bishop of Llandaff 
Samuel Lloyd, Esq. 
Bishop of London 
John MacGregor, Esq. 
W. McArthur, Esq., M.P. 
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sul, Jerusalem 
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W. Morrison, Esq. (Treasurer) 
Rev. J. Mullens, D.D. 
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Sir Charles NicnoLsoy, Bart. 
Duke of Northumberland 

i' 



'General Committee {continued) — 

Dean of Norwich 

Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommanney 

Professor Owen, C.B., F.R.S. 

Professor E. H. Palmer 

Bishop of Peterborough 

Sir S. Morton Peto, Bart. 

Rev. E. H. Plumptre 

Rev. Professor Porter, LL.D. 

Rev. C. Pritchard, F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. Pusey, D.D. 

Mator-Gevj. Sir Henry Rawlinson.K.O.B., 

F.R.S. 
Rev. Professor Rawlinson 
Henry Reeve, Esq., C.B. 
Marquis of Ripon, K.G. 
Bishop of Ripon 
Bishop of Rochester 
De. Sandreczky 

Rt. Hon. Viscount S.vndon, M.P. 
M. De Saulcy 
Lord Hexrt J. M. D. Scott, M.P. 



Earl of Shaftesbury, K.G. 
William Simpson, Esq., F.Ii.G.S. 
William Smith, Esq., LL.D. 
W. SroTTiswooDE, Esq., F.R.S. 
Major R. W. STE^vART, R.E. 
Rev. John Stoughton, D.D. 
Viscount Stratford de Redcliffb, 

K.G., G.C.B. 
Duke of Sutherland, K.G. 
Lord Talp.ot de Malahide 
"William Tipping, Esq. 
Rev. Canon Tristram, LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. S. AV. Vaux, Esq., F.R.S. 
The Count de Vogue 
Colonel Warren, R.E., C.M.G. 
Dean of Westminster, F.R.S. 
Duke of Westminster, K.G. 
Major Wilson, R.E., O.B., F.R.S. 
George Wood, Esq. 
Bishop of Winchester 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 
W. HEPWORTH DIXON, Esq., Cludrmaii. 



Captain Anderson, R.E., C.M.G. 
Samuel Birch, Esq., LL.D. 
J. D. Grace, Esq. 
F. A. Eaton, Esq. 
James Glaisher, Esq., F.R.S. 
■George Grove, Esq., D.C.L. 
Samuel Gurney, Esq. 
Rev. F. W. Holland 



H. A. Harper, Esq. 

John MacGregor, Esq. 

Walter Morrison, Esq. 

William SixMpsox, Esq. 

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W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., F.R.S. 

Major Wilson, R.E., C.B., F.R.S. 



..Ba/iA;er5— Messrs. Coutts and Co., 59, Strand. The Union Bank of London, Charing 

Cross Branch, 66, Charing Cross. 

Treasurer — Walter Morrison, Esq. 

Hon. Secretaries — Rev. F. W. Holland, and George Grove, Esq., D.C.L. 

.Acting Secretary — Walter Besant, Esq. Office, 11 and 12, Charing Cross, S.W. 



'Cheques and P.O. Orders payable to order of Walter Besant, Esq. It is particularly 
requested tliat both cheques and orders may be crossed to Coutts and Co., or to the Union 
Bank of London, Charing Cross Branch. Post Office Orders may be made payable at 
Charing Cross. 



.NOTE.— The Price of the "Quartej-ly Statement' 

Sent free to Subscribers. 



is Half-a-Crown. 



'Quarterly Statement, April, 1879.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

The reduction of the small map makes satisfactory progress. It is expectel 
that the outline Avill be completed in July, after which the hill work will, be 
takeu in hand. Tlie memoirs are in Major Wilson's hands. Ko time will now 
be lost in printing tliem and preparing the illustrations. 

An impression seems to have got abroad that with the completion of the 
field-work ceases the necessity for funds. The fact has been already pointed 
out in these Notes that it will cost as much to publish the materials in hand as 
to keep the expedition for two years in the field. The Survey cannot be called 
complete until the whole of these materials are published. 

The Treasurer's Statement for the year 1878 is as follows :— 

"The income of the Fund was less in 1878 than in 1877 by more than a thou- 
sand pounds. In this period of general depression every society shows a similar 
falling-ofi in support. A special cause for the decrease in our own case seems 
to be, however, a prevalent belief that the work is completed. The Survey of 
^Vestern Palestine has, it must be remembered, to be published, and the cost of 
publication will probably be equivalent to the expense of maintaining an expedi- 
tion in the field for two years. Again, while there is no exploring party in Pales- 
tine, no donations come in, and the Committee have to rely on the annual sub- 
scriptions. These continue pretty steady, and show little if any decrease. 

" As regards the expenditure, there is an apparent increase in the management 
expenses, which is partly due to the fact that at the beginning of the year the 
sum of fifty pounds was owing to the account of the salary. The publica- 
tion of Tent Worlc also caused a very large increase in the 'parcels' account. 
Printing and postage amounting to twenty per cent, of the whole is due almost 
•entirely to the Qxtartcdy Statement, and must be regarded as .so much money 
■returned to subscribers. The item of unpaid acounts, including a heavy charge 
•on Tent Work, has been reduced since the beginning of the year by the sum 
of £532 9s. 8d. It is hoped that by the end of April the debt will be entirely 
wiped off. 

" As regards the expenditure of the'present year, we have, after payment of out- 
standing liabilities, most of which (March 2'>) are already paid, to proTide for 
the publication of the memoirs, the large map, and the small map. In other 
words, the Committee liave to take upon themselves the very serious responsibility 
of printing, engraving, and publishing the mass of materials which tlie work of 
tlie last seven years has placed in their hands," 



56 NOTES AND NEWS. 

The special appeal made for the proposed Galilee Expedition was not con- 
tinued because it was found that the expedition could not be sent out at the 
time originally proposed. The Committee have placed the sum.s subscribed in 
answer to their first call, amounting to £186 5s. Od., on deposit account. It 
Avill be used for no other purpose. 



About one hundred and eighty copies still remain of the new edition of Tenf 
JTork in Palestine. It is not likely that another library edition will be issued. 
Subscribers, therefore, who wish to possess this record of work and observation^, 
should send in their names at once. 

Work in Syria has again occupied the attention of the Eoyal Institute of 
British Architects, Mhose Council have presented their gold medal to the Coujit 
de A''ogiie for his researches in the Hauran. 



The fourth number of the Transactions of the German Palestine Exploration 
Association has just been issued. It completes the first volume. The contents 
of this ]iumber are a continuation of the Pilgrimage of Duke Frederick II. of 
Liegnitz and Brieg to the Holy Land ; the description of the Temple by Philip 
de Aversa ; a paper on Capernaum by Professor Schaff, of New York, which we 
hope to translate for the next number ; a note on the Birthplace of the Prophet 
Xalmm, and a chapter on David's Tours, by Herr Schick. 



A work of research and interest on the "Life and Times of Abraham" 
(Samuel Bagster and Sons) has been published by the Pwcv. H. G. Tomkins. 
The author has gathered together all the information recently acquired 
from the tablets of Babylonia and the hieroglyphs of Egypt, and published 
in the Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archfeology, in the "Piccords 
of the Past," in our own Quarterly Statements, by ]\I. Lenormant, Dr. Birch, 
Kev. Prof. Sayce, ]\I. Chabas, and others. The aim of the writer has been 
to present faithfully the surroundings of Abraham, the peoi^le among whom 
he lived, their manners, customs, religion, and laws. 



We may also call attention to a popular account of the Moabite Stone, called 
' ' Moab's Patriarchal Stone," which has been published by the Kev. James King, of 
Darlington, one of the authorised lecturers of the Society. The book, without 
pretending to the scholarship which distinguished Dr. Ginsburg's work on the 
same subject, gives all the information on the stone that can be desired in a 
popular volume. The history of the original discovery, the destruction, and 
restoration of the fragments, is a well-known and often-told story, which is 
here related with great clearness and in sufficient detail. A short treatise will be 
found in the work on the origin and development of alphabets. 



"We have received n second paper from Mrs. Finn on the Fellahheen of Pales- 
tine, which is published in the present number of the Quarterly Statement. 
Although I\Irs. Finn has for the present ceased to hold meetings for the Society, 
her interest in the work still continues. These chapters oh the habits and 
customs of the people are destined to form part of a forthcoming work on the 
same subject. 

A model of Herod's Temple, executed by lilr. J. M. Tenz, has been presented 
by him to tlie Society. The modeller has adopted the traditional view of the 
position of the Temple, and has attempted to present a restoration of all the 



NOTES AND NEW8, ^7 

chambers, vaults, gates, and corridors described by Joseplms and Ezekiel. The 
model may be seen in the Society's room at the South Kensington Museum. - 



It is again suggested to subscribers that the safest and the most convenient 
manner of pa^'ing a subscription is by aueaiis of a bank. Many subscribers have 
adopted, this method recommended in the Quarfcrlij Statement of January last. 
Among ether advantages, this method removes the danger of loss or miscarriage, 
and saves the Society's office the labour and expense of ackno-\vledgment by 
■official receipt and letter. 

We repeat wliat we said in the Notes of the Qua/rtcrhj Statement for January, 
1879, that the payment of subscriptions carlij in the year greatly strenghtens tlie 
hands of the Committee. 



Subscriliers vrho do not receive the Quaiicrl/j Statement regularly are asked to 
send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward the periodical to all 
•who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes give rise 
to occasional omissions. 



The income of the Fund from all sources, fronr December 31st, 1878, to JIarch 
11th, 1879, was £783 4s. 3d. The expenditure was as follows :— Reduction of 
debt and liabilities on Tent JForl; £783 6s. 2d ; small amounts paid on explora- 
tion account, £19 15s. 2d. ; rent, lecture account, parcels, postage, salaries, and 
offices, ^202 lis. 3d. 



It has been asked whether, since the Survey is finished, the Quarterly Statt" 
meni will be discontinued. The Survey, as stated above, will be actually com- 
pleted v,-hen it is entirely published, and not before. But its completion does 
not mean the completion of the work of the Society, as reference to the original 
prospectus M'ill show. And there is, more than ever, need of a periodical devoted 
to the special line of research which is the raison (Vetrc of this Quarterly Statement. 
It will therefore be continued as long as the Society exists and there is work of 
-the kind which it represents to be done and reported. 

Several eases have been at various times discovered of postage stamps being 
ilost on their way to the office. The only way to avoid such loss, unless subscrip- 
tions are paid tlirough the bank, is to send money by P. 0.0. or by che(|ue, 
in every case payable to the order of JFalter Besa.nt, Esq., and crossed to Coufts 
and Co., or the Union Bank, Charing Cross Branch. 



The ninth thousand of "Our Work in Palestine " is now ready (price Ss. 6d.), 
and may be ordered of booksellers. This book carries the work down to the 
• oommencement of the Survey, but does not embrace M. Ganneau's discoveries 
nor the results of the Survey itself. 



The following are at present Hepresentatives and Lecturers of the Society, in 
addition to the local Hon. Sees. : — 

Archdeaconry of Hereford : Kev. J. S. Stooke-Vaughan, Wellington Heath 
Vicarage, Ledbury. 



58 NOTES AND NEWS. 

City and iieigliTaourliood of Mancliester : Rev, W. F. Birch, St. Saviour's* 
Eectory. 

Lancashire : Rev. John Bone, St. Tliomas's Vicarage, Lancaster. 

London : Rev. Henry Geary, 16, Somerset Street, Portman Square ; and Llr. 
C. Stuart Lockhart (address at the office). 

Norwich : Rev. W. F. Greeny. 

Suffolk : Rev. F. C. Long, Stow-upland, Stowmarket. 

Peterborough : Rev. A. J. Foster, Farndish Rectory, Wellingborough. 

Worcester : Rev. F. W. Holland, Evesham (Member of General and Executive- 
Committee, and one of the Hon. Secretaries to the Fund). 

Diocese of Ripon : Rev. T. C. Henley, Kirkby Malham Vicarage. 

North AVales : Rev. John Jones, Treborth, Bangor. 

Yorkshire, Durham, and the North: Rev. James King, 13, Paradise Terrace,. 
Darlington. Mr. King has recently returned from the Holy Land ; communi- 
cations for lectures, &c., can be sent to the Office at Charing Cross. 

Scotland.— Rev. R. J. Craig, Dalgetty, Burntisland. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Stakmcnt, the Committee beg it to be distinctly understood that they 
l«ave such proposals to be discussed on their own merits, and that by publishing 
them in the Quarterly Statement the Committee do not sanction or adopt them. 



Annual subscribers are earnestly requested to forward their subscriptions for 
the current year when due, at their earliest convenience, and without waiting for 
application. 

The Committee are always glad to receive old numbers of the Quarterly State- 
ment, especially those which have been advertised as out of print. 

Attention is called to the statement already advertised, that subscribers la 
the Fund are privileged by the publishers to receive both the " Literary Remains 
of the late Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake," and the " Underground Jerusalem " of 
Captain Warren, at reduced rates. The former book will be sent for ten 
shillings, the latter for sixteen shillings, postage paid. But letter asking for 
them must be sent to the office at 11 and 12, Charing Cross onl}'. 

Cases for binding the Quarterly Sl<t'nncnt are now ready, and can be had on 
application to Messrs. R. Bentley and Son, 8, New Burlington Street. They 
are in green or brown cloth, with the stamp of the Society, uniform in 
appearan'ce with "Our Work in Palestine," and are sold at the price of 
eighteenpence. 

Lieut. Kitchener's Guinea Book of Biblical Photographs can be bought at Mr. 
Stanford's establishment, 55, Cluiring .Cross. It contains twelve views, with a 
short account of each. They arc mounted on tinted boards, and handsomely 
bound. 



59 

A JOURNEY ON FOOT THEOUGH AEABIA PETK^EA. 

[A Paper read lefore the Geographical Section of the British Association.^ 
By the Eev. F. W. Hollaxd, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

Eaely in the morning on the 29tli of last March I arrived at Siiez, 
having left London on the evening of the 21st. I had only ten weeks at 
my command ; but allowing a fortnight for the jonmoys out to Suez and 
homo again this \youkI leave me eight weeks, which I hoped would jjrove^ 
sufficient to enable me to accomplish the objects of my expedition, which 
were (1) to examine the sandstone district in the Peninsula of Sinai, 
lying between the ancient Egyptian mining stations of Wady Mugharah 
and Serabit el Kadim, with the view of the possible discovery of other 
Egyptian ruins or inscriptions ; (2) to trace out the various routes that 
the Israelites might have taken on their march northwards from Moimt 
Sinai to Kadesh-Barnea, so as to institute a just comparison between the 
facilities or the difficulties which attend them; (3) to exjilore Jebel 
Mugrah and Ain Kadeis, in the hope of throwing some additional light 
upon the question of the site of Kadesh-Barnea, and the boundary of the 
ancient kingdom of Edom ; and (4) to follow the road from Wady el Aiish 
by the ancient Lake Sorbonis to Kantara, which Brugsch Bey has sug- 
gested as the route v/hich the Israelites took when then they left Egypt. 

Having paid four previous visits to the Penmsula of Sinai, I was 
abeady well known to the Towarah Arabs who inhabit that region, and 
foimd little difficidty in coming to a satisfactory agreement with Sheikh 
Nassar to accompany me with two other Arabs and three camels. As on 
former visits I preferred myself to travel on foot, as more convenient for 
taking notes of the country, and for using the instniments which the 
council of the Eoyal Geographical Society had kindly lent to me. I 
had no other companion or attendant besides my three Bedouin 
Ai-abs. Two of the camels carried my tent, baggage, and provisions for 
two months ; the third one, the Sheikli, and the Arabs' supply of corn. 

On Sunday evenmg, March 31st, I walked quietly down to the Wells 
of Moses, to which place I had sent on my camels, and the next day I 
faiiiy started on my desert joui-ney. On reaching Wady Gharundelwe 
fomid that Nassar's tents had been removed here from Wady Nusb, where 
we had expected to find them, and I was compelled to stop one day as 
his guest, so that I did not reach the latter place till Friday. At Wady 
Nusb there are extensive ancient workmgs for manganese and haematite 
iron-ores, but there is no direct communicatiujt- with the tm-quoise mines 
of Serabit el Kadim. Passing over the head of Wady Nusb, where there 
are many Suiaitic inscriptions, and up to the head of Wady Lahyan I 
entered Wady Sahow, and tracmg it down discovered that after running 
in a westerly dii'cction about four miles as a broad open vaUey Avith fine 
seyal trees and much herbage, it changes into a narrow Avinduig rocky 
ravine, enclosed by high granite cliffs, in one place only nine feet wide, 
and finally, below a fall of considerable depth, takes the name of Wady 
Shellal. It is impassable for camels, but a footpath leads down it. The, 



60 A JOUKNEY ON FOOT THROUGH ARABIA PETR^EA. 

mouth of Wady Sliellal is weU kno^^^l, since the usual road to Wady 
Mokatteb leads past it, but the origin of its name, " The VaUey of 
Cataracts," so-called from the faU which I have mentioned, and its 
connection with Wady Sahow has not, I behove, before been traced. 

I found extensive turquoise mines in "Wady Sahow ia full work by the 
Arabs, but there were no traces of ancient workings, or Egyptian 
inscriptions; nor is there any du-ect road down Wady Sahow to Wady 
Mugharah, as I had been led to expect. 

I returned by Wady Lahyan to Serabit el Kadim, and stopping there 
two days had an opportunity of thoroughly exploring the ancient 
Eo-yptian mines on that mountain, and quite satisfied myself that they 
were worked for turquoise only. The Arabs still work these mines, and 
as at W. Mugharah have destroyed by blasting many of the hieroglyphic 

inscriptions. 

On leaving Serabit el Kadim I followed the usual road by Wadics 
Kamileh and Bark, and the pass of Nukb Howa, to Jebel Musa, which I 
reached on April 14th. 

I stayed here one day, ascending the mountain and renewing my 
acquaintance with the monks at the convent of St. Katharine. On the 
14th I started onwards to trace the route of the Israelites northwards to 

Kadesh. 

Crossing over the mountains from W. er Kahab to W. Tlah I descended 
that valley, and then turning to the east, tip W. Gharbeh, reached el 
Watiyeh, the pass in W. es Sheikh which marks, I believe, the site of 
Eephidim. I thus passed along the northern face of the high mountain- 
ous district, known to the Arabs by the name of El Jibid, and, I think, 
to the Jews of old by that of Horeb, my object being to examine the 
water supply on the north-west of el Watiyeh. My camels I sent round 
by W. es Sheikh. 

The next day I continued eastwards, south of the el Watiyeh range, 
for about four miles, till I reached the heai of W. Sa'al el Reiyan ("the 
watery"), Avhich I traced down to its junction A^th W. Sa'al el Atshan 
(" the thirsty "), which forms the usiud road from Jebel Musa ; I followed 
the course of W. Sa'al to Ervveis el Ebeirig, from which point I crossed 
over north-east to W. Murrah. 

I had before explored W. Sa'al el Atshan, and the other Avadies to the 
south, and am of opinion that all these wadies are too narrow, rugged, 
and winding to have formed a road for the passage of the large host of 
the IsraeHtes ; nor can I at all agree with my friend Professor Palmer in 
finding in the numerous heaps of stone at Ervveis el Ebeirig, the traces of 
the Israelitish camp at Kibroth Hataavah, nor, again, do I hold it possible 
to identify Ain Iluthera with Hazeroth ; the names are similar, but the 
difficidties of the route appear to me to place the latter identification 
out f)f the question. 

After joui-noying eustwai'ds to Avithin a few miles of Ain Iluthera I 
retraced my steps to Wady Murrah, which I followed up to its head, and 
ascending the pass of Aragib Eahi, and crossing an elevated sandstone 



A JOURNEY ON FOOT THllOUGII ARABIA PETR.'EA. 61 

plateau, reached Ain el Akhdar, the garJcns of which I had fixed upon 
as a shady and well watered sp^t for resting on Easter-day. I had thus 
examined what I may call the lower range of Jebel et Tih, without find- 
ing any road over it, except a diflficult pass called Xukb Murrah ; and 
having explored on this or in i^rcvious journeys every wady leading 
from Jebel Musa, in the direction of the Gulf of Akaba, I felt convinced 
that all were unsuitable for the passage of the (J'JO,000 men, besides 
women and children, of the Israelites. I had also explored the country 
to the north-west of Ain el Akhdar with similar results. 

On April 22nd, crossing Joufa el Akhdar, the sandstone plateau, which 
lies to the north of the wells, I arrived at a large Arab encampment, 
where I was entertained by Zeid, whom I now took as guide in the 
place of one of my other Arabs. In the afternoon we ascended Nukb 
Dhalal, an easy pass to the top of the mountains, but there was no road 
beyond. There is excellent pasture on the limestone plateau which we 
reached, and the pass is evidently much used, but only for taking the 
flocks and camels to pasture there. Near the head of the pass there are 
some interesting nuwamis, ancient storehouses, or dwellings. 

Towards the north of the plateau of El Joufah is situated a prominent 
conical hill of white sandstone, capped by a hard stratum of limestone 
containing echini and other fossils, and called Galaib. From this I 
obtained bearings to several mountain peaks, the position of which had 
been fixed by the Ordnance Survey. 

The district to the S.E. of Galaib is called Zcranik, and consists 
of an elevated sandstone plateau, to which there is a gradual ascent of 
open ground from W. es Sheikh, and the pass of el Watiyeh. 

From this I descended by W. Dereseyeh over a succession of terraces of 
Avliite sandstone to the head of W. Zelleger. In the former wady we 
■ found a good supply of rain water that had been retained in a large pot- 
hole. There are extensive sand-drifts in the ujjper portion_^of W. Zelleger. 
Plerc bulbs abound, and in January, 18G7, I found large numbers of 
crocuses, whence I believe comes the name Safran, by Avhich this wady 
has somotinics been known. There is also a large quantity of retom or 
Ijroom, with which probably is connected the name of Rithmah, the 
station of the IsraeKtes which stands next to Hazeroth, Avhich latter 
place I am inclined to place on the Joufah plateau, where the ruins of 
ancient enclosures still exist. 

W. Zelleger is a broad valley with a smooth, level bed, running north- 
east between two lines of low mountains, which appear to be very 
rich in pasturage. About twenty miles down it W. Aradeh runs in 
from the south. This is a very large valley, with abundance of 
vegetation. About six miles lower "W. Edeid enters from the north. I 
turned off up this valley in order to visit the pass of Nakb el Mirad, 
which has been described by Professor Palmer. Its rocky bed afforded 
a very bad road for walking, and W. Biyar, which runs into it about 
nine miles up, was no better, and we were heartily glad to reach our 
halting lAace at the wells, which give the valley its name. We found 



62 A JOTJEXEY ON FOOT THROUGH ARABIA PETR.IIA. 

some Ai-abs here v/'atering their flocks and camels and washing their- 
sheop. 

Taking Zeid with me as guide, I walked on to the pass. We reached 
the base of Jebel Ejmeh in an hour, and were just forty minutes in 
ascending to the top. The pass is steep and winding, and impracticable 
for waggons. This and the rocky character of the wadios leading to it 
appear to me to jaut it out of the question as a possible route for the 
Israelites. It is much used by the Arabs, but merely as a road for 
biinging do-\vn the goats and camels from the mountains to water them 
at the weUs. From the summit of J. Ejmeh I obtained a series of 
distant beaiings to J. Katharine and other mountains, and while engaged 
in taking these Zeid was equally busy in manufactuiing a Hint imple- 
ment to cut his toe-nails. 

The wells, of which thei-e were formerly more than a dozen, have 
suffered much from neglect, and two only contained water, but owing 
probably to the accumulation of the droppings of the animals around 
them for many centm-ies the water was very bad. Washing it was easy 
to dispense with, but we had nothing else to drink, and all suffered 
severely. Sheikh Nassar observed ' ' that if my Lord Moses had brought 
the 600,000 Israelites here, they would aU have fallen iU," as we had 
done, and Avas greatly amused at the idea. 

We only stopped one night at the wells, and on reaching the junction 
of AVady Biyar Avith W. Edeid Zeid started off up the latter, and after 
three hours returned Avith a skin of excellent water. 

On reaching Wady ZeUoger we. followed it do^vn to W. el Ain el Elya. 
Here the valley, Avhich has hitherto been broad and open, takes a sharp 
turn to the south through a narroAV rocky ravine. Water is plentiful,, 
though not very good. An easy pass, Nukb el Chlyil, which we Avere 
about half an hour in crossing, brought us again to a succession of broad 
oj)en valleys, and three miles on we reached Wady Sowani. I had 
before travelled from this point up W. Zelleger. I noAv entered upon. 
ncAv ground. In W. Sowani we obtained excellent Avater from some 
holes dug in its bed, and it appeared that in this Avay a A'ery largo- 
supply might easily be obtained both here and also in many other places 
aboA'c a point Avhei-e a large valley is couti'acted by rocks, and thus the 
Avater is brought near the surface. W. SoAvani nms down from J. Ejmeh. 
Wo folloAved up its stony bed for half a mile, and then, tux-ning to the 
right, north-oast, up a narrow gully, crossed a rocky plateau, and 
descended into W. Shebaikheh, where there are many seyal trees and good 
pasturage. Here avo camped for the night, and intended to stop the 
following day, which AA-a.s Sunday, but the number of midges made rest 
impossible, and compelled us to travel on. Passing over some Ioav 
granite hills, beneath a higher range Avhich lay on our left, Ave reached 
W. el Atiyeh, about eight miles distant from W. Sowani. This is a 
bi'oad, opi'u Avady, Avith a smooth graA-elly bed. We entered it opposite 
Jebel Haramat, a large outlying sandstone mountain. 

The road Avhich we had folloAved from W. SoAvani appeared in places 



A JOUKIVEY ON I'OOT THROUGH AltAlJlA PBTK.EA. G3. 

too steep and rocky for the passage of tlic Israelites with their waggons, 
so, taking Zeid with me, I traced down the lower portion of W. el Atiyeh 
to near its junction with AV. Sowani, and found that it afforded a far 
easier road. We rested in W. Sourah, in a small cave in which there A\'as 
a spiing, A\diich formed a j)Ool of delicious water. On returning we 
foUoAved Derb es Sourah, a good road lying between W. el Atiyeh and our 
other route. 

In the afternoon we continued our course north-east up W. el Atiyeh 
to Jebel el Hertc, i^assing on the way a large Arab cemetery. I ascended 
Jebel el Herte, hoping to get a bcaiing to some fixed peak, but in this I 
failed, although I obtained a magnificent view of the surrounding 
country. It is not a high mountain, but from its prominent position is 
seen from far. At the top is a hole surrounded by large stones, as if 
for a beacon fire in old times. I have noticed similar remains on many 
other prominent mountains in that country. North of this point are a 
succession of low ranges of Hmestone mountains, through which the 
wady, which now takes the name of W. el Hessi, runs. As wo ascended 
to a higher level the sim-ounding mountains gradually appeared lower, 
and the country became more open. About fire miles on the name of 
the wady again changed to W. Edwah. Here we tm-ned eastwards up a 
broad valley, still bearing the name of AY. el Hessi, to a well about six 
miles distant, where we obtained Y»'ater. Thus far I had, I believe, been 
following the route taken in 1840 by Baron KoUer from Sinai to Akabah, 
and my names and distances agree faiiiy with his, as given in the Rinjul 
(jh'ocjrapliiful Socifty's Junrmil of 1842. 

Wishing to explore what I believe to have been the route of the Israel- 
ites fiuther noithwards, we retraced our steps to W. Edwah. After 
following this \\]i about four miles, we entered W. Sha'arah. The 
comitry now partook of the character of large rolling plains, with abun- 
dant herbage. I saw many traces of Arab camps, but the dryness of the 
season had driven all the Arabs northwards in search of pasturage ;• the 
herbage Avas very diy, and Ave had- great difidculty in finding sufficient 
food for our camels ; a difficulty that Avas much increased by large flights 
of locusts. After proceeding about fifteen miles further northwards, Ave 
crossed the Avatershed, and entered Wady Meleg, Avhich floAvs toAvards the- 
Arabah. This Avady is a very remarkable one. It has formed a cleft in 
the hard limestone rock 40 to 100 feet deep. In tliis huge pot-holes, 
20 feet or more in diameter, have been made by the boulders. Here the 
Avater lodges in a series of these natural Avells, the sides of Avhich are 
deeply Avorn by the ropes of Avater-draAvers, proving that they have been 
used for many centuries. Zeid informed me that the Avady took the 
names of el Alalik, and Nub'a farther nortliAvards. Yfe reached this 
watering-place about 8.30 on May 1st, and stopped three hours to di-aw 
water and make bread. On starting ouAvards I took Zeid Avith me to 
examine the Wady loAver doAAm. In crossing some lising ground to 
rejoin oiu- camels, avc saAv tAvo Arabs and a camel pass behind a hill 
beyond. We dropped doAvu till they Avcre out of sight, and thfu running 



^4 A JOUEN'EY OX FOOT THROUGH AEABIA PETR-T.A. 

on, stopped our camels, and Nassar and Zeid ascended the hill behind 
which the Arabs had disappeared. They soon returned, and reported 
that we were close upon a large gJm, or raiding expedition. Wo 
instantly tm-ned, and drove back our camels as fast as possible, avoiding 
all soft places that might leave tracks and rising ground. About 4 o'clock 
my Arabs began to breathe more freely, and Ave looked out for camping 
ground, AvhUe Zeid was sent back to try to gain some tidings of the 
direction that the gom was taking. Suddenly Selim exclaimed, ' ' Hero they 
come I " and looldng back I saw two dromedaries carrj-ing four men in 
hot pursuit. "WTaen about 300 yards from us they dismounted, and 
called upon us to surrender, which my sheikh refused to do. They then 
formed in a line, and with lighted matchlocks tried to drive us up a side 
valley. There was much clever manoeuvering on both sides, and a great 
deal of angry gesticulation, shouting, and presenting of guns, our object 
being to gain time for Zeid, whom we saw running up in the distance, to 
reach us. It was neither my inclination nor my policy to fight, so I 
handed my gun to Nassar and walked quietly beside him with my 
umbrella up as a sign that I was a non-combatant, much amused at my 
position, deejjly interested in obserA-ing theii- manner of "attack and 
defence, and determined, when matters had come to a crisis, to claim as 
my escort whichever party Avas Adctorious. At last the raiders had 
approached Avithin 30 yards of us. Nassar loudly appealing to God to 
Avitness betAveen him and them, uoav drcAV a line upon the ground Avith 
my g-un ; this he did throe times, each time retirmg a few steps. Then 
taking his stand at the thii-d lino Avith Selim, they stood A\'ith guns pre- 
sented ready to fire the instant the fii-st line should be crossed . On reaching 
this, the four raiders halted ; and sceuig my English gun, and heaiing 
Zeid running up from behind them, they came to the conclusion that we 
Avere the strongest; so, pulling down the handlferchiefs Avith Avhich their 
faces Avere concealed, they exclaimed Salamak, " Peace bo to you," and 
crossing the lines, my sheikh and theirs, Avho recognised each other, fell 
into each other's arms and kissed ; and then Ave all sat round in a circle 
and heard their story of how they had tracked us from the Avatering- 
j)lace at W. Meleg. They belonged to the tribe of the HaiAvat, and Avith 
50 dromedaries and 100 men Avere on theii* AA^ay for a raid in the Miiazi 
country to the north-east of Akaba. Three of them camped Avith us that 
night ; one disappeared, avc expected for the purpose of bringing up the 
rest of their force, and my Arabs stood to their guns all night, but Ave 
Avere not further molested. The Avant of pasturage and Avater had already 
led us to decide tipon making for Nukhl. I had iniich Avishcd to A-isit 
Akaba and Dr. Bcke's Mount Sinai (Jebel en Nur), but found it impos- 
sible to do so. 

The presence of this raid, and the prospect of a return raid from the 
Maazi made us abandon our jilan of reaching Nukhl by the Hajj road, 
Avliich runs irom Akaba to Suez ; and Ave took a more southerly route, 
Avhich AA-as knoA\^l to my Arabs, but has not, I believe, been folloAved by 
any prcA^ous traveller. 



A JOUKXEY OX I'OOT TUUOUGII ARABIA TETE.EA. 65 

After crossing a succession of hard flinty i)lateaux, divided by branclies 
of W. Tasyibeli, wo' reached in 1 J hours a h:)-\v hill called Mnirdri beta 
Xamus, from the large number of roimd houses or tombs scattered over 
its top and sides. "We came to similar ruins farther on, and near these I 
found several drawings of ibex, and a well-cut Sinaitic inscription, the 
only one I saw in the Tih desert. In IJ hours more, wo reached W. 
Umm Shyish Herani, in which there is a large well, much frequented as 
a watering-place. It was surrounded by eight stone troughs, and 
another group of troughs a short distance higher up the wady marked the 
position of another Avell, which has now disappeared. Two roads lead from 
this point to Xukhl. The northem one by the plain north of J. Fahih 
(probably that followed by Wallin in 1845, leading past Bir Kureis), the 
other across a mountainous district to the south. We took the latter as 
the safest from the dreaded raids ; my Arabs pointing out in the distance 
J. Kureis and J. Themed. They told me that there are five well-known 
weUs south of the Hajj road ; viz., Themed, Kureis, Taiyibeh about three 
miles north of our road, Hersi, and Umm Shjish Herani ; Zeid added that 
there are many other irutcrintj-pJaccs, and much water after rain, but no 
laoTeiveUs. • 

Our route was a dreary one across barren and monotonous ranges of 
chalk mountains, but groups of round tombs here and there in prominent 
positions proved its antiquity as a road. 

After journeying three and a quarter hours we reached "W. Nefes, a 
largo valley limning north-Avest. As we followed this doAvn it gradually 
broadened out, and the mountains became lower. After three and a half 
hours we left the bed of W. Nef es, which turned towards the west, and for 
fourteen hours continued to cross a succession of wadies, divided by 
tracts of stony desert and low ridges. Our water began to rmi short, 
and we had to travel by night as well as day. We saw largo numbers of 
storks here. At length we halted on May 4th at midday, about ten 
miles south-east of Nukhl, in W. Tureifeh, and sent on our three camels 
for water and flour, ha%T.ng almost run out of both. The sim set, and 
our camels had not returned. I was left alone with Sheikh Xassar, Avho 
began to suffer gi-eatly from thii-st. He spoke with difficulty, and asked 
me to keep a look out for the camels, as his eyes began to grow dim from 
feverishness produced by thirst ; and yet I was not able to induce him to 
touch the little store of water which he had put aside for mo. This was 
only one instance of his self-denial for my sake ; and w^henever we were 
in difficulties with regard to food and water, all my three Arabs insisted 
on reserving whatever there was for me, no matter how much they Avere 
suffeiing. I never had more cheery or faithful attendants. They were 
all, too, most anxious to give me all the information they possessed, and 
I never found them willingly misleading me. I cannot speak too highly 
of the character of the Towarah Arabs for honesty and faithfulness. 

At half -past eight Selini ariived with water, and letters from Nukhl, 
and it turned out that the Egyptian soldiers at the Castle had impounded 
my camels, and only lot them go when night set in and tliey foimd no 
more baksJiCfsh forthcoming. 



=66 A JOURMEY OX FOOT THROUGH ARABIA PETR.^A. 

Oil May otli wo liad a liigh soutli wind and sand-storm. It was the 
most trying day I had, the thermometer in the shade standing at 102° at 
midday. Being Sunday we had intended to rest, but want of pasturage, 
in consequence of the drought and locusts, compelled us to move on to 
Avithin three miles of Nukhl. 

We were now in the country of the Tiyahah tribe. I was much afraid 
lest some of the Tiyahah should bo at Nukhl, and claim their right to 
take me on, in which case I should have had to part with my Towarah 
Arabs. Fortunately, only one was there, and we managed to give him. 
the slip, making our way past Nukhl by the bed of "W". el Arish, 
whilst ho, determined to catch us, must have passed within half a mile 
of us on his way to our camjo in W. Tureifeh, which we had just left. 
We pushed on northwards, and he did not succeed in overtaking us. 

Our course now lay north-east up W. el Arish. About three m.iles 
north of ISTukhl its overflow forms a largo alluvial plain, which continues 
moi'O or loss, I believe, to the moutli at the Mediterranean Sea. The 
real bed of the wady is small, and lies to the west of the alluvium, which 
appears to be a deposit from the drainage from neighbourmg ranges of 
white chalk hills. Large tracts of it wore ploughed up by the Arabs 
ready for sowing corn after the rain ; and in many places I saw the 
stubble of last year's crop of maize, doura, or barley. The process of 
ploughing is very simple. A rope is tied to a stake about a foot from 
the bottom, and a camel boing attached to the other end of the rope, the 
stake is drawn along the ground backwards and forwards, scratching up 
fuiTows about one and a half feet apart. In these the com is sown after 
rain. Isolated mounds of the alluvium show that the bod of the wady 
has at soiue time been at least lo foot higher than at present. 

Wady el Ai-ish, on receiving ^V. el Aggabah, sweei^s round to the west of 
J. Ikhrim, between that mounta,in and J. Yelcg {not west of J. Yeleg, 
as sliovrn on Professor Palmer's and Mr. Tja-whitt Drake's map). It 
then iiows to the east of Jebel Helal, and through the north of that 
mountain by a narrow gorge. I need not stop to describe my route by the 
cast of J. Ikhrim, across W. Garaiyeh and Jebel Sheraif to W. Muweilah. 
Professor Palmer and others have already done so. One passes over a 
succession of wadies convoying the drainage from J. Mugriih to W. el 
Arish, all abounding with broom and desert herbage. All was dried up 
now, but in many spots the stones were thickly covered Avith lichen, 
which seemed to denote a considerable amount of damj:), and vast 
quantities of white snail-shells (I have counted upwards of a hundred 
in one small shrub), tightly sealed to twigs or stones, were a sure sign 
that there must, during a great part of the year, be an abundant supply 
of succidcnt vegetation. There vv'ore also e\udcnt traces of volcanic 
action. J. Ikhrim appeared to consist of a disrupting core of igneous rock, 
which had displaced and thrown up the overlying strata of sandstone 
and limestone. Jebels Yeleg and Helal, as far as I could judge from the 
distance of a few miles, had been formed in the same manner, and 
jprobably the limestone cliff extending eastwards from Nakb el Fahdi, 



A JOURNEY ON FOOT THRO UGH ARABIA PETR.'EA. G7 

■and the long ridge of Jebel Sheraif had been throAvn up bj^ volcanic 
action. It is interesting to notice this in the prolnible vicinity of Kadesh 
Barnea, where the opening of the earth (caused doubtless by similar 
agency) swallowed up Kovah and his company. 

At Jebel Sheraif we again fell short of water, and turned westwards to 
the bed of AV. el Arish in hopes of finding some pools of rain-water. In 
this we were not successful, but Zeid rode over to Hathirah, a basin in 
"W". Helal, and obtained some there ; but we had to pay for it. Thus I 
was reminded of Israel's offer to the Edomites at Kadesh: " If I and my 
cattle drink of thy water then I will pay for it" (Numbers xx. 19). 
There axe six wells at Hathirah ; in five the water is bad, but in one 
very deep one, excellent. As we approached W. Muweilah we found 
large numbers of sand-grouse, and had it not been the breeding season 
we could have kept ourselves well supplied mth game. We often saw 
gazelle in crossing the Till desert. 

The head of "W. Muweilah, which has been identified with " Bir-el- 
lahai-roy (" Hagar's Fountain"), forms a well-Avatei"ed basin ; and here 
and at W. Guseimeh, a little further on to the east, we found a number of 
Tiyahah Arabs watering their camels. They informed lis that J. Mugrah 
was the territory of the Hriwat Arabs, and not of the Azazimeh as has 
always been stated ; and they directed us to the principal camp of the 
Haiwat close at hand in W. el Ain. There we camped on May 11, and 
became their guests. A great dinner was at once organised in oiu- 
honour, at which more than fifty sat down, and portions of bread, an^ 
boiled mutton, and fat, an Arab's chief luxury, were dealt out to each 
person by name by the skeikh, differing in quantity according to their 
rank and position. I had a portion of about three times as much as 
anybody else, and Arab manners compelled me to pocket what I could 
not eat ; I was not allowed to give it to others. The meat and bread 
were not bad, but would have been more palatable to me if the sheikh's 
wife had left in less of the wool, and if I had had a cleaner plate than 
the skinny side of the sheep's-skin which formed the sheikh's great coat. 
However, I had an important bargain in view, so I tried to do justice 
to the feast, and to keep up the good impression which I had already 
•created by dealing out before dinner with an ungrudging hand to my 
host and all his friends doses of Gregory's powder. I always found 
wherever I went that medicine was a sure way to a Bedouin's heart, and 
when my bottle of Gregory's powder was produced, almost everyone 
present took the opportunity of fortifying himself against some prospec- 
tive, if not present, malady. And since gorging, whenever the 
opportunity occurs, is one of an Arab's commonest causes of illness, I 
could perform the office of doctor with an easy conscience. When, 
eleven years ago, I was leaving the Peninsula of Sinai after a walking 
tour of four months, Salim, who had been my constant companion, told 
me he feared that he was becoming bHnd. Ho had often lately been 
unable to see well. After asking him a few leading questions, I 
ventured to name certain places at which this blindness had occui'red. 



68 A JOURNEY ON FOOT THEOUGH 'AllABIA PETR.^A. 

He tlireAV up his arms, exclaiming " By Allah, you are a great doctor ; "" 
but looked heartily ashamed of himself when I pointed out that I had 
only named places at which we had stopped the day after I had bought 
a sheep or wild goat. He had literally eaten till he could not see. 
"Well, after my dinner with the Haiwat, we proceeded to business, and 
in course of time, a bargain was made for an escoi"t, consisting of 
the sheikh and seven Arabs, to accompany mo on an expedition of five 
days to J. Mugrah, whilst my owai Arabs stayed at their camp. Sunday, 
May 12, was a day of much-needed rest, but I walked some distance up 
W. el Ain, and ascended a mountain from which I obtained a splendid 
vicAV of the surrounding country, and I saw clearly that Jebel Mugrah 
does not extend northwards in an unbroken line (as stated by Professor 
Palmer), but that a large plateau of a lower level intervenes between it 
and the mountains south of W. Marreh, and also that Jebel Mugrah 
breaks down to a lower level on the Avcst in the same way, a lower 
range of mountains, through which W. Kadeis runs, intervening 
between the higher range and the basin formed by Wadies Jaifeh and 
Jerur. W. el Ain apparently takes its rise at J. Towal el Fahm in the 
plateau north of J. Mugrah, but I was unable to ascertain whether the 
name Ain Gudoirat is given to a spring which I saw a few miles up 
W. el Ain, or to one nearer the head of that valley. In W. el Ain and 
W. Kusuineh are found numerous ancient walls whicli in former tiuics 
supported terraces of alluvial deposit. These are still soAvn with corn 
by the Arabs, but the walls arc neglected, and when broken down by 
floods are not rebuilt. Thus everywhere around one sees the desert 
gaining ground from the neglect of the Bedouin, and large tracts 
of land, which in the old days v.^erc reclaimed, and must have been 
extremely fertile, are now barren. By the simple j)lan of laying lines 
of lai'ge stones, or building walls across the broad wady beds, an 
enormous tract of corn-growing land was, and might still be, obtained 
in this district. That it was once a busy centre of life is proved by the 
very large number of flint flakes and arrow heads that lie on the surface 
of the ground, and by the numerous ruins of v.-alls and housej, or 
tombs, many being evidently of a very early date ; and tlie size of the stones 
employed in the buUding called forth from my Arab the exclamation 
" that there must have been giants in those days." 

0>i Monday, May 13, I started with my escort of eight Haiwat Arabs 
and one of my own Arabs for Jebel Mugrah. They were a wild set of 
fellows, fully armed, and evidently ready for any mischief, and not 
easily to be led, but having i)laced myself under their i)rotection I was 
perfectly safe now, although it turned out that they were the very men 
into whose hands I had nearly fallen in the raid at W. Meleg, and who 
would then have readily stripped me of everything; and by Arab 
manners and custom they would have been quite as fully justified in 
doing so then as tlcy were bound tc be my protectors now. We struck 
southwards towards Wady Kadeis, but soon we met numbers of Arabs 
driving in their flocks and camels to escape a raid of the Maazi that 



A JOURNEY ON FOOT THROUGH ARABIA PETR.'EA. 69 

■were coming our way; and we heard that they had three raiding 
expeditions out, of 100, 200, and 400 men. The latter were expected to 
sweep round by W. Kadeis by the very road which we intended to take, so 
we stopped about two miles short of it, and concealed ourselves for the 
night in a corner under the mountain, sending out scouts, who in the 
morning reported that the raid had turned eastwards south of 
J. Mugrah, but that they had carried off a number of Haiwat camels, 
and that there had been a fight in which five men had been kUled 
and seven wounded ; news which gi-eatly excited my Arabs and lost me 
much valuable time, for they stopped on every opportunity to discuss it. 

On the 14th we ascended W. Kadeis, its bed is rocky, but affords a fair 
road. At Ain Kadeis, about two miles up it, there are four springs, 
about 40 yards apart from each other, three on the mountain side and 
one in the bed of the wady. From the lower one of the former there 
flows a good stream of water down the wady for about 100 yards, 
forming pools where the Arabs water their goats. The upper spring is 
built round with large stones to a depth of about 5 feet, and there is a 
rude trough here and at the lower spring. There is another deeper well 
under a rock about 50 yards higher up the wady, surrounded by 
rudely-built troughs. We followed up the wady to its head. It is 
rocky and narrow, but contains occasional terraces and ruins. A very 
steep path led us over a pass into the higher range, and we descended 
into W. Harasheh, which runs northwards to W. Hanein. On the 
following day we continued to ascend "W. Harasheh and entered the 
rocky basin which forms the head of W. Lussan ; this wady drains the 
southern portion of J. Mugrah, and has several branches, all known to 
juy Arabs by the one name. When one has mounted it, Jebel Mugrah 
no longer presents the flat-topped appearance that it does from a 
distance, but consists of rounded limestone hills covered with herbage. 
There are many ruins and terraces formed by walls in the mountain 
basins, and large number of flint flakes are generally to be found near 
the ruins. I was astonished at the fertility of the ground, and saw corn 
growing in several places. 

On the east Jebel Mugrah only extends to about lat. 35°. Here it 
terminates abruptly in a steep cliff, and is separated from J. Jerafeh (a 
high mountain to the south of Palmer's W. Jerafeh) by a broad, gently- 
sloping valley , to which the Haiwat Arabs gave the name of Eas W. Garaiyeh . 
A good road leads from it into W. Jerafeh, known by the name of " Sikket 
el Gom," because it is the road usually taken by raiding parties from the 
east. There appeared also to be a road leading northwards to W. 
Eaman to the broad caravan road followed from the north by Palmer ; 
and this, I think, may be the old road from Kadesh which was known 
to the Israelites as " the way of the spies." 

Kadesh Bamea, if not at W. Kadeis, may probably be placed near the 
south-east base of J. Mugrah in Eas AV. Garaiyeh, which formed, perhaps, 
the western boundaiy of Edom. I regret extremely that I was unable to 
descend into this valley and thoroughly explore it, but nothing would 

G 



70 A JOURJTEY ON FOOT THKOUGH ABABIA PETE^A. 

induce my Arabs to accompany me ; and, being short of food and water, 
we were forced to return by W. Lussan. I hoped still to get round to the 
southern face of J. Mugrah by J. Araif, but my Arabs would not go ; and 
on ascending the peak which stands at the south-east comer of J. Mugrah, 
I saw that a broken tract of low mountain lies to the south of it, which 
would have rendered a rapid inspection impossible. We retui'ned on the 
fifth day to the Haiwat camp by a rocky and difficult pass leading from 
W. Lussan to W. Jaifeh, to the east of J. Meraifig, which certainly was 
not the route of the Israelites. The only other road runs much further 
to the west. 

I started to return to Egypt that same afternoon. May 17th. 

Descending Wady Muwcilah, we reached W. el Arish, near the base of 
J. Helal. I then saw what a very bad road this wady afforded, owing 
the alluvium, which formed its bed, having been worn into a series of 
deep and irregular ridges and furrows. "We were nearly an hour in 
crossing it, and to foUow it down to the Mediterranean, as I had in- 
tended, would have been almost impossible. Besides, my three Towarah 
Arabs were loud in their praises of a direct road to Ismailia, well -watered 
and good, which I at once saw must have been a very important one in 
olden days when Petra was a flourishing city, and the Negeb, or " south 
country " of the Bible was a thickly inhabited and cultivated country, as 
I had seen clearly that it formerly was. So I determined to explore this 
road. Skirting the south of J. Helal, we reached on the second day 
W. Hasana, a large wady running northward and to the west of J. Helal. 
Here are three wells built round with masomy, and with several curious 
round water-troughs, which looked as if they had been formed out of old 
columns. There were a largo number of Terabin Arabs here wateiiiag 
their camels. They were much inclined to be troublesome, and to claim 
the right to take mo on ; but again my bottle of Gregory's Powder 
seiwed me well, and by numerous doses I soon created a favourable 
opinion. I was much amused Avith one of my patients, who carried off a 
store for future use. Ho left me after making, as I thought, every 
jiossihle inquiry as to the manner and time of taking his medicine ; but 
he returned shortly to say that he had forgotten to ask me one most 
important question — "Was he to take it through his mouth or through 
his nose ? " 

On leaving W. Hasana we crossed some low chalk hills lying to the 
north of J. Ycleg, having on our right a large plain sloping northwards, 
and having before us a long mountain range called Jebel Mugh^rah, 
between which and Jebel Yeleg runs W. Dow towards the north-east. 
Crossing this we reached "Einshash," a gi-oup of seventeen wells. One 
only was built up with stone from the bottom, the coping-stones being 
deeply worn by ropes. Most of the wells had fallen in. The water was 
not good. After filling our water-skins Nassar descended the well for a 
wash — a process not calculated to improve the water for the next comers. 
How many had done the sa.me before him ? It was well not to ask. We 
now ascended a steep slope, on which were situated some old round 



A JOURNEY ON FOOT THROUGH ARABIA PETR/EA. 71 

tombs, and entered the Mugharah range. Both J. Yeleg and J. Mugharah 
stretched westwards as far as I could see, and the intervening valley was 
said to have near its head another group of wells, Hko " Emshash," 
called " El Jidy." Near these ran a road to Suez. A long ascent by 
W. Mugharah brought us to the watering-place which gives this name 
to the mountain. It is now a dii'ty water-hole, but around it are massive 
foTindations of masonry, and probably it was once arched over, the arch 
suggesting to the Arabs the name Mugharah, or cave. There were many 
i-uins of round houses, or namus, near, and opposite the water-hole a 
square building, about 30 feet by 20 feet, built of roughly -hewn stones 
without mortar. The interior was a heap of stones. Around the water-hole 
were twelve remarkably large watering-troughs, buUt of rude masonry. 

"We next crossed a wild pass, the road running northwards along the 
natural shelves of hard crystalline limestone, polished like marble in 
many places by the camels' feet. 

This led us into W. Mutlahah, in which were many fine seyal-trees ; 
and again turning westwards we entered W. Hathayib, a large basin, 
with cornfields. There were many Arabs of the Aiaideh tribe here, and 
as they seemed incluied to be troublesome, as soon as it was dark we 
sHpped on past their camp, and, crossing J. Hathayib, travelled on till 
midnight. On lighting a fire to make bread more Arabs soon appeared, 
and we had again, as they left with the intention apparently of bringing 
"up others to stop us, to pack up our things and move on during the 
night. Our course continued due west over a rolling plateau with many 
sand-drifts, which increased as we approached the Isthmus of Suez. 
There were few points of interest on the road. The district through 
which we first passed after crossing J. Hathayib was called Elloo ; and 
about half way across the plateau was a prominent ridge, on which was 
situated a large group of namus, and near them I found a great number 
of flint-flakes and several beautifully-made arrow-heads. The whole 
way, wherever there were no sand-drifts, the ancient road could be 
traced by these flint-flakes. 

We were very short both of water and food, and pushed on as fast as 
possible; and early on Thursday morning, May 23rd, we arrived at 
Ismailia. 

Thus ended my journey. I failed to accomplish all that I had hoped 
to do, but I believe that I have succeeded in fixing satisfactorily the 
route of the Israelites northwards from Momit Sinai. I have also 
thrown some additional light upon the position of Kadesh and the 
boimdary of Edom ; and, although I was imable to follow Brugsch Bey's 
proposed route of the Israelites out of Egypt, I have discovered an 
ancient road to Egypt from the east, which must formerly have been one 
of very great importance, and is of great interest to the Biblical student. 
There can be little doubt that it was the road followed by Abraham and 
Lot in their journeys to and from Egypt. 

I have at least done my best to add to our knowledge of a most 
interesting coimtry. The drought and the raids were against me, but in 



72 THE FELLAHHEEN OF PALESTINE. 

the space of eight weeks I walked upwards of a thousand miles, at least 
one-third of that distance being over ground previously unexplored ; and 
I have proved, I think, that any future traveller who will rough it a 
little, and has a slight knowledge of Arabic and Arab manners and 
customs, may easily follow my steps, and that there is a most interesting 
district within easy reach which still needs careful exploration, and 
which will, I hope, before long receive the attention of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund. 



THE FELLAHHEEN OP PALESTINE. 

Notes on the Chief Teaits in their Character, their 

Faults, and their Virtues. 

By Mrs. Finn. 

The Bedaween have a saying — 

" El Medeny maidat ed-duniah. 
El Fellahh khamar ed-dunieh. 
El Bedawy Sultan ed-dunieh " 

" The townsman is the table of the world (provider), 
The peasant is the donkey of the world (menial), 
The Bedawy is the Sultan of the world (ruler)." 
But the Fellahheen give a different version, and retort, saying : — 
" What is the townsman ? The Sultan of the world. 
"' What is the Fellahh ? The donkey of the world. 
" What is the Bedawy? The dog of the world, for he snatches from 
-everybody ; but nobody dares to snatch from him." 

" What have we to do with thee, thou father of cabbages ! " was the 
contemptuous speech made by a Bedawy to the Fellahh sheikh of a village 
near Bethlehem. And yet the Bedawy had in all probability never tasted 
a cabbage in his life, or even so much as had one in his hand 
One day an acquaintance came to us with the following tale : — 
' ' Fatimeh tells me that there has been a robbery in her village, and 
tjiat they called in a Bedawy to find out the thief. 

"He heated an iron and branded the tongue of every man, woman, 
and chUd, telling them that the tongue of the thief would swell, and 
that he would then make him pay the value of the theft. 

" All their tongues swelled, and he made them pay the money among 

them!" 

But the woman did not perceive the joke of the thing, though she told 

it of her people. 

The Bedaween often outwit the Fellaheen, whom they utterly despise. 
A story is told on this point how that once a Bedawy and a Fellahh 
arrived at the same village as guests and repaired to the Sahha. Supper 
was put before them, and the Bedawy observed that it was only enough 
for one. He accordingly engaged the Fellahh in talk, asking, "What 
presents do you give to the bride at a Fellahh wedding r " 



THE FELLAnHEEN OF PALESTINE. 73 

""What presents? why we give a silk robe, and a cotton robe, and 
silver ornaments ; and then we give so much in money to the father, 
and so much to the brothers, and so much to the uncles and aunts." 

By the time that he had got to the uncles and aunts he perceived that 
the Bedawy had eaten up three-quarters of the supper, so he in his 
turn asked the Bedawy what they give the bride at a Bedawy wedding. 

The Bedawy replied, bluntly, " A tob (robe), a veil, a necklace, and a 
headdress," and continued eating till all was finished, leaving the 
Fellahh still very hungry, and done out of his supper. 

But the Fellahheen also retort upon the Bedaween. They tell how a 
Bedawy coming to a village one evening in the summer, entered the 
guest-chamber, and how among other things for supper they set before 
him the fruit then in season — namely, prickly pears, which he had never 
seen before. But in mockery of his ignorance of civilised usages and of 
the ordinary productions of nature in cultivated districts, they did not 
shell the prickly pears, but left them in the husk, all covered as they 
are with innumerable sharp thorns. 

The Bedawy, suspecting nothing, took up and ate the fruit as he was 
accustomed to eat cucumbers, which he had seen before, after which his 
hosts asked how he liked them. " God be praised for them! they are 
very refreshing," said the Bedawy, *' only the hair upon them is rather 
shai-p, it is rougher than the hairs on cucumbers, and it sticks to my 
tongue and smarts ! " 

The Fellahh lads who tend the flocks are often brutishly ignorant. They 
are out all day, from early dawn, with their charge, and come home late 
only to eat and go to sleep. They have no one, excepting, perhaps, 
another shepherd like themselves, to talk to day after day and month 
after month. They take a little bread in their scrip, and with that and 
milk from their goats or sheep they are sufficiently fed. When milk is 
plentiful they will sometimes make cheese or curds and whey for them- 
selves, milking one of the flock into the leather jurdheh, or scrip (often made 
of a kid skin), or into the leather bucket which they carry for drawing 
water for the sheep. The acrid sap of the fig-tree (white and milky) is 
added to curdle the mUk. They also know what roots and leaves are 
good to be eaten among the plants that grow wild among the mountains, 
and in early summer they get partridge eggs among the standing corn, 
or young doves and pigeons in the old empty rock cisterns. 

A Fellahh lad on being asked how old he was, replied, "You know 
the red cow ? Her grandmother gave birth to her mother three days 
before I was bom." And this was all the account he could give of 
himself. 

We saw another lad who, on being asked his name, said he did not 
know. " Don't know your name ! Why, what do men call when thej* 
want you to come ? what do they say ? " 

" They say Ho I ho ! " was all the answer we could get from the boy. 

And yet in some Ihings that boy was sharp enough. These 
shepherd lads are no mean adepts in the arts of wrestling, running, 



74 THE FELLAHHEEN OF PALESTINE. 

slinging stones, and throwing at a mark. They will often hit 
even small birds on the wing mth stones. They can make reed 
pipes, and play them skilfully. Some make similar pipes, larger and 
prettily ornamented, out of the large pinion bones of the common 
vulture (rookhameh) and other birds. When they grow tall enough to 
sling a gun at their backs, they often carry one, and become very fair 
shots. They also know every bit of ground, every hill, valley, rock, 
plain, or spring within then- own district. Above all, these shepherd 
lads are skilful in the simple rough surgery needed by the sheep or goats 
which may get hurt during the pasturing over the rough gi'ound upon 
the mountains. It is not uncommon for an animal to get jammed 
among the rocks, or to fall, and thus break a leg. The shepherds are 
proverbially excellent bone-setters, making splints out of any chance bit 
of wood, and binding the limb up with perhaps a rag torn off their own 
garments. 

The to^vnspeople amuse themselves by laughing at the stupidity of the 
Fellahheen. They say that if a Fellahh be asked, "Which is thy left 
ear ? " he will raise his right arm over his head, and feeling downwards 
lay hold of his left ear and say, " Here ! " not having the wit to put up 
his left hand to it. 

One day a Fellahh had bought a pair of new shoes in Jerusalem, and 
was returning home towards Beit Jala. On coming to a roiigh bit of 
road he took his shoes off to save them, but presently knocked his foot 
against a stone and hurt it, on which he exclaimed, " What a good 
thing it is that my shoe was not on my foot ; it might have had a hole 
knocked in it with that blow ! " The Bethlehem ites look down on the 
people of Beit Jala (their opposite neighbours) as being far less sharp 
than themselves. The Fellahheen generally treat themselves to smart 
new red shoes for some great festival, on the eve of which one may see 
them going along the high road from Jerusalem to their own village 
dangling the new shoes by a string from one hand. We have sometimes 
seen a large pair for the father and a little pair for each of his children 
thus carried. 

Another town story at their expense is the folloA\ang : — A Fellahh 
was one day pruning his vine, and managed to cut his hand. He got 
angry with the pruning-hook, and threw it away up over his head. 
Looking uj) after it to see where it would fall, it came down into his 
eye and struck it out. "Thou wretched thing! is it not enough that 
thou hast cut my hand, but thou must i>ick my eye out also ? " and so 
saying, he trod uj)on it in a rage and cut his foot. On this he flung it 
away in teiTor as far as he could, and took refuge behind the broad 
trunk of a fig-tree. On seeing his wife coming, he cried out to her to 
" Beware of the pruning-hook, lest it come and wound thee also !" 

The men of Dair-es-Sinneh, above Siloam, are proverbial for their 
stupidity, and the other Fellahheen tell stories about them such as the 
following : — One of these men was going out of the Gate of the Tribes 
(St. Stephen's Gate) on his way towards Siloam, with five asses, which 



THE FELLAIIIIEEK OF PALESTINE. 75 

he was driving before him. After passing out of the gate he mounted 
■one of his asses, and so rode down the hill. At Sitti Mariam, in the 
bottom, he stopped and counted the asses before him. There were but 
four. He turned back to Jerusalem to look for the fifth (which he was 
riding). At the gate he dismounted, drove in his asses to the open 
space within, and counted them. They were all right, five in number, 
liejoicing, he turned back again to go home, and mounted again outside 
the gate. Arrived at Sitti Mariam, in the valley, he again counted his 
beasts ; but lo I as before, there were but four. Again he went back to 
Jerusalem, dismounted at the gate, drove in his donkeys, counted 
them at the same place. They were five I This happened several times. 
At last he said, " By the life of my son I it is better for me to walk and 
have five donkeys than to ride having- only four ! " And with that he 
walked home, driving his five asses before him. 

Another Fellahh of Dair-es-Sinneh is said to have cHmbed up a bean- 
stalk, and got up to the moon. After walking about and seeing all 
that was to be seen there, he wished to come down ; but his beanstalk 
was broken, and he could not reach it. So he pulled a bit of cord out of 
his pocket, and let himself down by that. But it was not long enough 
to reach the beanstalk, so he took out his knife and began cutting a 
piece from the top to join it on at the bottom, in order to lengthen it ! 

Stupid as the Fellahheen seem, however, and stupid as they often 
undoubtedly are, it is rather from want of cultivation than from lack of 
natural intelligence. We found them very capable of instruction, espe- 
cially when young ; and they are amenable to discipline, provided that 
strict justice governs the treatment they receive. 

Some of them are clever in culture of the fig-tree, olive, and the vine, 
as also in managing field-crops and vegetables. They can be made 
excellent labourers and builders. They are idle in then- own villages, 
chiefly from want of sufficient motive for exertion ; but if the oppor- 
tunity of earning wages is put in their way, they work . steadily and 
well, provided that the amount of pay is made to depend upon their 
industry. A fine for idleness is the most sure preventive, and it rarely 
needs to be repeated. 

The apparent stupidity of the Fellahheen may be explained by one of 
their own stories, to the effect that it is " All of no use talking to people 
of things which they have no sense to understand :" — 

" Said the ass to the camel one day, ' How is it that with thy long 
legs and head so high up, thou never stumblest over stones, while I, 
with my little legs and eyes near the ground, am always stumbling ? ' 

" ' That,' replied the camel, ' is because I am always looking forward. 
I look out ahead for what's coming.' 

** ' Oh, dear!' replied the ass, 'that is quite beyond my compre- 
hension.' " 

The Fellahheen are sharp enough in all matters that come within 
their own range of observation, and they are very shrewd in what con- 
cerns their own interests — so far as they understand them. They have 



76 THE FELLAHHEEN OF PALESTINE. 

an excellent retentive memory. It is scarcely too much to say that they 
never forget anything, and they are quick of apprehension in matters 
upon which their faculties have been exercised, even while utterly stupid 
in others. They have the character^of being avaricious, and certainly 
they are fond of money. We often observed that wherever Fellahheon 
were congregated, the counting of money or calculating of gains might 
be heard. Indeed, it was almost'certain that if we happened to overtake 
two of them upon the road, or sitting by the wayside, their talk would 
be of money. They spend very little of their gains, and hoard up the 
rest in some secret place, which is not often revealed by them before 
they die. Their money is usually buried in some out-of-the-way place 
in the ground, or in some old ruin. There can be no doubt that, when 
Palestine comes to be fully cultivated, many of these stores of hidden 
cash will be discovered. Sometimes a Fellahh will lend out at interest a 
part of his savings, exacting from 50 to 100 per cent, interest. A Fellahh 
will not part with his money if he can help it, and will endure imprison- 
ment and stripes in order to escape payment of Government taxes. "We 
saw many instances of this; and a story is told of one of the Tbn 
Simhhan people, who was brought into Jerusalem to pay his arrears of 
taxes long due to the Turkish Government. He declared that he had no 
money ; but this was unlikely, the family of Simhhan being well-to-do-. 
Imprisonment produced no effect upon him, and the governor ordered 
him to be bastinadoed. He was laid down, and the cobaj was applied 
to his feet. One hundred strokes were borne, and he would not yield ; 
two hundred, three, four, five, and six hundred were in vain; and it 
was not untU he had suffered seven hundred strokes that he gave way, 
and, loosening the girdle he was wearing, took out of it the sum of 
2,000 piastres (about £20), and paid it to the governor. He had borne 
all the pain of so fearful a beating in the hope of being able to carry his 
money back home again. 

The Fellahheen have naturally far more gravity and dignity than the 
Syrians of the toAvns. They have also less of the conceit and vanity for 
which the townspeople, especially those on the sea-coast and in the 
north, are remarkable. Indeed, it is not difficult to detect a radical 
difference on these points between the to\vn Syrians and the Fellahheen. 

The town Syrians, moreover, have a certain leyerete and fickleness, "vWth 
vivacity, which are not common to the Fellahheen, or even to the 
dwellers in the southern towns, where the Fellahh and the Arab elements 
predominate rather than the Syrian or the Greek. In manner, in 
address, in turn of expression and thought, in idiom, in the very mode 
of putting on the garments, these differences are apparent. 

The character of the Fellahh is, in short, much nearer to that of the 
Arab than to that of the Syro-GrtHik. They are excitable, and appear 
quarrelsome to those who do not know them. They mingle so much 
gesticulation with their speech that a stranger often supposes a deadly 
fight to be imminent, if not actually going on, when he sees a group of 
eager Fellahheen vociferating at each other, cursing, it may be, and 



THE FELLAHHEEN OF PALESTINF. 77 

swinging their arms about as if to knock each other down. (They 
never use their fists, and do not know how to do so ; a blow with the 
open pahu is all they ever do in striking with the hand, and this they 
call Iceff, the exact equivalent of our " cuff.") The accidental falling off 
of a turban in the midst of the uproar gives strength to the idea that alt 
this means mischief, and that the short swords in their belts and the 
long guns at their backs will soon be brought into action. When, 
behold ! a word has been spoken by one of the disputants, calm is 
suddenly restored, gravity and self-possession take the place of furious 
excitement, and in a few moments more the party separat^ after ex- 
changing the salutations of peace. 

The word that was spoken with this purpose and intent may simply 
have been the customary salutation, " May God give thee a good 
morning" (or "evening" if spoken after noon), gravely uttered while- 
stroking the beard, with a steadfast look at the person whose excitement 
is at its height. This greeting has, of course, been given before at the 
first meeting, and it has been reciprocated as usual by the person now 
addressed. Nevertheless, it now acts as a charm. He stops his furious 
gesticulation, and responds, "May He give thee a hundred good 
mornings." The wish interposed may have been, "May God lengthen 
thy life I " The effect is the same ; a pause for reflection is secured 
while the appropriate compliment is returned. Or if real anger has been 
displayed, one will exclaim, " Fa, Ibrahim (or whatever the name may 
be), edhkor liubbak" ("Oh, Ibrahim, remember (bethink thee of ) thy 
Lord ! ") The rebuke is meekly taken, and the response given, " Yelihya 
dhikerbro iva 'yedoom" ("May the remembrance of Him live and 
remain"). Or it may be that the reprover will say " Allele The other 
A\all then reply, " Za ila ilia Allah," &c., the formula of faith, " Thero 
is no God but God," &c. Sometimes a man finding himself getting 
angry, and inclined to use offensive epithets, wUl check himself, and 
repeat the " Oh, Ali (or whatever the name may be), may Allah give 
thee a good morning ! " 

" Sally -an- Neb y," (" Pray in the name of the Prophet " Mohammed), is 
another of the phrases by which angry men are calmed ; and the reply 
is given with the wish, Alai es-Salaam wa es-Salla.'^ ' ' Upon him be peace, 
and through him is prayer" [made]. 

There is little or nothing among this people of what we call ftm. 
They understand jokes, or rather humour, of a certain kind; but they 
cannot bear to be laughed at. Irony and sarcasm they can comprehend, 
and they themselves use both. " Mashallah ! huwa dkil!" (" Wonderful I ") 
— (literally, " What hath God wrought ! ") " He is a sensible fellow ! " is 
an exclamation one may hear if a workman blunders in his task, and a 
mocking laugh will accompany the speech, adding pungency to the 
rebuke. Even the women, who are in some respects less' intelligent, 
because less versed in the ways of the world, can appreciate humour, and 
be influenced by it. 

The SUoam women commonly supply Jerusalem with milk, and are 



78 THE FELLAIIHEEN OP PALESTIJfE. 

very fond of mixing as much, water mth it as they can without detection. 
The woman who brought us our milk had, hoAvever, gone too far, and 
the milk was so thin and blue that our patience failed. 

"Oh, mother of Ahhmet ! " said I to her one morning, " I want to 
speak with thee." 

"Be pleased to speak, O lady." 

' ' Milk is good, and water is good. Allah made both of them, but we 
don't like them mixed ; henceforth bring us thy milk in one jar and 
thy sprLug water in another, that we may di-ink them^separately." The 
woman listened, considered a moment, broke into a smile, and said " Tail) " 
(" Good, oh lady "). From that day forward we had milk pure and good 
■from her. T\Tien the children or their elders in a strange place impor- 
tuned us for Backsheesh, we could generally tui-n the laugh upon them, 
in which they would join, by holding out our hand and saying, " No ; it 
is you who ought to give us backsheesh for our trouble in coming here." 

The Fellahheen do not easily or commonly laugh, except in scorn. In 
this they resemble the Arabs. They are keenly aUve to ridicule. To 
tell an old man that he has behayed as a child, to say that "his in- 
telligence is small compared -with the whiteness of his beard," is in 
effect to have administered a most stinging rebuke ; a similar reproof to 
a young man, "child" (for they stUl, as of old, call grown-up young 
men " child" in familiar and endearing, as well as in contemptuous, 
phrase), would be to say to him, " I'w waled istufihy " " Oh, child, be 
shamefaced ! " (" Be modest ; " " Don't presume ; " or " Be ashamed," 
the phrase means all three). 

The Fellahheen have been supposed by some to be devoid of hxunour. 
It is true that in some districts they are more stolid and stupid than in 
others ; yet there is no part of the coiuitry in which witty proverbs, 
sententious sayings, and humorous parables are not understood and 
welcomed; a happy hit, a clever retort, a bit of retribution clevei'ly 
devised, wiR sometimes do more than force could in mastering a trouble- 
some Fellahh. We found their sense of humour to be keen. There is 
true perception of wit in the retort, when two men, of whom one was 
thoroughly inferior, were compared with each other : " Truly they both 
have large eyes ; but yet there is a difference between a hawk and an 
owl." And in the remark on the use of adversity, " Nothing will get 
oU out of an olive but crushing it ; " and even in the words used to admit 
ignorance, when rej)lying to the question; "How old is that tree?" 
" Praise be to Him who (alone) knoweth." Their epithets or descriptions 
of men are often very witty. "That priest of yours, a span and 
a half high," was the description of a European cleric, very short in 
stature, and more nimble than dignified in his gait. Aboo Nadarat, 
"the father of spectacles, whose eyes nobody sees," was the description 
of another European whose dark spectacles were generally believed to be 
worn to hide his countenance and expression of face rather than because 
his eyes were weak. 

" Ilah ! hah I " cried some childi'cn in Safet one day, as they ran after 



THE FELLAHHEEN OF PALESTINE. 79 

a European whose chin was shaven, while he wore a full moustache and 
whiskers. " Hah 1 hah! there goes the Frank who cuts a hole out of 
the middle of his beard ! " 

Proverbs are in use all day long ; they thiuk in proverbs, and speak 
in them, and invent fresh ones, pithy and to the purpose, without the 

slightest effort. 

The Fellahheen are often very clever at understanding hidden allusions 

and enigmatical sayings. 

A man once came to his friend Ibn Hhanna and asked his mediation 
with the father of a girl whom he wished to marry. But the friend, not 
being particularly desirous of furthering the matter, and knowing more- 
over that the would-be bridegroom was unusually thick-headed, gave him 
the following message to the girl's father, Ahhmed Moosa : " Ibn Hhanna 
salaams thee and says to thee, 'Look at a she-goat; but let her milk 
alone.' " 

The man went, gave the message, and returned, saying, "Ahhmed 
Moosa salutes thee, and says, Ala rdsif (" Upon my head be it "— t'.e., " I 
will obey "), 

" Very well," said his friend, "then go home and wait till he sends 
for thee," which he did, but was not sent for, the girl's father having un- 
derstood the message to mean, "Look at this man ; but do not negotiate 
with him or accept his gifts." The Fellahheen are crafty and ingenious 
in stratagem, quick also in detecting or guessing the devices of others ; 
but this, of coiu-se, only in matters to which they are accustomed. 
They are excessively cautious and even suspicious in then- dealings with 
strangers, and rarely, if ever, give a direct answer to a question. 

" Art thou goiug home, Ibrahim ? " 

"Why? does my lord reqiiire anything ? " 

" No, but art thou going home ? " 

"I will take a message to the sheOdi of my village; he is in the 
bazaar to-day." 

"I have no message for the sheikh of thy village, oh Ibrahim ; but I 
do want to know if thou art going home." 

" Wherever my lord pleases to send me, there will I go," and so on, 
ad infinitum ; but no direct answer. A question is almost invariably 
met by another question. A Fellahh, if mot on the high road and asked, 
" Whence comest thou ? " will answer, " From behind," and thus avoid 
giving information ; and to the further query, "Where goest thou?" 
answers, "Ala Bab Allah "("To the gate of God " [whither God 
pleases "], or " According as God may open the way".) This habit of 
evasion is inborn, and is practised by the veriest infants, who can but 
lisp out the question, " Lais ? " (for " Laish I " Why ? "). 

Insolence in time of prosperity, and where government is weak, is a 
common fault of the Fellahheen. 

The Fellahh servant of one of our friends being about to be married, 
bade his master to the wedding, which was to take place at his village, 
where the famous Abd en Neby was sheikh. 



80 THE FELLAHHEEX OF PALESTINE. 

This sheikli was, like all others of his district (in the Hebron country), 
noted for his hospitality to guests, and the wedding was a very gay one, 
being attended by sheikhs and people from all the country round. One 
of the chief guests had put on a new aba (mantle) of fine black camlet in 
honour of the occasion. According to custom, everybody on observing 
this new garment saluted the wearer with the word " Mobdrak" (" May 
it be blessed"). To each one the customary reply was made, " El Ha- 
haleJi Vyedak " (" Its halter is in thy hand "), which is equivalent to say- 
ing, " It is at your service." Another guest, very greatly his inferior in 
rank, but who from private motives was seeking a quarrel, pressed for- 
ward with the salutation, and on receiving the answering compliment 
as above, said, insolently, and to the amazement of the assembled 
sheikhs, " Kabbaltuha " (" I have accepted it "), a reply only made by a 
great man to his inferior in such circumstances, to show his gracious 
acceptance of the proposed gift as an act of becoming homage. 

But custom required that the garment be forthwith handed over, 
unless the wearer had chosen to mar the festivities by saying, "Come 
and take it by force," which would involve a combat for life or death. 
He therefore simply said, " For the honour of our host, Sheikh Abd en- 
Neby," and taking it off his shoulders gave it to the man, who instantly 
put it on, saying, defiantly, "If he and two hundred men at his back 
were to try, he should not have it again." That man was then seeking 
to compass the death of the other, and he accomplished his purpose some 
months afterwards — not openly, for he was a boastful coward, and the 
other was known for his skill and prowess, but by paying others to do 
treacherously what he himself dared not to attempt. He had an ambush 
set and his victim murdered by hired assassins. One of the men con- 
cerned in the deed, not as actor, but as spectator, had been the night 
before actually eating with the victim. On hearing what had happened, 
the poor Fellahh woman who had cooked their supper, and who was 
much attached to the murdered man, bewailed herself, beating her breast 
and crying, "Woe is me! woe is me ! I left out the salt by mistake 
when making the bread last night for their supper. Oh, that I had put 
it in, then would not that Abdallah have dared to let my lord be 
murdered in his presence ; ho would have been compelled to defend bins 
after eating his bread and his salt. "Woe is me I Woe is me I " And she 
spoke in accordance with universal custom in respect of the sanctity of 
of life after a meal where people have eaten bread and salt together. 

The sheikhs of that man's tribe offered to give him up to justice, but 
intrigue was at work to screen and hide the criminals, and their offer 
was not accepted by the responsible authorities (who were not all either 
Turks or Arabs). 

Among the faults of the Fellahheen lying is one of the greatest and 
most common. They certainly can appreciate truth-tolling in others, 
and even admire it, but can scarcely utter anything but lies themselves. 
To He skilfully is considered a very great and useful accomplishment ; 
the merest infants practise it as soon as they can speak. ' ' A man who 



THE FBLLAHIIEEN OF PALESTINE. 81 

does not tell lies is like meat without salt." And even the Fellaliheen 
of Christian villages are almost as bad as their Moslem country-folk in 
this respect. 

" Why didst thou tell that falsehood ? " was asked one day of a Beth- 
lehem Christian woman. 

"Oh, lady," she replied, " thou knowest the a'adeh (custom) of us 
Fellahheen is to tell Hos." 

" But what, then, is thy religion, is it Fellahh or is it Christian ? " 
" Christian ; but lieing is our custom." 
"Where, then, is your honour " {sharaf) ? 
She laughed. "We have no honour." 

But there is a proverb that shows that the difference between truth 
and falsehood is understood. When a very wonderful tale is told, the 
hearers will contemptuously ejaculate, " Kizb " (a lie) ! 
" How dost thou know that it is a lie ? " 

" 3fin Jcuhurho " (" From its bigness "), is the ready response. 
Some villages have an evil reputation for untruth, or, as the natives 
put it, " The people of so-and-so are not good, their tongue is long." 

Stealing, in the sense of petty pilfering, is another common fault 
described in the same fashion. "So-and-so is not good, her hand (or 
arm) is long." But pilfering is commoner among the Moslems than 
among the Christian Fellahheen. And indeed we found many of the 
Bethlehem Christians, especially the women, to be scrupulously honest, 
not even taking little portions of food for their children, a kind of 
pilfering which is considered quite lawful by people who would on no 
account take any valuable article or money from their employers. 

Stealing cattle is considered a very grave offence, to be atoned for 
only by returning fourfold in case of a sheep, and fivefold in case an ox 
has been stolen. 

Some villages have a much worse reputation than others for thieving. 
SHoam used to be considei-ed one of the worst; also the village of 
Esawiyeh, north-east of Olivet. 

The Moslem Fowagris of Bethlehem always had a very bad reputation 
in this respect. Indeed one quarter of the town of Bethlehem, inhabited 
by one of the two Moslem clans, was known as a perfect nest of robbers. 
Abbo er Eumman and his son, Selameh, with the chief of their clan at 
Bethlehem, Sheikh Salim Shakhtoor, were among the ringleaders, and 
they were many of them desperate and villainous men. In league with 
these was Hamin Hadoob and others, of Jerusalem, and some of the 
SUoam folk. They robbed the peasantry on the road or in the villages, 
as well as pUgrims or travellers, or people living in Jerusalem. Nothing 
came amiss to them in the way of plunder, and they did not stop short 
of murder when it suited their ends. 

In former years there wore other notorious thieves, one of whom, 
Saadeh, was at last, after being often taken, and escaping only to renew 
his depredations, caught and hanged on a tree outside the Jaffa Gate of 
Jerusalem by the Government. 



82 THE FELLAHnEEN OF PALESTINE. 

In years gone by Sabbuhli Shokeli, sheikli of the other clan of 
Fowagri Moslems of Bethlehem, was as great a thief and robber as the 
people of Salini Shakhtoor still are. 

There is a story of Sheikh Sabbuhh joining Khalaweh of Urtas in 
sundry midnight marauding expeditions. The favourite amusement of 
at least part of a night thus spent by robbers is to steal one or more 
sheep from some flock out with its shepherd in the open country. A 
Fellahh will think nothing of throwing a sheep over his shoulders and 
running off with it, whUe his companions engage the shepherd either in 
fighting or in pui'suit on a false scent. The thieves meet at their ren- 
dezvous, where the sheep is soon kUled, flayed, and roasted whole in a 
pit dug in the earth, and the party feast upon their Ul-gotten booty 
before returning to their own villages. Of course, when the shepherds 
are vigilant, and have firearms, they can and do offer successful resist- 
ance ; but sometimes they are kUled by the thieves, who are also armed 
with sword and gun. 

The shepherds, when they lose a sheep or a goat by death, are always 
expected to bring at least the ears to the owner, if the distance be too 
great for them to carry the whole carcass ; and thus to prove that they 
have not themselves slain and eaten of his flock. 

The two men above mentioned had been out one night, and had been 
steaHng sheep and other trifles. They were near the high road from 
Jaffa where it j)asses through the village of Aboo Gosh, and falling in 
with a camel carrying up to Jerusalem a load of calico for market, they 
stopped it, and, unloading the beast, each of them canied off half the 
calico on his back to a convenient hiding-place, whence they could get 
it safely off to their respective villages unobserved. 

On another occasion Sabbuhh Shokeh, by way of bravado, said to his 
companion, as they were retm-ning homo at daybreak after a night of 
robbery, that he would caiTy home a hand corn-mill of stone on his 
shoulders. Presently the sound was heard of a woman, who was up 
with the dawn, grinding the corn for her family baking. Sabbuhh told 
his companion to wait outside, and, walking into the cottage, he saluted 
her with a " Good morning." 

" Who art thou ?" said she, not liking his looks. 

"A guest," replied he; and perceiving that there were two com- 
mills, he asked her which was the best one. 

She said, " This one which I am using." 

"Without fuithcr ado he lifted it, heavy as it was, on his shoulder, and 
got clear off before she could awaken her husband. 

A man from Beit Safafa hid his money in a cave near Mar Elias. On 
the top he put a shoemaker's hammer with his own mark, in order that 
shoidd any one find and steal the money, it might be the means of con- 
victing them. Two young fellows, gi-eat rogues, having stolen two 
sheep one day, went into this cave to kill them ; and wishmg to hide 
the heads and feet and offal, dug a hole for thjit i)urpose, and thus they 
came on the jar containing the money. They took the money, and for 



THE TELLAHHEEN OF PALESTINF, 83 

luiscliief filled it instead with the ofFal, burying the heads and ftet in 
another hole. As for the shoemaker's hammer, they being as clever 
as the owner of the money, flung that away on the high road. Here it 
was picked up by another man, a stranger, Avho sold it in Jei-usalem to a 
shoemaker. The owner of the money, on visiting the cave, found some- 
thing less than money in his jar. He wont immediately to the city, 
and examined the hammers in the shoemakers' shops. He found his 
own hammer. " Where did you get this hammer ? " " From so-and-so." 
The latter was then arrested and taken to prison for the robbery ; but he 
proved his innocence. " I heard of the case," said our informant, " and 
suspected the real thieves, and questioned them. They gave evasive 
answers. ' Why do you trouble yourself about such affairs ? ' ' That 
doesn't concern you.' I was satisfied they were the thieves, but could 
not bring it home to them. Two or three days after they, in their tuni, 
were accused of something of which they were innocent, and had to 
spend eight or nine thousand in bribery to get clear. ' Well,' said I, 
when I next saw them, ' what became of all your money ? ' They 
laughed, and said, ' The Avinds brought it, and the whirhvind earned it 
off' (a common proverb, answering to ' Lightly come, lightly go '). The 
other said, ' Sui'ely it was better not to have to spend one's 0"\vn money 
in bribes. If it must be spent, let it be another's.' " 

It is remarkable to find that truth, honesty, and honotir can be 
thoroughly appreciated by people with whom lying and theft are so 
common. 

The "English word" was synonymous among the Fellahheen for 
truth, and they were convinced of the integrity of English people. Of 
this we had innumerable instances, and of the way in which they would 
trust the simple word of an Englishman. " Cease bargaining," a peasant 
in the bazaar would say; "I have given the English word; I won't 
alter it." 

They would also trust us with their goods and animals, having no 
doubt as to failiu-e of payment. 

One of our people, a European, was going to Jaffa on business, having 
with him an officer in Turkish service, whose horse fell lame, and he 
dismounted, giving the officer his horse, ahd walked on across the plain. 
Meeting a Fellahh, a stranger, who was well mounted, he asked him to 
let him hire his horse. 

The Fellahh replied, " Good ! I can trust a Frank ; but I shall want 
fifteen piastres." 

" You shall have fifteen piastres, but where shall I leave your horse? 
Come you and meet me at the gate of Jaffa." 

The Fellahh agreed without a word more, dismounted, and allowed 
the Frank stranger to ride off on his horse, who, of course, duly met and 
paid him afterwards as agreed. 

We have kno"\vn horses taken in the same way when standing for hire 
in the city, with only a message to the OAvmer through some bystander. 
So complete was the faith in the horse being returned, and the proper 



Si THE FELLAHIIEEN Or PALESTINE. 

Lire paid, that the OAvners ware pleased to have their beasts thus used, 
■and would come to the house named for their pay. 

Cursing and swearing are lamentably common among the Fellahheen. 
The children utter imprecations almost before they can speak. Oaths 
are mingled with the most ordinary talk. Simple "yes" and " no " 
are imknoAvn, and affirmations are always accompanied by an appeal to 
God or the Prophet, or both. 

It is not according to the idiom of the language to say " Yes," "No," 
as in English. The usual form of an affirmative reply is the repetition 
of part of the question. "Is Ibrahim running? — He is running." 
" Has he brought his camel ? — He has brought him." But if 
^'Yes" were said it would be combined with an oath. '' Eiwa-ei- 
vallah" ("Yes, by God"). "No" is more common than "Yes," and 
is often expressed by a significant click of the tongue, with a toss up of 
the head and eyelids. But " No " is also more commonly and decidedly 
expressed by a negation of the question : ' ' Has Ali come ? — He has 
not come." A very emphatic negative is usually preceded or followed 
by a sonorous " Wallahi" ("By AUah "). 

False swearing is another most common vice among the Fellahheen. 
For a few pence a man will come forward as witness and swear 
anything that is desired of him. A case had been tried in the Pasha's 
Turkish court at the Seraglio, in which two Fellahheen were in 
litigation. After the proceedings were over, a friend of ours was riding 
along the Bethlehem road, and the man who had won his cause was 
walking by his side. They overtook two other Fellahheen who were 
going the same way, and were talking busily. One of the two was 
almost blind, and he was talking of that very case, and telling how he 
nad been engaged by the opposite party to come and bear false witness 
for a payment of 60 piastres (about 10s.). " But," continued he, " the 
stingy fellow who wanted my evidence shut me up in a room to wait 
till he was ready for me to appear in court, and he never so much as 
gave me 100 paras (about od.) wherewith to get my breakfast. If he 
had but given me that I should have been content, but he shut me in 
till I got so hungry that I climbed over the wall and ran away ; and he 
never told me, either, what I was to say in my evidence for him — he 
was in such a hurry. If he had told me what to say I might have gone 
to the court and earned the 60 piastres he promised me for my witness." 
Our friend here addressed the man. "How, old man (may God give 
thee a good evening), wouldst thou, being blind, have testified about what 
happened in a dark night ? Thou canst not sec much even by daylight. 
And dost thou know Esau ? " (This was the person under accusation, 
and who was at that moment walking beside our friend.) 

" I do not know him. I have never seen him." 

" Thou dost not know him even by sight ; and how canst thou appear 
as a witness against him, or swear that thou hast seen him do things ? " 

"But 60 piastres, my lord ! That is much to me; and besides, the 
other one (the accuser) was going to tell me what to say." 



THE FELLAHHEEN OF PALESTINE. 85 

" Then I tell thee thou art a wicked man, to go and swear against 
another for 60 piastres. Here he is, Esau himself, and I tell thee so 
before him." 

"O Esau," said the old man, unabashed, "if I had sworn against 
thee it would have put 60 piastres into my pocket, and it would have 
been very bad for thee. But thine accuser did not give me the paras to 
buy my breatfast, so I could wait no longer, but ran away, and thou 
hast escaped." 

"Then," said Esau, magnanimously, "I will give thee the paras for 
thy breakfast." 

"No," said the old man, coolly, "thou shalt give me more, even the 
price of mending my shoes ; for have not I walked to to'\\Ti and back all 
for nothing on thy account ?" 

In enumerating the faults of the Fellahheon we must not omit to 
mention selfishness; and in some districts more than others, cruelty and 
indifference to suffering, whether of man or beast. 

There is but little cold-blooded murder. But some districts and 
villages have an evil reputation for this kind of crime. Generally 
speaking, however, they do not kill each other, excepting in the clan 
feuds or in avenging blood. There is an ugly expression used among 
the Fellahheen of South Palestine in speaking of an enemy slain in war. 
" Dhabhahhtho bisndni/" ("I slew him with my teeth"). And it is said 
that there have been instances of killing in battle in this fashion by 
biting at the throat. In the Nablous district (Samaria), where the 
people are mvich more ferocious, the expression is, "I have drunk his 
blood," but that is understood figuratively. 

The vii-tues of the Fellahheen are few and simple : courage in battle, 
attention to the rites of hospitality, a certain devotion to their village 
sheikh, some reverence for old men, respect for various superstitious 
religious obsei-vances, a general conformity to the tenets of Islam, 
veneration for Mohammed the Prophet, and loyalty to the Sultan as 
theii- sovereign and as head of the Moslem religion — these are the chief 
points observed by a Fellahh of honour and repute. The Sultan is 
always mentioned in terms of reverence and devotion. They know but 
little of Mohammed the Prophet ; still he is held in highest honour, 
and the phrase may commonly- be heard, "Sally en-Neb)/ aJai es- 
Salaam " (" Pray in the name (or in honour) of the Prophet upon whom 
be peace"). 

The religion of Islam is nominally ]orofessed. The resignation which 
it inculcates is tinivcrsally practised. But many superstitious obser- 
vances derived from their forefathers have a considerable hold upon the 
Fellahheen, and influence their whole life and habits. 

To their village sheikh they show but moderate respect ; indeed, in 
most villages there are rival sheikhs and rival factions, but the chief 
sheikh of the clan or district is much more regarded, especially if^ he 
have a character for generosity and bravery in fight. 
[ All the sheikhs are treated by their people with a certain amount of 

H 



86 THE FELLAHHEEN OF PALESTINE. 

ceremony. They, of course, occupy the place of honour in the 
village guest-chamber, and they are accompanied, in their visits 
to other villages or to Jerusalem, by a sort of body-guard of 
followers, called their " tail" (dail). These are generally on foot while 
the sheikh is moimted. It sometimes happens that the shiekh is also 
on foot ; in that case his people literally follow him along the road, those 
of highest rank or nearest relationship being only just a step or so behind, 
so that he can converse without the trouble of turning his head. When 
mounting or dismounting, his people wUl help him, and hold his stirrups, 
or his spear or gun, if needful. A great sheikh mil of course have a 
great following wherever he goes abroad, and ho is always treated with 
much respect by his own people. Some of these sheikhs have exercised 
very great influence over the whole district and upon their people. A 
Fellahh of Beit Jibrin, having been caughtjand taken to Jerusalem for 
the offence of stealing cows from a neighbouring district, was beaten re- 
peately and severely by the Turkish Government to make him confess ; but 
all in vain. At length his own chief, Shiekh Muslehh, being in Jerusalem, 
went to the prison to see him, who, holding uj) his own beard, adjured 
the culprit, ' ' By this brown thing, tell me, didst thovi steal them ? ' ' 
The man at once confessed, " out of respect for the beard of his sheikh," 
the beard being the very token and emblem of human dignity and 
honour among the inhabitants of Palestine. 

Courage in battle and presence of mind are virtues esteemed more 
highly than all the foregoing. The men perfonn many feats of bravery 
in battle, and they sometimes show considerable presence of mimd in time 
of danger. We heard of one who, feeling himself hard pressed by his 
pursuers, flung himself over the edge of a precipice. They ran round to 
catch and finish him at the bottom ; but he had hung on at the top by 
his hands, and, while they were running round, he climbed up again and 
got safe off. 

Another of whom we were told was pursued to the mouth of a circular 
well. Being a good swimmer, he jumped in. His enemies fired at him 
from above, but he dived each time and kept them, it was said, at this 
work the greater part of a night, until some of his own side coming up, 
drove off the others and got him safe oiit. 

To beg for mercy when beaten is considered unworthy of a brave man. 
When a Fellahh warrior falls into the j)ower of his enemies, he gene- 
rally bears his fate stoically, or rather with the stolid resignation 
peculiar to the profession of the faith of Islam. 

The Fellahh custom is for them to ask the man in their hands, " Where 
is so-ani-so ?" naming one on their side whom he has kUled. 

"H^rel" he replies, pointing with his hand under his girdle. "I 
claim to have taken his life." 

Again they ask, "Where is so-and-so?" naming another of his 
victims. 

Again he answers, " Here ! " 

A friend of ours once saw a Fellahh answer thus to thirteen names of 



Jacob's well, its histouy and associatioxs. 87 

men whom lie had slain, and then add, "With this right hand I slew 
them ! Do what you can." He was laid down with his face to Mecca 
and slaughtered like a goat, his throat being cut with the short sword, 
according to the usual way of slaying sheep or men. By appealing for 
mercy to one of those present, he might have saved his life. But that 
is considered too great a disgrace for any one who considers himself 
*' a many 

Next to resignation to the will of God and bravery in battle, one of 
the very highest virtues is that of hospitable entertainment of strangers 
and guests. With this many interesting customs are connected, but we 
have no space to speak of them on the present opportunity. 



JACOB'S WELL, ITS HISTOEY K^T> ASSOCIATIONS. 

The plain of Mukhna, thought to be the same as the ancient plain of 
Moreh, is situated in the very centre of the Holy Land. In journeying 
from ShUoh to Shechem, about midway between the two places, we 
ascend to the crest of a ridge of hills, and from the summit obtain 
the first 'view of this fertile plain. It runs almost due north and south, 
and extends about seven miles in length, varying from one to two 
miles in breadth. This great plain, unbroken by fence or village, 
presented to our eyes duiing the spring of last year a scene of 
fertility and rural beauty not to be surpassed throughout the whole of 
Palestine. 

The main road, winding through the plain, could easily be seen by 
its light appearance, and the clumps of aged olive-trees growing by the 
roadside, while all around the fields smiled with ripening com. Many 
peasants were busy in the cultivation of the soil, and from one spot 
alone we were able to see at least one hundred yoke of ploughing oxen. 
The greater part of El Mukhna is enclosed by low undulating hills, 
and at the north-east extremity, towering high above the other hills, 
stand the celebrated twin mountains of Ebal and Gerizim. Far away 
on the northern horizon, on a clear day, can be seen the lofty hill of Great 
Hermon. 

Between Ebal and Gerizim, running at right-angles to El Mukhna, 
the far-famed vale of Shechem. 

The patriarch Abraham, when commanded to leave his home and 
country, ultimately pursued his journey across the Syrian desert, until 
he came to the borders of the Promised Land, On arriving at the 
"banks of the Jordan he crossed the river and cor^.tinued his way 
towards the west until he came " unto the place of Sichem unto the 
plain of Moreh. And the Canaanite was then in the land. And the 
Lord appeared unto Abraham and said. Unto thy seed will I give this 
land : and there bmlded ho an altar unto the Lord." The first recorded 
halting-place of Abram is not without significance, for Sichem stood in 



88 Jacob's well, its history and associatioxs. 

the centre of Palestine, insomuch, that it was designated the middle or 
more correctly the navel of the land ; and thus by Divine guidance did 
he proceed to the central spot of the country intended as the future 
home of his favoured posterity. The patriarch Jacob, journeying from 
Padan-aram to Canaan, seems to have followed in the footsteps of his- 
grandfather Abraham, and first purchased a possession in the Promised 
Land not far from the Yale of Shechem. In this valley, after the 
conquest of the land, the national gatherings of the Israelites took 
place, and here Joshua, in his old age, assembled all the people 
that they might hear from his lips for the last time the whole counsel 
of God. 

At the bend of the path, where the road turns into the Yalley of 
Shechem, a low spur rising at the base of Mount Gerizim runs for a 
short distance in a north-east direction, and thus separates the valley 
from the plain. On arriving at the low ridge we turn aside from the 
main road, and follow a little path on the right hand. In a few 
minutes we come to a low crumbling wall, where, after clambering 
over loose stones, we step upon a mound composed of heaps of 
ruins, and the fragments of large granite columns. This mound 
lies at the meeting of the two valleys and links together the sacred 
history of upwards of three thousand years. At the south-east comer 
of this movmd the traveller is led forward to a hole broken through the 
roof of a vaulted chamber with a pointed roof. On looking through this 
opening into the chamber beneath, several large stones are observed,, 
probably the fallen arch-stones, scattered over the floor, and about the 
middle of the little chamber is a small dark aperture, the mouth 
of the shaft of Jacob's Well. Standing on the ground by the 
vaulted chamber we notice that the landscape is both extensive 
and impressive. Westward stretched the fertile Valley of Shechem, on 
the north of which rises the rocky slopes of Ebal, while on the south 
side rises abruptly to the height of 800 feet the sacred Mount of 
Gerizim. Southward, stretching as far as the eye could reach, was the 
wide-spreading plain of El Mukhna, over which we had passed. Due 
eastward, across the plain. El Mukhna sends forth a broad green arm 
among the hills. This arm is still called the Yale of Shalom, and takes 
its name from a hamlet of that name standing on the rocky acclivity 
on the north side of the valley. This village has been identified by 
Dr. Robinson with every show of probability as occupying the site of 
that Shalem — a city of Shechem — before which Jacob pitched his tent 
on his return from Padan-aram to Canaan. Down that valley the little 
stream from Shechem drains into the Jordan, from which x-iver Jacob 
ascended by that wady, and halting where the vale opens into the plain, 
pitched his tent before Shalem. 

" And Jacob came to Shalem, a city of Shechem, which is in the land 
of Canaan, when he came from Padan-aram, and pitched his tent 
before the city. And he bought a parcel of a field, where he had 
spread his tent at the hand of the children of Hamor, Shechem's 



Jacob's well, its history and associations. 89 

father, for an hundred pieces of money, and he erected there an altar.' 
" The practical wisdom of the shepherd prince who crossed the Jordan 
with his staff and came back at the head of two great bands was never 
more signally displayed than in securing a possession in this the garden of 
Canaan, and in afterwards prospectively bestowing it on his favourite 
son." This parcel of ground became the homestead of the patriarch and his 
household, and over it and the adjoining plain his flocks freely roamed. 
"When Jacob had removed to the hill country of Judea he still 
retained his purchased possession, and from the Yale of Hebron sent 
forth his beloved son Joseph to see how fared his brethren and their 
flocks in the Vale of Shechem. " And his brethren went to feed their 
father's flock in Shechem. And Israel said unto Joseph, Do not thy 
brethren feed the flock in Shechem ? come and I will send thee unto 
them. And he said to him. Here am I. And he said to him, Go, I 
pray thee : see whether it be well with thy brethren and well with the 
flocks ; and bring me word again. So he sent him out of the Vale 
of Hebron, and he came to Shechem." To Joseph and his descendants 
did the dying patriarch bequeath this purchased possession, and 
Joseph's dying request was that his bones might be buried there. " And 
Joseph took an oath of the children of Israel, saying, God will surely 
lasit you, and ye shall carry up my bones from hence." 

This injunction after a long period of years was strictly obeyed, for 
when the Israelites set forth from Egypt for the Promised Land they 
carried with them the mummy of Joseph. "And the bones of Joseph 
which the children of Israel brought up out of Egypt, buried they in 
Shechem in a parcel of ground which Jacob bought of the sons of 
Hamor, the father of Shechem, for an hundred pieces of silver : and it 
became the inheritance of the children of Joseph." It seems somewhat 
strange that nowhere in the Old Testament is it stated that Jacob dug 
a well, although the existence of the well at the present day in the 
parcel of ground, and the distinct statement of the Samaritan woman 
that Jacob gave the well, put the fact beyond a doubt. 

The geological structure of Palestine is largely composed of lime- 
stone ; and as the well penetrated far beneath the surface, and was 
generally bored through the rock, it will readily be seen that a deep well 
was a work both gigantic and abiding. Sinking a well in the East is a 
greater undertaking than the erection of a castle or the construction of a 
fortress ; but when once the well is bored through the rock it remains 
almost indestructible, so that while temples fall into decay and 
pyramids gradually crumble before the ravages of time, the boring 
through the solid rock remains sure and steadfast ; a link of connec- 
tion between the centuries, and a bond of union that knits together the 
successive generations of the sons of men. Such wells were made at 
an enormous cost, and the name of the constructor was handed down 
from age to age as a benefactor to posterity. Not only are the scenes 
of sacred history identified by the imperishable wells, but their very 
existence tends to establish the historical character of the word of God. 



90 Jacob's well, its history and associations. 

The 'wells still to be seen at Beersheba are -witnesses of tbe life of 
Abraham ; and the well of Jacob in the Vale of Shechem is an abiding 
monument of the earliest and latest events in sacred history. They 
were usually sunk at the foot of the hills, where the best supply of 
water was likely to be found, and were places of resort for many classes 
of people. Shepherds in ancient days led their flocks, and shepherds 
even at the present day lead their flocks to the well's mouth, that the 
animals may drink of th6 cool refreshing water drawn from the deep 
rocky bed. A well was the natural halting-place of caravans, and way- 
faring men looked forward to it as a resting-place for the night. The 
women of the neighbourhood assembled in the evening to talk and to 
draw water from the well; thus it was by a well that Eliezer met 
Eebekah, Jacob met Rachel, Moses met Zipporah, and Our Saviour met 
the woman of Samaria. Thus do the Avells of the East suggest to the 
mind pictures of the ancient life of the country, and lead back our 
thoughts to the days of the prophets and the patriarchs. 

It has been urged that there is abundance of water at no great dis- 
tance from Jacob's parcel of ground, and therefore it is highly impro- 
bable that the patriarch dug a deep well in his purchased possession. 

In answering this objection it ought to be noticed that the first asser- 
tion forming the premises of the argument is quite correct, for in the 
neighbouring Vale of Shechc-m there flows a bountiful supply of water. 
Within half a mile of the well we crossed over a gushing stream, and 
close by are three springs or fountains from which water bubbles forth in 
a never-failing supply. In company v.dth El Karey, the missionary, we 
walked through Nablus, which occupies the site of ancient Shechem,. 
and is situated about a mile and a half from the well. In the streets 
and suburbs we noticed many springs, and were surprised to learn that 
in the town and neighbourhood there are over seventy perennial 
fountains, so that the Valley of Shechem is the best watered, and con- 
sequently the most fertile, valley of Palestine. Notwithstanding this,^ 
however, I tliink the conclusion that Jacob did not dig the well 
is false, and believe that, even if no other evidence existed than 
the known character of Jacob, and the fact that the well is in the parcel 
of ground, the probability is in favour of the well being constructed by 
that patriarch. 

The well, as a fact, does exist now, and has existed from time im- 
memorial, and at enormous cost and labour must have been sunk by some 
person of wealth, who desired an abundant supply of water independent 
of the adjoining springs. "Whatever objections, therefore, are urged 
against the patriarch being the constructor, are equally applicable to 
any other person ; and since the well has been dug, there is no person in 
the history of the district so likely to have undertaken this gigantic work 
as the patriarch .Jacob, the great shepherd prince of ancient Israel. 
His grandfather Abraham, a man very rich in cattle, in silver, and in 
gold, dug wells of water in the hill country of Judea, and in consequence 
of some disputes with the inhabitants regarding the ownership of the 



Jacob's well, its history and associations. 91 

well, Abraham made a covenant with Abimelech, and to confirm the oath 
named the well Beersheba— that is, the well of the oath. Isaac also had 
many contentions with the inhabitants of the land respecting the wells, 
for not only had he to dig again the wells of his father, which had 
maliciously been stopped by the Philistines after the death of Abraham, 
but when he found it desirable to sink other wells, the natives persistently 
strove for the possession of them. 

On arriving at the plain of El Mukhna by the Vale of Shechem, 
Jacob, for his part, doubtless recalled to mind the fierce con- 
tentions that both his father and grandfather had with the in- 
habitants of the land. He could not but remember also that the root 
of that contention lay in the fact that both Isaac and Abraham 
had digged wells in ground that was not their purchased possession ; 
and consequently Jacob wisely resolved to buy a parcel of groimd of the 
people of the land, so that no disputes might arise respecting the heritage 
of the soil. His household was very extensive, and it was necessary 
that every day he himself, his children, and his cattle, should have an 
abundant supply of water. Many springs of water were bubbling forth 
perennial streams ; but the patriarch was a stranger in a strange land, 
and the abundant supply required daily for his flocks might incite the 
anger of the children of Hamor, and be urged as a plea for that jealous 
contention so often endured by Abraham and Isaac. Under these 
circumstances it appears natural to suppose that the peace-loving Jacob 
secured for himself a never-failing source of living water by digging a 
deep well in his own purchased possession. 

"How truly," says Dr. Tristraoi, "in keeping with Jacob's peace- 
loving character was this act of sinking a well in a plain at so enormous 
a cost — so near the city and its abundant springs and rills — fearing lest 
his sons should quarrel with the Shechemites concerning the water more 
precious than land. The land might be roamed over by the flocks, for 
the people were few ; but the springs were not to be drunk up by the 
herds of the stranger. Therefore, following the examples of his father 
and his grandfather, Jacob determined to sink a well, but profiting by 
the remembrance of their experience at Beersheba, with characteristic 
caution he first purchased the piece of land of the lord of the country, of 
Hamor the father of Shechem." The well at one time must have been 
of considerable depth, probably the deepest in Palestine ; and being in 
great measure bored through the rock, this gigantic undertaking, when 
once consummated, would remain as a valuable legacy to posterity. It 
is never once alluded to in the Old Testament, but this may arise from 
the fact that wells became common in the country, and the neighbour- 
hood of Shechem being well supplied with water the people were not 
dependent upon it for their supply. It could not, however, be destroyed. 

That, however, which gives an undying interest to Jacob's WeU, and 
renders it one of the most interesting spots in the world, is the fact that 
Ovir Blessed Lord sat one day by the well's mouth, and in con- 
versation with a Samaritan woman unfolded to her the spiritual 



92 Jacob's well, its history and association's. 

nature of that dispensation He came from heaven to proclaim. One 

day in the month of May of the present year we sat do^v^l by Jacob's 

Well, and it was to us a deep delight to sit on a spot where the Saviour 

once sat, and to gaze upon the wide plain, the fertile vale and 

towering Gerizim just as they met His sacred gaze eighteen hundred 

years ago. Taking out our Bible we read the fourth chapter of 

St. John ; and the passage read by the well seemed to acquire 

additional freshness, and brought vividly to our minds the truth and 

accuracy of the Scripture narrative. "Then cometh He to a city of 

Samaria, which is called Sychar, near to the parcel of ground that Jacob 

gave to his son Joseph. Now Jacob's "Well was there. Jesus, therefore 

being wearied with His journey, sat thus on the well : and it was about 

the sixth hour." He must have left Jerusalem very early in the morning 

in order that He might walk during the cool hours of morn, even 

as pilgrims do at the present day. Passing over the heights of Benjamin, 

Christ would pursue His way by the main road, going through Bethel 

and near to Shiloh, both of sacred memory. Over that ridge of hills on 

the south side of El Mukhna, and along that dusty road which for five 

miles runs through the plain, both hUls and path being seen by us as we 

sat at the well's mouth, our Saviour must have continued the long and 

toilsome journey. Midday had come, and therefore for some hours 

the sun had poured upon the solitary traveller his fierce rays, and 

therefore it Avas natural that He, weary with the journey, should 

quench His thirst with the cool water drawn from its rocky bed. 

" There cometh a woman of Samaria to draw water." It has 
been urged, and as it seems to us justly, that it is not likely that 
a Samaritan woman would walk from a town a mile and a half 
off, as the present Nablus is, to draw water from Jacob's "Well, 
when there were abundant springs in Shechem itself, and many more 
springs which she would have passed in coming from Shechem. Many 
answers have been given to this objection. First, it is said that the 
veneration for the memory of the patriarch, and the superiority of the 
cool water, are sufficient reasons for the woman going a long distance. 
Secondly, it has been suggested that Sychar might not occupy precisely 
the same site as the ancient Shechem, or the present Nablus. Eastern 
towns often change their sites — e.g., Hebron has ascended and descended 
the adjoining hills, extending and changing its site at different 
periods. The present Nazareth does not cover the exact site of ancient 
Nazareth, and while the modern barracks by Nablus were being built, 
which occupy a position midway between Jacob's "Well and the town, 
the workmen struck upon many old foundations, which tend to prove 
that the ancient city extended a considerable distance down the vale, 
eastward of the modern town. 

El Karey, the present missionary at Nablus, suggested to us that the 
woman did not go to the well to draw water for domestic purposes, inas- 
much as the anciect custom was for women to draw it in the evening; 
thus wo read that Abraham's servant " made his camels to kneel down 



Jacob's well, its history and associations. 93 

without the city by a well of water at the time of the evening, even the 
time that women go out to draw water ; " and as the time when our 
Saviour spoke to her -nas mid-day, El Karey further remarked that 
the Samaritan woman was probably working in the adjoining fields, and 
during the noontide meal approached the well simply that she might 
drink. • 

All the foregoing suggestions are reasonable, and carry with them a 

certain amount of conviction to many minds, but in my own opinion the 

true answer to the objection may be found in the following consideration. 

As I sat by the well and looked northward, I noticed at the bottom 

of Ebal, at the south-east comer of the mount, about half a mile from 

ws, a small village, and on further inquiry found it to be the village of 

Aschar. The close resemblance of this name to Sychar is very evident, 

inasmuch as the two names contain the same consonants, and it is one 

of the fundamental laws of philology that in tracing a word through its 

successive changes, the consonants, and not the changing vowels, are 

the means by which words can be traced to a common origin. It is 

not surprising, then, that some have suggested that the present 

Aschar occupies the site of the Sychar mentioned in St. John's Gospel. 

Dr. Thomson, in the "Land and the Book," speaking on this subject, 

says : — " If Nablus occupies the place of Shechem, it is one of the oldest 

■cities in the world; nor is there anything improbable in this, for its 

natural advantages, great beauty, and abundant supply of water, mark 

out the site for a city. This latter fact, however, seems to prove that 

Shechem was not the Sychar mentioned in the fourth chapter of St. 

John. It is incredible that ' the woman of Samaria ' should have 

gone two miles away from these fountains to draw water out of an 

immensely deep well. If we admit the identity of the present well of 

Jacob with that mentioned by St. John, there can be but little doubt 

that Sychar was a small Samaritan town not far from that spot ; and 

there is a village north of it now called Aschar. This is so like John's 

Sychar that I feel inclined to adopt it." It is gratifying to me 

that this view is adopted by Lieutenant Conder in his "Tent Work 

in Palestine." In vol. i., page 75, he writes :— " The little village of 

Askar stands on the slope of Ebal, within sight of Jacob's Well, about 

half a mile from it, and a little over a mile from Nablus. ... It is 

here, no doubt, that we recognise the Sychar of the fourth gospel. An 

unaccountable confusion has grown up lately between Sychar and 

Shechem. ... It will be evident to all readers of the Gospel narrative 

that S3'char, ' a city of Samaria,' near Jacob's Well, is a description 

hirdly to be expected of Shechem, which is moreover mentioned by its 

original name in the New Testament (Acts vii. 16). The early Christians 

recognised the description, and place Sychar a mile east of Shechem, as 

noticed in the ' Itinerary of Jerusalem, 333 A.D.' It is clear that they 

refer to Askar, and the identity is maintained by Canon Williams and 

others; but a difficulty has always been felt by students because the 

modern name begins with a guttural, which cannot have occurred in 



94 Jacob's vell, its history akd associations. 

the name Sychar. This diflB.culty the Samaritan chronicle seems to 
me to remove, for in it we find a town mentioned apparently near 
Shechem called Ischar, which is merely a vulgar pronunciation for 
Sychar ; and the Samaritans themselves in translating their Chronicle 
into Arabic call it 'Askar. Thus the transition is traceable from the 
Hebrew form, having no meaning in Arabic but originally ' a place 
walled in,' through the Samaritan Ischar to the modern 'Askar, a 'col- 
lection ' or ' army,' in Arabic." 

A Christian church seems to have been built over or near to the well 
in the time of Constantine the Great. The Bordeaux Pilgrim, who 
visited the spot in 333 A.D., saw no church there, but according to Jerome 
the noble lady Paula, in 383, entered a church buUt on the side of 
Gerizim — " circa puteum Jacob " (around Jacob's Well). 

Bishop Arculf, in TOO A.D., saw the church, sketched it, and describes 
it as cruciform in shape, buUt over the well. It was, however, destroyed 
before the Crusaders' time. Probably the ruins scattered round the 
spot at present belong for the most part to this ancient church. 

Over the well is a small vaulted chamber, into which we descended 
through a large hole in the roof. The chamber is 8 feet high, 7 wide, 
and 12 long. At the end is a long vault running at right angles, and 
from this run three smaller vaults parallel to each other. These under- 
ground chambers seem to have been the substructures of some church, 
but as we discovered m them the pointed arch and groined roof, they 
certainly do not belong to Constantine's time, but are probably the work 
of the Crusaders of the twelfth century. The well's mouth, which is 
under the pavement of the small vaulted chamber, has been arched over. 
Some of the arch stones had been taken away, and through the opening 
we looked down into what seemed to be a dark hole. As we continued 
to gaze intently into this shaft, we noticed that the top part was lined 
with masonry, of good polished ashlar woi'k. Deeper and deeper we 
traced the masonry, to a depth of about twenty feet, after which, as it 
seemed to us, the bore was through the rock. We then dropped a stone 
into the deep shaft, and while it was descending counted sixteen. This 
was repeated about a dozen times, mth the same result. We therefore 
judged it to be about 80 feet deep. The stones made no splash on reaching 
the bottom, from which it was evident that there was no water then in 
the well, although we were afterwards told that water is sometimes 
drawn from its rocky bottom. The well was originally much deeper, 
but other travellers, like ourselves, keep dropping stones into it out of 
curiosity ; and as this goes on from generation to generation, it is clear 
that a vast accumulation of debris chokes up the lower depths of the 
shaft. We therefore agree with El Karey in thinking that originally 
the well was probably loO feet deep. 

The Palestine Exploration Fund desire to clear out this rubbish and 
build a low wall round the well's moutb, such as would exist in the 
lime of Christ. Lieutenant Kitchener, in 1877, was prevented from 
carrying out the work by the disturbed condition of the country. I 



NEPHTOAH AND KIKJATH-JEARIM. 95 

hope that before long it ^^nll be found possible to expend the small sum 
necessary to protect from further injury one of the most venerable 
monuments in the world. 

Among the surrounding ruins we found fragments of three x-ed 
granite columns lying prostrate on the ground. Half a mile up the 
valley we found a fourth column, fifteen feet long, lying by the road- 
side. On making inquiry we learned that this column had been 
brought from the well to form an entrance to the modern barracks. 
The idea, however, was not carried out, and the venerable column was 
cast aside, and now lies neglected by the roadside. The four reminded 
us of the columns in Helena's Basilica at Bethlehem, and perhaps 
formed part of the original church biult in the days of Constantine. 

The Old Testament, the Samaritan woman, external evidence and 
tradition extending back to at least the fourth century, testify that the 
well is the work of the patriarch. 

Jews and Samaritans, Christians and Moslems, agree that this rock- 
cut bore is Jacob's Well, so that " of all the special localities of Our 
Lord's life in Palestine, this is, perhaps, the only one absolutely 
undisputed." " James Kikg. 



]N^EPHTOAH AXD KIEJATH-JEAEIM. 

The following notes maj'- perhaps be useful as throwing some light 
on the question raised by Eev. A. Henderson in the October number 
of the Quarterly Statement, respecting the line of the boundary of 
Judah, between Jerusalem and Beth-shemesh : — 

This boundary has usually been drawn westwards by Lifta (supposed 
to be Nephtoah), and Kuriet el 'Anab, supposed to be Kirjath-jearim. 

There is, however, one very great objection to such a line, namely 
the passage in the history of Saul (1 Sam. x. 2), which incidentally 
mentions the tomb of Eachel as being in the "border" of Benjamin. 
The word h^2i, used in this passage, is the word used in the book of 
Joshua to define the "boundary line" between the tribal possessions. 
The Eabbinical writers agree with this statement, saying that Eachel 
died within the territory of Benjamin. 

There is another objection also respecting Li/fa, namely, that the 
Arabic does not contain the guttural of the Hebrew Nephtoah. No> 
tow-ii of the name of Nephtoah is mentioned, either in the passage of 
Joshua (xv. 9) or elsewhere in the Bible; the place is called "the 
fountain of the waters of Nephtoah (m"-!: ■•» fi'"^), and the word |''J773 
translated " fountain," means a group of springs, or a large supply of 
water, such as does not exist at Lifta. 

The Babylon Talmud Commentary on the tract Yoma of the Mishnah 
(fol. 3Io) informs us that Nephtoah was the same place as Etam 
(diS'I?), whence an aqueduct ran to the Temple. The Etam in question 
has been recognised by Dr. Tobler and others as the present 'Ain 'Atan, 
close to the so-called Pools of Solomon, south-west of Bethlehem. From 



<)6 NEPHTOAH AND KIRJATH-JEAP.IM. 

this spring an ancient aqueduct still leads to the Temple enclosure in 
Jerusalem. 

The site thus indicated by Jewish tradition, in a passage which has 
special value because the notice is merely incidental, appears very 
appropriate. First, because in this case the boundary line, running 
from Jerusalem southwards, and passing west of Bethlehem, would 
naturally be drawn close to Eachel's Sepulchre, on the watershed of 
the country. And, secondly, because a collection of springs, such as is 
indicated by the word pyn, does exist at this spot. 

It seems, therefore, that there is a sufficient iirimd-facie case to make 
the inquiry worth pursuing, and in order to make the question clearer 
it will be well to examine very carefully the special terms employed, in 
the passage of the book of Joshua which describes the boundary line, 
starting from En Eogel, the spring east of Jerusalem now generally 
identified with the so-called " Fountain of the Virgin." 

Joshua xv. 

Ver. 8. " The border went up by the valley ('j) Ben Hinnom to the 
shoulder (f]no) of the Jebusi to the south, and the border ascended to 
the top (u;X"i) of the hill which is facing Gehinnom west, which is by the 
end {rs^ip) of the Emek Eephaim northwards." 

Ver. 9. " And the border was drawn from the top of the hill to the 
springs of the water of Nephtoah, and went out to the cities of Mount 
Ephron (jnsj;) ; and the border was drawn to Baalah, whicb is Kirjath- 
jearim." 

Ver. 10. " And the border compassed (3D:) from Baalah westwards to 
the hill Seir (iTty), and crossed over (nny) to the shoulder («]n3) of the 
hill Jearim northt7ards (HDISi'TO) it is Chesalon, and descended ("n') to 
Beth-shemesh and crossed over to Timnah." 

Joshua xyiii. 

Ver. 15. "And the south quarter from the end {T^'^p) of Kirjath- 
jearim ; and the border went forth westwards, and went forth to the 
springs of the water of Nephtoah." 

Ver. 16. *' And the border descended to the end of the hill which is above 
the face ('J'^br) of the Ge Ben Hinnom, which is by the Emek Eephaim 
northwards, and ivent doiun Ge-Hinnom to the shoulder of the Jebusi, 
and descended to En Eogel." 

Few descriptions could be more carefully worded ; the terms used for 
going up, down, or across, are all explicit, and the description is 
properly reversed as the border is described from east to west, or from 
west to east. 

Without entering into the question of the identity of Gehinnom with 
one of the two valleys which claim the name, it is evident that the 
border ran south of Jebus, and ascended to the hill west of Gehinnom 
and north of the Emek Eephaim. 

The position of the Emek Eephaim is, however, of importance, as it 



NEPHTOAH XST) KIIUATH-JEARIM. 97 

was close to the border. The word Emek (p'OV), equivalent to the Arabic 
Ohamtk, or " deep," is used in the Bible to signify the great open valleys 
between mountain chains, and sometimes the plains bounded by moun- 
tains. Thus the broad valley of Elah is called Emek ; the term cannot 
properly be applied to a gorge or ravine. 

Josephus says that the Valley of Eephaioi was a valley extendino- 
from Jerusalem to Bethlehem (Ant. vii. 12. 4), and the authors of the- 
Onomasticon xmderstood the name to apply to the hollow plateau which 
extends from south of Jerusalem to Mar Elias, and which is generally 
now called the Plain of Eephaim. 

From various passages in the Old Testament the proximity of this 
Emek Eephaim to Bethlehem may also be inferred. 

The Philistines were there encamped when the dangerous expedition 
of David's heroes to Bethlehem was undertaken (2 Sam. xxiii. 13 ; 
1 Chron. xi. 15). In another passage the Philistines are said to have 
spread themselves in the Emek Eephaim, showing it to have been an, 
expanse suitable as a camping-ground ; and David's pursuit was by 
Geba to Gazer (2 Sam. v. 22), by which we may understand a flight by 
the main valley west of Bethlehem, above which stands JeVa, the ancient 
Gibeah of Judah. 

The identification of Nephtoah with 'Ain 'Atan ; the probable positiort 
of the Emek Eephaim ; and the incidental notice of Eachel's sepulchre as 
being on the boundary, all therefore point to the watershed between 
Jerusalem and Bethlehem as forming the boundary between Judah and 
Benjamin. 

The identification of Kirjath-jearim with Kurid el 'Anah (as proposed 
by Dr. Eobinson) will, however, not agree with such a boundary; but 
this rests solely on the evidence of early Christian writers, and the im- 
portant part of the Hebrew title — viz., Jearim— is not found in the- 
Arabic name. 

The indications which we possess as to the position of Kirjath-jearim 
in the Bible are scanty. It was in the territory of Judah (Josh, xviii. 
14), and therefore a distinct place from Kirjath of Benjamin, which 
may very probably have been Kuritt el 'Anah, or, as it is generally called, 
Kurieli. The place called Mahaneh Dan (p nJriQ), which was apparently 
near Zoreah and Eshtaol {Sur'ah and Eshii'a), was also "by" (3) and 
"behind" (nns) Kirjath-jearim (Judg. xviii. 12). This place, judging 
from the general use of the word (compare, for instance, the plain called 
Muhlmnh, near Shechem), must have been a broad flat expanse suitable 
for a camp, such as is found in the open valley of Sorek south of Zoreah. 
We are thus induced to look for Kirjath-jearim not far from these 
towns of Dan, and probably it should be sought in the hills, for the 
name Baalah sometimes applied to the site indicates a lofty position, 
and the ark while at Kirjath-jearim is said to have been in "the hill" 
(Gibeah, 2 Sam. vi. 3). 

Beth-shemesh, whence the ark was taken to Kirjath-jearim, was south 



98 NEPHTOAn AND KIRJATn-JEARIM. 

of Zoreah. We miglit naturally expect Kirjath-jearim to be not far from 
Beth-shemesh, even without the testimony of Josephus, but fortunately 
that authority distinctly states (Ant. vi. 1. 4) that Kirjath-jearim was 
^' a city in the neighbourhood of Beth-shemesh." 

In a former paper I have noticed the discovery by the survey party 
in 1874 of a ruin near Beit'Atab named 'Erma. This word preserves the 
principal letters of Arim, the later foim of the ancient larim, which 
means "thickets," and forms the important part of the name — Kirjath- 
jearim, " the village of thickets." The surrounding hills are more thickly 
clothed, even at the i^resent day, with dense copse than is any part of 
the district in which the town can be sought. The ruin is situate 
on the southern brink of the great valley which broadens into the 
valley of Sorek, and it is about four miles east of the site of Beth- 
shemesh ('Ain Shemes), thus agreeing with the vsrords of Josephus. 
The probable site of the Mahaneh Dan is north-west of the ruin, 
and Zoreah and Eshtaol are on the opposite side of the flat 
valley, which may be supposed to have formed the " Camp of 
Dan." There is no di£ficulty in drawing the boundary from the 
Pools of Solomon to this new site for Kirjath-jearim. The water- 
shed of the long spiu- called el 'Arkuh (" the ridge ") would be followed 
all along westwards, and this ridge may perhaps be the Mount Ephron 
of the book of Joshua, though in such a case it has lost its name, in 
common with all the other natural features of Palestine mentioned in 
the Bible. It remains to inquire whether the line can be drawn west of 
the site of 'Erma in a satisfactory manner. The number of points 
described are more numerous because the line appears to have been 
artificial, twice crossing over some valley or stream. 

West of Kirjath-jearim was Mount Seir, and of this, perhaps, the 
name is recognisable in Khurhet S'aireh (a ruin), which is on the same 
block of hill, though too far south to have been actually on the boundary 

line. 

From Mount Seir the border went to Mount Jearim, not to the top, 
but to the slope or shoulder of the mountain. This hill appears also to 
have been wooded, and was called Chesalon (jiVd3 KT^ nJli'O). The 
border appears to have gone north, and ci'ossed over a valley between 
Mount Seir and Mount Jearim. 

We have a further indication in this part, for the towns of Zoreah and 
Eshtaol were so close to this boundary that they are in one passage 
(Josh. XV.) enumerated as towns of Judah, and in another (Josh, xix.) 
as towns of Dan. This accounts for the irregular course of the boundary, 
twice crossing over between Kirjath-jearim and Timnah, and having 
Beth-shemesh (a town of Judah only) south of the line. 

From the Survey map (Sheet XVII.) this boundary can easily be 
traced. The line has to cross a deep valley between the hill on which 
''Erma stands and the long lidge on which to the north is Kesla, the 
recognised site of Chesalon. It has again to recross the same valley to 
get to Timnah after passing Zoreah and Eshtaol on the south and 



ZOAR. 99 

Betli-shemesli on tlie nortli. The border cannot, however, be drawn to 
the top of the mountain on which KesJa stands, but would run over the 
western slope or " shoulder," just as described in the Bible. 

In connection with the line thus proposed, it is noticeable that no cities 
of Juclah are enumerated in the Hebrew Bible north of this line. In the 
Septuagint, indeed, no less than six towns are enumerated which are 
identified with places lying in the territory which would have belonged 
to Benjamin according to the new boundary. These are Culon [Kolonia), 
Sores {Saris), Carem (JAiji Karim), Galem (J5. Jala), Bether [Bittir), and 
Manocho {3Idlhah). The interpolation of these names may, however, 
possibly belong to a later period, when the old boundaries were for- 
gotten, and when it was noticed that this group of important places 
west of Jerusalem was unnoticed in the Old Testament. 

Another important gain is, that Lifta being no longer supposed to 
represent Nephtoah, we are at liberty to identify it with Eleph (f|Ss) of 
Benjamin, mentioned in the lists next to Jerusalem (Josh, xviii.), and 
therefore very probably in about the actual position of Lifta. 

If we could recover Perez — Uzzah, Chidon, or Nachon (2 Sam. vi., 
1 Chron. xiii. 6), and Mount Ephron, the question might be further 
elucidated; but of these names I have not been able to find any trace. 

Claude E. Coxder, Lt. R.E. 



ZOAE. 

MV attention has been called by Mr. Besant to the interestmg report 
of Eev. Selah Merrill on the "Cities of the Plain" (4</i American 
Statement). He supposes Tell Ektanu to be the site of Zoar, and marks 
it on his sketch map as two miles east of Tell er Eama, while, according 
to the map in the 3rcl Statement, Tell esh Shaghur is very nearly a mile 
and a half from the same spot. 

I cannot quite reconcile the two maps, since the latter gives also an 
intermediate Tell, while Mr. Merrill says there are exactly Jive Tells in the 
plain of Shittim, without counting Nimrin — viz., Tell Kefrein, Tell er 
Eama, Tell el Hammam, Tell Ektanu, and Suweimeh. As he places the 
fijst and third of these about a mile to the north of the wady passing 
by Tell er Eama and Tell Ektanu (it also passes by Tell esh Shaghur), and 
marks Suweimeh some miles to the south-west of them, one Avould like 
some explanation as to the fate of Tell esh Shaghur. 

It is strange that Professor Paine should recover the very name of 
Zoar in Tell esh Shaghur without commenting on it, and Mr. Merrill 
afterwards describe the Tells in the " plain" and yet pass by the Arabic 
title without notice. Tell esh Shaghur is evidently the ' ' Segor " visited by 
Thietmar, AD. 1217 (Bibl. Diet., Zoar). This hill cannot, I now think, 
be that described by Canon Tristram, for Mr. Merrill writes : *' Between 
Tell Ektanu and Tell el Hammam, and close to the foot of the moun- 
tains, there are some of the largest and finest dolmens that I have ever 



100 ZOAR. 

seen. The slabs of unhewn stone which covei- them are, in some cases, 
of immense size, I counted upwards of fifteen of these, and where they 
were nearly perfect, the roof or cover slanted on two sides, so far as this 
could be with the materials used ; and it appeared to me quite evident 
that the dolmens were the original of the sarcophagi, with which the 
country now abounds." 

In speaking of Tell Ektanu, he states that "on it are some of the 
oldest ruins that I have yet seen in the country ;" and that "the name, 
indeed, has no meaning in Arabic. ... It appears to be the Hebrevf' 
word ' Katan,' which means little, or the little one." 

"Luwayeh" may without hesitation be taken to represent Luhith, 
since M. Ganneau recovered the name "Zoheleth" in the Arabic form, 
"Zehwele." 

On further consideration I am disposed to think that Mr. Finn did 
not ascend Wady Hesban, but one just north of it ; yet until the district 
has been accurately mapped, certainty is difficult. Both wadies, however, 
may abound in honeysuckle. 

A true identification ought to bear being thoroughly sifted ; so also 
should the objections raised in any instance. Seven points in formidable 
array are marshalled {Quarterly Statement, 1878, p. 28) in favour of the 
mediaeval opinion that Jeroboam's golden calves were set up near Shechem, 
and against the usual view that one was at the northern Dan and the 
other at Bethel, in Benjamin. Not one, however, of the seven will stand 
scrutiny. 

Similarly, in his valuable report, the American explorer raises an 
unsound objection to identifying Hazezon-Tamar (Gen. xiv. 7) with 
Engedi. He observes that if the cities of the plain are put at the northern 
end of the Dead Sea, Chedorlaomer's campaign is no longer a geo- 
graphical puzzle, yet he adds, " But the wonder still remains how he 
could pass by Abraham's door, and fight battles, and not attract his 
attention. I strongly suspect that the name Hazezon-Tamar has mi- 
grated from the eastern to the western shore, and that Chedorlaomer 
had nothing to do with the western shore .... but returned by a 
route on the east" — or "if Hazezon-Tamar means palm forests .... 
the messengers who came to Jehoshaphat may have said simply, "The 
great multitude . . , are at the palm- groves which are at Engedi" 
(2 Chron. xx. 2). The Bible narrative requires neither supposition, since 
it incidentally states all we want. Abram must have heard of the 
coming invasion, and therefore was " confederate" with Aner, Eshcol, 
and Mamre, and had 318 men "trained" (? drilled) so as to meet the 
emergency. Happily for the four kings, Hebron did not lie within the 
sphere of their operations, and the patriarch had no interest in this 
eastern question, as between them and the five cities. But when, in an 
unlucky hoirr, they seized Lot and his goods, and one^escaped and told 
Abram "that his Irother was taken captive," then the tie of consan- 
guinity, which throws light on many obscurities in the Bible, aroused 
the avenger of blood to s*art in deadly pursuit with characteristic 
promptitude. 



2EB0IM, 101 

Mr. Merrill seems inclined to think that the five cities of tlie plain were 
situated on Tells, and that the five Tells already named exactly suit the 
position required. As, however, " Lot beheld all the plain of Jordan . . . 
•until thou comest unto Zoar," i.e., as far as Zoar, which was therefore 
the limit of the "plain," i.e.., of tlie Ciccar, it seems to me that Suweimeh, 
several miles farther south, could not be one of the five cities. We 
anust accordingly examine the "plain" for another probable site, and 
'■extend our search, if necessary, at least as far as "the oasis of Wady 
Shaib or Nimrin" ("the waters of Nimrim," Isa. xv. 6), ^* which 
■really belongs to the Shittim plain," in order to take in some other Tell 
■to complete the required five. From "Wady Shaib northwards to the 
•Jabbok, near Tell Damia, the plain is "desolate and barren, owing to 
the fact that there are no fountains or streams flowing down upon it 
-from the hills " (Quarterly Sfatemeiit, 1876, p. 177). 

It formerly seemed to me that the Damieh fords represented the name 
:a,nd general position of Admah, one of the five cities of the plain, but 
^he interposition of this large ban-en tract renders this impossible. The 
plain, or Ciccar, which Lot beheld was "well watered everyvjhere," and 
must therefore have been iimit-ed on the north by this "real desert" 
Tegion. 

In finding Zoar wb had the help of many indications, and we know 
for certain that Sodom was near it. 

Towards fixing the precise position of the three remaining cities, all 
we have to guide us is that (1) they were «'« the "plain," i.e., the Shittim 
oasis from Wady Shaib to Wady Hesban, or to the Dead Sea ; and (2) 
"possibly, the order in which they are named, "Sodom and Gomorrah, 
and Admah and Zeboim, even unto Lasha " (PLaish). Zoar does not 
appear in the first list (Gen. x. 19). 

This second point might lead us to conjecture that as Sodom was to 
the south, Zeboim, the last named, must have been the most northern 
■city in the plain- Is there any Tell in this paj-t bearing a name at all 
Sike Zeboim ? 



ZEBOIK 

About seven miles north-west from Tell esh Shaghur is a hill marked 
<on Van de Velde's map as Tell esh Sha'ib. There seem to be good 
reasons for regarding this as Zeboim. 

As the Z of Zoar has become " Sh " in Shaghur, we should expect the 
same change in Zeboim, and so we have above >S7ia'ib. 

Zeboim (Auth. V.) seems to stand for two different Hebrew words, 
one meaning " hyenas " (Neb. xi. 34, and valley of Zeboim, 1 Sam. xiii. 
18) ; the other " gazelles " (in Genesis Zeboiim), from the Hebrew Tzebi 
(whence Tabitha), a gazelle. I consider, therefore, the essential part of 
the word Zeboim is preserved in Sha'ib. Thus as to position and name 
the identification seems to be sound. 



102 ZEBOisr. 

But further there is a special reason why a city in this region should" be 
called Zcljoim or gazelles. 

David fleeing from Jerusalem must have crossed the Jordan, near 
Jericho on his way to Mahanaim, Abner with his men retreating from. 
Gibeon would, we may a^^sert, have crossed about the same spot, 
(2 Sam. ii. 29.) "They walked through the plain {arahah), and passed 
over Jordan, and went through all Bitliron, and came to Mahanaim." 
Wherever the last place may have been, there can be little doubt that the 
road to it passed near Tell esh Sha'ib, and (as at the present day) led up 
Wady Sha'ib. This part, then, of the country would seem to be described 
as Bithi-on. 

In Song of Scl. ii. 1" we read : "Be thou like a roe {i.e., gazelle) or a 
young hart upon the mountains of Bether." As Bether and Bithron are 
so much alike, and have been taken to be the same, why should one 
hesitate to consider ' ' the mountains of Bether to be the district ' ' all 
Bithron " through which Abner went, or, at any rate, the mountains 
above it, if Bithron was entirely in the plain ? That the mountains oS 
Bether were in Gilead seems next to certain from Song of Sol. viii. 14, 
" Be thou like to a roe (gazelle) or to a young hart upon the mountams 
of spices," or of the balsam iushes, producing the halm for which Gilead 
was renowned. 

Thus, as in western Palestine, the Ayal (hart) gave its name to the 
valley and city of Aijalou, so in the territory of Gad the Tzebi, or 
fleetly bounding (1 Chron. xii. 8, roes) gazelle, may have preserved its 
memory in Wady Sha'ib, and Tell esh Sha'ib, which I would thus recog- 
nise as Zeboim, on account of its name, general position, and proximity 
to the gushing streams from Nimrin (Isa. xv. 6), doubtless the favourite 
resort of the gazelle's natural enemy, the nim^r, or leopard. 

As, however, the Z (Tzade) in Zeloim becomes T in the Aramaic 
Tabitha, and the Arabic for gazelle is i)hebi (Lieut. Conder, Quarterlij 
Statement, 1876, p. lo^}, it might seem that Shaib after all can have 
nothing to do with Zeboim, and that the proposed identification faila 
on philological grounds. Yet the Hebrew Tzur becomes in Greek 
Tyre and in Arabic »S'ur. Here is variety in pronunciation. In 
Greek it cannot be determined whether a or S was more strongly 
marked in pronouncing ^, while in the LXX. Zeboim is rendered 
"SePaie'i/x. There are several instances {e.(/., Zarephath, Zemaraim, 
Zorah) in which the Hebrew "J {Tsade) is represented now by S ; but 
I am not aware of any case except Zeboim in which it becomes 
Dh. Shaib would seem to be the natural fonn of the word if no 
meaning were attached to it, or even if it were slightly altered to have a 
meaning, just as Eamah has been changed into Er Eam (the tank) ; for 
possibly Shaib may signify "brooks" {Quarterly Statement, 1872, p. 140. 
Yaskub fi Sh'aaib = " it pours into the brooks "). 

It may bo mentioned that Mr. Merrill says that an older name for 
Tell Kefrein is Tell es Shairab (" Tell of dr inking," or the place where 
good water is abundant). This is somewliat similar to Sliaib, and so oS 
course to Zeboim. On his map Tell Shaib seems to be called Tell Churba, 



it. 103 

It is curious that east of Acre is a valley marked on Van de Velde's as 
Wady Shagghir or Shaab, and a district in GalUee is called Esh Shaghur. 

Ayal (the hart) is mentioned in Psa. xlii. 1, which is allowed to have 
been composed on the eastern side of the Jordan, and why not, I would 
ask, by David, while he lay at Mahaaaim ? If this city be identified 
with Mahneh, it is a remarkable coincidence that close to it is a village 
named cl-Mesar (Van de Velde) or Mezer (Finn's " Byeways," p. G7), 
recalling " the hill (really mountain) Mizar," while liot far off a fine view 
is obtained of Mount Ilermon, and probably of the Jordan valley, 
answering to the words, " the lund of Jordan and oi the Hermonites" 
(Psa. xlii. 6). W. F, BiiiCH. 

AI. 

Truly Ai is like a will-o'-the-wisp. It has been seen at Et-Tel, 
Haiyau, Kh. Haiy, and Rummen ; yet still it eludes unanimous identifi- 
catiou. 

On the new map Et Teli is marked E.S.E., and Michmash, near Kh, 
Haiy, a little S. oi S.E. from Beitin (Bethel). Thus the expression, " Ai, 
on the east side of Bethel " (Josh ^di.'2), does not exclude any of the above- 
oamed sit«s. Michmash was eastward from Beth-aven (1 Sam. xiii. 5 = 
to the east of Bethaven. — Sp. Comoi), which again, apparently, was " on 
the east side of Bethel" (Josh. vii. 2). The words "east side" fail, 
therefore, to help us in choosing between the four places already specified, 
while, if Deii- Diwaa be Bethaven (as first proposed by Mr. Finn), then 
eastward in 1 Sam. xiii. means something very little east of due south. 

In Josh, vii., viii., and Neh. vii. 32, Bethel is so closely connected with 
Ai, that it seems to me that Aija (Neh. zi. 31) and Avim (Josh, xviii. 23) 
must be allowed to be Ai, Avhich I regard as also being Aiath (Isa, x. 28). 

The cliff Eimmon (Judg. xx. 45) appears to me to be identical with 
the Eimmon (Auth. V. translated "pomegranate ") of 1 Sam. xiv. 2 ; and 
the boundary of Benjamin I tak-e to have been drawn south of Eummon, 
which in this case cannot have been the site of Ai, though it is visible 
from Geba. 

As the height of Almit is 2,089 feet, of Eizmeh 2,020 feet, and of Geba 
2,22G feet, the fii'st of these must be visible from the last, as the inter- 
mediate distance is about two miles. Thus aU the places named in Isa. 
X. 28-32 (as supposed to be identified on p. 58, Quarterly Statement, 1877, 
and p. 133, 1S78) have been ascertained to be visible from Geba, except 
three— viz., Gallim, which has not been tested, Eamah, which I still 
hope will prove to be visible, as Almit and Laish have done {Quarterly 
statement, 1877, p. 205), and lastly Ai (or Aiath), which is visible if it be 
Et Tel or Kh. Haiy, or Eummon, and probably so if it be Haiyan. 

Ai must have had a good supply of water close at hand, as was the 
case at Jericho, Bethel, Gibeon, &c. To help us, then, in identifying its 
mte, we have (1) a spring, (2) an open valley {emek), (3) another valley 
(gai), not to speak of ruins or a position commanding the road from 
Jericho. Suiely we may hope that the new map will solve the difficulty. 



104 

"ZION, THE CITY OF DAVID.'^ 

In the last Statement (p, 35) Mrs. Finn writes : " In the outbreak of 
1834 the Fellahheen actually got possession of Jerusalem for a while. 
They entered by the sewer, from the south-east, and thus got (after some- 
little difficulty in enlarging a passage for exit) into- the Armenian! 
quarter." 

It has been noted as a remarkable coincidence that Jerusalem hasf 
thus twice been entered by a hostile force in identically the same way — 
viz., through a subterranean passage — on the first occasion by Joab, 
through the Gutter (or Tzinnor), on the last thi-ough the sewer as 
described above. 

Historically it would be interesting to get a conviction against 
Aratmah for treachery. The evidence may be thus summed up : — 

1. Some one must have betrayed Jebus. 

2. He would wdthout doubt be liberally rewarded for his services, in 
addition to the i:)reservation of his household. 

3. It is certain that no other quarter would be given, for David was pro- 
voked (2 Sam. V. 8), and was not mild at such times (1 Sam. xxv. 13, &c.). 
The matter also fell into the hands of Joab, who, if less impetuous, was 
not less thorough in his work (1 Kings xi. 16). 

4. Araunah is found in possession of exceedingly valuable land, in an 
advantageous position connecting him with the city, and requiring an 
explanation why an alien should be allowed to own it. 

5. Josephus says "he was a wealthy man among the Jebusites, but 
was not slain by David in the siege of Jerusalem because of the good- 
will he bore to the Hebrews, and a particular benignity and affection 
which he had to the king himself " {Whiston). 

I do not think that any jury of honest or dishonest Jebusites would 
hesitate to identify the traitor who would be spared and enriched, with 
the very man who bore good-will to the Jews and was very intimate 
with David, and who sold him for 600 shekels of gold (more than Omri 
paid for the hill of Samaria) the diy rock of Moriah, doubtless foreseen 
by one speculator at the capture of Jebus as certain afterwards to fetch 
a fabulous price for building purposes. Therefore, verdict " Guilty." 



Errata.— 1878, p. 133, line 17. After "above" read " though Michmash 
was . . . between them" (liue 18). 

P. 182, line 11. After "east" read or south-east. 

P. 185, line 36. For "eastern" read western. 

P. 186, line 25. For " Acre " read Acra. 

P. 187 (5). For "or at any rate," &c., read unless this be one just below the 
fountaiji, in the Nachal. 

It is remarkable that Jerome mentions the valley of Hinnom, but never the 
Tyropoeon. W. F. Birch. 



105 



ON THE SITE OF EMMAUS. 

Lieutenant Conder has in his Book (I. p. 1-i) given his adhesion to 
the old view revived by Dr. Robinson that the Einmaus of Luke xxiv. 
is Nicopolis, the modern 'Amwas. He does so apparently on the strength 
of the testimony of the Sinaitic MS., which in Luke xxiv. 13 reads 160 
stadia. But the reading of that MS. is not sufficient to set aside other 
MS. authority, and still less to overbear the difficulties its adoption 
would create. (1) The weight of authorities is so decidedly against the 
Sinaitic — supported as it is only by MSS. I. K. and N. — that even 
Tischendorf does not accept it, partial as he naturally was to that MS. 
with the discovery of which his name will be always associated. More- 
over the testimony of the Sinaitic lies specially open to suspicion on 
such a point. It has been thought by many scholars not improbable 
that it is one of the MSS. of the New Testament prepared by Eusebius 
at the command of Constantine. Its peculiar arrangement of four 
columns on the page is one that Eusebius says characterised some of 
those he had prepared ; while its correspondence in doubtful passages 
with the readings approved by him is very notable. That Eusebius of 
Cesarea knew Nicopolis as Emmaus of the Maccabees is certain ; as also 
that he knew it to be about 160 stadia from Jerusalem, and that he 
believed it to be the Emmaus of Luke xxiv. May he not be the author 
of this correction (?) on the Sinaitic, to bring it into agreement with 
the distance of that Emmaus from Jerusalem ? Can the Sinaitic be 
regarded with certainty as an independent witness, and not just the 
Onomasticon over again ? 

(2) The distance of Nicopolis — 160 stadia — from Jerusalem is quite 
incompatible with Luke's narrative. It implies a journey of 40 mUes in 
one day, the second half after the evening meal ! Such an objection 
would have had no weight with Eusebius. The deus ex machina of a 
miracle would have rid him of it had it been suggested. It is expressly 
etated that our Lord and the disciples had reached Emmaus (ver. 28, 29). 

(3) The exact language of Luke in describing the place is equally 
opposed to the view that he intended Nicopolis. Twice in his narrative 
he calls it " a village ; " though his use of " city " and " village " by no 
means indicates oversight of the distinction (viii. 1 ; xiii. 22). More- 
over the phrase " a village called Emmaus " is one not likely to be used. 
in speaking of a fortress so famous in Jewish and Eoman history as 
Emmaus Nicopolis. In Mark xvi. 12, which is of undoubted value, 
whoever the author, the destination of the two disciples is described in 
the same style — " they went into the country" (e«s a.yi)6v), which would 
scarcely have been used had they been going to a well-known city. 

(4) The force of this consideration is intensified when we look to the 
Maccabees and Josephus. In 1 Mace. iii. 40, ix. 50, we have simply 
"Emmaus," without any description. And so throughout Josephus 
{e.g. Antiq. xvii. 10. 7, 9; BeU. Jud. v. 1. 6; 2. 3 ; 13. 1) Nicopolis is 

simply " Emmaus." Frequently, moreover, he calls it " a city" {ttoKls) 



106 ON THE SITE OF EMMAITS. 

(Antiq. xii. 7. 3 ; xiv. 11.2; Bell. Jud. iii. 3. 5). But when he speaks of 
Emmaus by the shore of the Sea of Galilee, near the " City " of Tiberias, 
he describes it (Antiq. xviii. 2. 3) as " a village named Emmaus." Again, 
in describing that Emtnaus where a colony of 800 of the disbanded 
soldiery was settled (Bell. Jud. vii. 6. 6), he calls it "a place (xwpioj') 
called Emmaus, distant from Jerusalem 60 [or according to another reading 
30) stadia.'^ He spells the name slightly differently, as 'Ammaous. 
Whether the reading in this last-cited passage be 60 or 30 stadia, 
Josephus could not mean the city of Emmaus " in the plain." It seems 
utterly inconceivable in the light of such usage why Luke should have 
si^oken of Emmaus as he has done, if he meant the famous city. It has 
been said it might be but a village since its destruction by Varus. Pos- 
sibly, but that would not affect the pre-eminence its history had given 
it, and which led Josephus, and doubtless every one else, still to speak 
of it as simply " Emmaus." If the EvangeHst had meant that Emmaus, 
he would have made his intention clear by simply, as Josephus does, 
calling it by its familiar name. 

(5) Tlie readiug, 60 stadia, is supported not only by the weight of New 
Test. MS. authority, but by the MS. evidence for the same reading in 
Josephus (Bell. Jud. vii. 6. 6). The consent of these independent 
witnesses to the placing of an Emmaus at that distance from Jerusalem 
will settle the point to most n\inds. It may be added that a distance of 
160 stadia would be no localisation at all, seeing that the direction from 
Jerusalem is not given. Let any one plant a circle of 40 miles diameter 
on his map of the land and judge the value of such a description of the 
situation of a village ! A site must be sought on the circle formed by a 
radius of 7 or 8 miles from Jerusalem. 

Of the claimants to represent the Emmaiis of Luke xxiv. this will 
dispose of two — \imwas, which is twenty miles from Jerusalem; and 
Kulonieh, which is too near, though it might suit the 30 stadia of some 
MSS. of Josephus. The arguments for it are not of much force. It is 
not proved that though a colony was settled here it was the colony of 
Josephus (B. J. vii. 6. 6). Four sites still remain at which it has been 
proposed to locate Emmaus. 

(1) Kuriet el Enab (Smith's Diet. Geog., and Thomson's Land and 
Book). The only argument is that this place is at the required distance 
from Jerusalem ; that it is a suitable scene is a matter of opinion or of 
sentiment. The Greek tradition in its favour is of doubtful value. Its 
present name is the ancient one; being probably the Kirjath of Josh, 
xviii. 28. It is not likely that it was also known as Emmaus. If it 
had been, Luke or Josephus would have surely distinguished it by the 
use of that distinctive name. 

(2) Etam, which is thus put by Lightfoot, and which we leave, with 
him, to the reader's judgment: — " Cum observamus ut Chammath, r\yiT\, 
vel Thermae Tiberiadis, vulgo reddatur Graece 'A/j.jjiaovs, cumque obser- 
vamus etiam Emmaunta nostram, aquis celebribus quoque nobilem, non 
recognoscere nou possumus Aquas Nephtoae, vel Fontem Etam, uude 



ON THE SITE OF EMMAUS. 107 

deductae per tubos sunt aquae ad Templum : qui quidem erat ab 
Hierosolymis ab eodem cardine coeli, quo et Emmaus nostra. Et 
formari potest 'Eixfxaovs nostra ab HTOi? Ammath, Canali aqnarum, aeque ac 
altera 'A/x/xaovs, ab nttP dmmmath, Thermis. Sed judicet lector." (Light- 
foot Chorographica Pauca, Lucae Praemissa, Cap iv. § iii.) 

(3) El-Kuheileh, wliicb is at tbe reqiiired distance to the north-west 
of Jerusalem ; the exact measurement being 62| stadia. It has the 
doubtful evidence of Crusaders' tradition. It has been said they found 
the name of Emmaus applied to it by the native population as early as 
the eleventh century. The claims of Kubeibeh have been set forth at 
length by Dr. H. Zschokke, of the Austrian Pilgrim House at Jerusalem 
{Das Neutestamentliche Emmaus beUuchtet, Schaffhausen, 1865). It is 
supported by several resident authorities there, as Herr C. Schick and 
others. The weak part of the evidence in its support is the date at which 
the name Emmaus first appears there, and the authority for its appear- 
ance even then. On the other hand, it may be said that, though appa- 
rently an ancient site, the present name is not (like Kuriet) an ancitnt 
one, and no native tradition conflicts with the Crusaders' testimony. 

(4) Khamasa, also at the required distance, but to the south-west of 
Jerusalem. Its claims are set forth by Lieutenant Conder {Quarterly 
Statement, 1876, p. 172), who, however, has now cast off his foundling. 
The chief argument for it is its name, which may be derived from the 
ancient "Hammath." On this we are unable to judge. If scholars 
agree on the origin of the name it would be a weighty argument, and 
would probably secure for this site general acceptance. Possibly the 
spring which still exists, and which gave its name to the ruins, "ruin 
of the fountain of the church," was once a thermal spring. The absence 
of a warm spring in a country so liable to volcanic changes could scarcely 
be pressed against any of the claimants, though Emmaus Tiberias stiU 
deserves the name. 

The choice among present claimants seems to lie between the two last 
El-Kubeibeh, as every one who has visited it will admit, befits the scene 
of such a story, and certainly the Crusaders were not often as fortunate 
in the suitableness of the sites they identified with Bible places. 
From Lieutenant Conder's account Khamasa seems quite as suitable, 
and has the advantage in the transmitted native testimony which 
its name affords. We still incline to it; though amidst so much 
uncertainty, the only thing we feel certain about is, that the place 
was not Nicopolis. There is perhaps something befitting the narrative 
and the manner of all the Lord's appearings during the forty days, in 
this veil cast over the scene of it. Possibly we would not be gainers if 
it could be localised. A. Hendeesok. 



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K 



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Since the pviuting of the Notes and Rews, the followinc^ 
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^tKf^Hf' 



•Quarterly Stateme:^t, July, 1879.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

The following prospectus lias been prepared by tbe Executive Committee. It 
has been issued to the members of the General Committee first, and is now 
presented to the whole body of subscribers : — 

"The Committee have now in their hands, completed and arranged for 
publication, the whole of the maps, memoirs, drawings, and special studies 
connected with their survey of Western Talestine. Her Majesty's Government 
have kindly allowed the twenty-six sheets of the Society's great map to be 
photo-lithographed by the Ordnance Survey Department, Southampton, under 
the immediate control of Colonel Cooke, R.E., C.B. The greatest accuracy has 
therefore been secured. 

" The memoirs, drawings, and special studies are the work of Colonels Wilson 
and Waircn, Captain Anderson, Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, Professor 
Palmer, Mr. Glaisber, and other investigators. 

" It is proposed to issue these results, so long expected by Biblical and 
historical students, without delaj-. The first issue will be a large paper edition 
in quarto ; the number of copies strictly limited to 250 ; each copy to be 
numbered and signed by the Chairman of the Executive Committee, in the 
order in which the names of subscribers are received. The first volume, Avith 
corresponding maps, may be expected about the end of the present year. 

" The general editors will be — 

" Lieut. -Colonel Wilson, R.E., C.B. 
" Captain Anderson, R.E., C.M.G. 

"The number of volumes, including those of drawings and plans, will be at 
least six, and jn-obably seven. 

"The price of this edition will be 12 guineas, payable at the option of the 
subscriber, either in advance, or as the volumes and sheets are issued. 

" No part of the memoirs, none of the drawings, and no sheets of the map, 
will be issued to the general public until the whole work is in the hands of 
fiubscribers to this large paper edition, and the work will not be issued afterwards 
in a clieaper form. 

' ' The foUowiug particulars can be given : — 

"I. The Great JL\r. 
"The Great Map consists of twenty-six sheets, each 22 inches by 18 inches, 
and covers the whole of the country between a line dra^vn eastward from the 
mouth of the Litany on the north, and one drawn from Gaza to the middle o f 



110 NOTES AND NEWS. 

the Dead Sea on the south. Its eastern boundary is the Jordan. The map is 
on a scale of 1 inch to a mile : it is thus large enough to show every detail of 
the country — every ruin, every village, ancient or modern ; the aqueducts, 
plantations, Koman roads, tells, tombs, synagogues, temples, castles, and forts, 
Crusading and Saracenic ; wadies, fountains, springs, and wells. It is not only 
the largest map of Palestine yet produced, but it Is the onhj map of the country 
draivn, after a scientific survey, Itj trained officers. Its accuracy has been 
attested by oflicial experts. It covers the greater part of the country which is 
the scene of Biblical history ; and though the general features of the land are 
known, having been described by numerous travellers, the details are now for 
the first time laid down. 

" Henceforth it will be possible for a .student to follow the history contained in 
the Bible by a true map of the country. 

' ' The villages are coloured in red, and the coast-lines in blue. The altitudes 
of the hills are giveii in figures. An index map, showing the j)lace of the 
separate sheets, will alao be supplied. 

"II. The Memoirs. 

" Every sheet of the Map is aecomj)anied by its own memoirs, compiled by the 
officers of the Survey from their own note-books, observations, and journals. 

" These, for convenience' sake, have been drawn up separately for each sheet, 
and the information contained in them has been divided in the following 
manner : 

"1. Topograjthy. This section gives details as to all springs, streams, valleys, 
hiU-i, position of villages, and other natural features, with special descriptions of 
interesting localities. 

" 2. Archccology. Under this head will be found an account of every ruin, 
tomb, building, or monument in the sheet, with such illustrative plans and 
sketches as may^ be thought necessary. 

"^3. Uame lists. The total number of names obtained during the course of 
the Survey is over 10,000. A native scribe accompanied the party, and took 
down as many names as could be obtained from the peasants on the spot. These 
■were then transliterated by Lieutenant Conder, and a translation has been since 
made, showing the meaning of every name. These lists are under revision by 
Professor E. H. Palmer, of Cambridge. 

"4. ProjMsecl Biblical and other identifications. As a first result of the Survey 
as many Biblical identifications have been proposed as had hitherto been made by 
all previous travellers put together. 

" 5. Ethnology. Under this heading will be grouped together all the legends, 
traditions, notes on manners and customs of the peojile, &c., collected during 
the Sui-vey. 

' ' 6. Geology. This section will include all the geological notes made during the 
work, and, if possible, a paper on the geology of the country as a whole. 

" To illustrate the second Section will be publiihed, bound or in portfolio, all 
the drawings and special plans of buildings, scenery, &c., made by the Survey 
party. 

" In addition to the memoirs, and forming part of the whole work, it is jiroposed 
to issue sjiecial papers on various subjects connected with the work, such as the 
method of conducting the Survey, the liiitory of the Survey, the diagram of 
triangulation, the geography of Palestine as a whole, the archreology, ethnology. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



Ill 



geology, and climate. .Sorac of the valuable papers which liave appeared in the 
Qiuirtcrhj Statement will be reprinted in this section of the work. 

"A form of subscription is enclosed, which may be filled up and sent to 
Mr. Walter Iksant, Secretary, who will return by post the number of each 
subscriber on the list. 

" May, 1879. " W. Ebok, President. 

" "VV. Hepwoutii Dixox, Chair uiun Ejxc. Com. 
" W. Morrison, Treamcrcr. 

" F. W. HOLLAXI), 

" George Grove, 

of subscribers to the Special Edition up to the 



Jlon. Sees 



The following is the list 
present date (June 25th) : — 
The Archbishop of York (President's 
Copy). 



1. 


Mr. W. Hei>worth Dixon. 


2. 


Rev. F. W. Holland. 


3," 


Mr. John MacGregor. 


4. 


Rev. Canon Tristram. 


5. 


The University of Durham. 


6. 


The Chapter Library, Durham. 


7. 


Mr. W. Morrison. 


8. 


Ditto. 


9. 


Rev. E. J. Selwyn. 


10. 


The Library of Magdalen Col 




lege, Oxford. 


11. 


Rev. J. H. Harriso}!. 


12. 


Mr. James Glaisher. 


13. 


Mr. J. D. Grace. 


14. 


Mr. Herbert Birch. 


15. 


The Earl of Ducie. 


16. 


Rev. Lindsay Alexander. 


17. 


Dr. H. W. Acland. 


18. 


Viscount Sandon. 



19. The Bishop of Exeter. 

20. Lord Talbot de IMalahide. 

21. The Marquess of Ripon. 
Mr. W. Spottiswoode. 
The Ven. .Archdeacon Birch. 
The Dean of Norwich. 
Mr. R. B. JIartin. 
Miss Peache. 
Rev. C. D. Ginsburg. 
The Duke of Northumberland. 
Rev. W. F. Birch. 
Rev. Charles Pritchard. 
The Duke of Westminster. 
Rev. Professor Pasey. 
Do. for Keble College Library. 
Rev. J. Barclay, LL.D. 
Mr. George Grove. 
The Duke of Devonshire. 
Mr. D. Macdonald. 
Mr William Tipping. 
Professor Hayter Lewis. 
Rev. John W. Dulles. 



22. 
23! 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 



It should be understood that there will be no eheaper edition of the Survey 
published. After this special edition is subscribed and issued, arrangements 
will be made for enabling the public to purchase any part or parts separately, 
siich as the map, the plans, the memoirs, the Arabic lists, or the special papers. 
But this will be the cheapest way of procuring the whole work. 



As regards the smaller map, that will be considered a separate production. 
The outline is now completely engraved, and considerable progress has beeu 
made in the hill-shading. 



The whole of the American work has been placed by the Committee of the 
An:ierican Association for the Exploration of Palestine in our hands. It consists 
of thirteen sheets, and embodies the results of a reconnaissance survey east of the 
Jordan. Arrangements have been made for the reproduction of this map in the 
same manner as the English work, and through the same department of Her 
Majesty's Government. The memoirs to accompany the sheets will be forwarded 
in the course of the year. The pxiblication of map and memoirs will follow that 
of our own work. 



112 NOTES AKD KE\7S. 

The appointment of Colonel "Wilson as Consul-General of Asia ]\linor will not 
oblige him to resign his office as editor of the Purvey. JSIr. Grove has, however, 
found it necessary to resign his share in the work, and the Committee have 
invited Captain Anderson to take his place. Captain Anderson is now Com- 
missioner for the Boundary of Servia, but is expected to return in the course of 
the summer. 



The Annual Jleetiug of the General Committee was held at the office of the 
Society on Tuesday, June 24th, at 3 p.m., under the presidency of Lord Talbot 
de Malahide. The Eeport of the Executive Committee, and the Kesolutions which 
were passed, will be published in the Quarterly Statement for October. 

The curious and interesting discovery recently made in the Wady Suweinit by 
the Rev. H. D. llawnsley, the report of which is published on page 177, is an 
illustration of the value of the Survey. Its history is as follows :— The Eev. W. 
F. Birch, Rector of St. Saviour's, Manchester, was led to believe that the " Rock 
Rimmon " might be found in the Wady Suweinit, and that the 600 Benjamites 
who abode in the rock must have found shelter in some great cave with a spring 
adjacent. He communicated with the Secretary, and asked that search might be 
made in the map and memoirs. A cave named Mugharet el Jai was found upon 
the map, but not described in the memoirs as possessing special interest. Mr. 
Birch then suggested that Dr. Chaplin, of Jerusalem, should be called to under- 
take a special examination of the valley. The result is the paper we are enabled- 
to publish. 

Dr. Chaplin, in forwarding the report, writes as follows : — 
"At the last moment I was prevented from joining an excursion to "Wady 
Suweinit, and the honour of recovering the cave and spring has fallen to the 
Rev. Hardwicke D. Rawnsley, of Ambleside. His observations appear to me of 
"•reat interest, and Mr. Birch has done good service by drawing attention to the 
subject. The name of the cave, ' Jai,' or 'Jaihah,' is given by Robinson (voL ii. 116). 
It is identical with that of the cave on Mr. Bergheim's property at Abu Shusheh, 
and may mean a ' place of comuig together ' — a place where sheep or goats or 
fugitives may assemble. There can hardly now be a doubt as to the position of 
the ' holes ' \khorim) out of which the Hebrews were thought by their 'enemies 
to be coming. "Whilst holding the northern side of the gorge, the Philistines 
had evidently not ventured to explore its depths, judging that the strongholds 
there were aheady occupied, and not caring to expose themselves to missiles 
from above, where the Israelitish camp was pitched in full view. ' The 
pomegranate which was in Migron ' (1 Sam. xiv. 2) stood in all probability by 
the spring where now the Ivharoob is so conspicuous, and although in Canon 
Tristram's notes the pomegranate is usually a shrub rather than a tree, it 
attains considerable dimensions when well watered and in a favourable situation. 
In some of the courtyards of Jerusalem there arc pomegranate trees probably 
twenty feet high. 

"The possible identity of the l?ock of the romegranate, where the remnant 
of the Benjamites fonud a refuge, with this pomegranate, under which Saul's 
headquarters were fixed, was suggested long ago, being mentioned in the edition 
of Gesenius's Hebrew Lexicon printed in 1834, and the more the suggestion is 



NOTES AND NEWS. 113 

examined, the more probable it apiiears. In 1 Sam. xiv. 2, 'the pomegranate 
which -was in the precipice (migron) ' distinguishes the precise spot where the 
Hebrew king was stationed. In Judges xx. 45-47 it is the rock (or precipice) to 
which the pomegranate had given a name." 



Colonel Wilson has placed in the hands of the Committee a paper on the 
Masonry of the Haram, in which he considers all the facts and discoveries which 
have been made in the subject, not only by himself in his own survey of the city, 
but those made by Colonel Warren, M. Clermont-Ganneau, Lieut. Conder, and 
others. The paper will be published in the October number of the Quarterhj 
Statement. 



We are indebted to the Zeitschrift of the German Association for the Explora- 
tion of Palestine for the two papers on Capernaum and the Birthplace of Nahum. 
The former will be found to contain a brief summary of the arguments for and 
against the various sites proposed. The latter opens out a subject extremely 
obscure. The paper on Jilodern Researches in Palestine was read by the Eev. 
Selah Merrill to the American Geographical Society. 



A crowded meeting has been held in Sydney, under the presidency of the 
Bishop, for the purpose of creating an interest in the Local Association in aid 
of the Palestine Exploration Fund. The meeting resulted in thirty or forty names 
being given in to the secretary on the spot. 



The income of the Fund from all sources, from March 11th to June 12th, 1879, 
was £643 lis. lOd. The expenditure was as follows :— Reduction of debt, 
£222 15s. 7d. ; liabilities on Tent TForl; £151 14s. 4d. ; rent, parcels, postage, 
salaries, and oflSces, £154 16s. 2d. All the "unpaid accounts " which have 
figured so formidably in the annual balance sheets are now paid oflf. 



It is suggested to subscribers that the safest and the most convenient 
manner of paying a subscription is by means of a bank. Many subscribers have 
adopted this method, recommended in the Quarterly Statement of Januaiy last. 
Among ether advantages, this method removes the danger of loss or miscan-iage, 
and saves the Society's office the labour and expense of acknowledgment by 
official receipt and letter. 



Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterhj Statement regularly are asked to 
send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward the periodical to all 
who are (mtitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes give rise 
to occasional omissions. 



It has been asked whether, since the, Survey is finished, the Quarterly State- 
ment will be discontinued. The Survey, as stated above, will be actually com- 
pleted when it is entirely published, and not before. But its completion does 
not mean the completion of the work of the Society, as reference to the original 



114 NOTES AND NEWS. 

prospectus will show. And there is, more than ever, need of a periodical devoted 
to the special line of research wliich is the raison cVctrc of this Quarterly Statement. 
It will therefore be continued as long as the Society exists and there is work of 
the kind which it represents to be done and reported. 



Several cases have been at various times discovered of jiostage stamps being 
lost on their way to the office. The only way to avoid such loss, unless subscrip- 
tions are paid tlirougli the bank, is to send money by P. 0.0. or by cheque, 
in every case jmyaUe to the order of Walter Besant, Esq., and crossed to Coxdts 
and Co., or the Union Bank, Charing Cross Branch. 



The ninth thousand of " Our Work in Palestine " is now ready (price 3s. 6d.), 
and may be ordered of booksellers. This book carries the work down to the 
commencement of the Sui'vey, but does not embrace M. Ganneau's discoveries 
nor the results of the Survey itself. 



The following are at present Representatives and Lecturers of the Society, in 
addition to the local Hon. Sees. : — 

Archdeaconry of Hereford : Eev. J. S. Stooke-Vaughan, Wellington Heath 
Vicarage, Ledbury . 

City and neighbourhood of Manchester : Eev. W. F. Birch, St. Saviour's 
Rector}''. 

Lancashire : Rev. John Bone, St. Tliomas's Vicarage, Lancaster. 
London : Rev. Henry Gearj^ 16, Somerset Street, Portman Square. 
Norwich : Rev. W. F. Greeny. 

Suffolk : Rev. F. C. Long, Stow-upland, Stowmarket. 
Peterborough : Rev. A. J. Foster, Farndish Rectory, AVellingborough. 
Worcester : Rev. F. W. Holland, Evesham (Member of General and Executive 
Committee, and one of the Hon. Secretaries to the Fund). 

Diocese of Ripon : Rev. T. C. Henley, Kirkby Malham Vicarage. 

North Wales : Rev. John Jones, Treborth, Bangor. 

Yorkshire, Durham, and the North : Rev. James King, St. Mary's Vicarage, 
Berwick. Mr. King has recently returned from the Holy Land ; communica- 
tions for lectures, &c. , can be sent to the Office at Charing Cross. 

Scotland. — Rev. R. J. Craig, Dalgetty, Burntisland. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee beg it to be distinctly understood that they 
leave such proposals to be discussed on their own merits, and that by publishing 
them in the Quarterly Statement the Committee do not sanction or adopt them. 



Annual subscribers arc earnestly requested to forward their subscriptions for 
the cuiTent year when due, at their earliest convenience, and without waiting for 
application. 



ilEETlNG IN SYDNEY. 11-5 

Tlie Committee are always glad to receive old numbers of the Quarterly State- 
ment, especially those which have been advertised as out of print. 



Attention is railed to the statement alrcaily advertised, that subscribers to 
the Fund are privileged by the publishers to receive the "Recovery of Jeru- 
salem," "Tent Work in Talestine," the "Literary Remains of the late Mr. C. F. 
Tyrwhitt Drake," and the "Underground Jerusalem" of Captain Warren, at 
reduced rates. But letters asking for them must be sent to the ofBce at 11 and 
12, Charing Cross only. 



Cases for Innding the Quarterly Statement are now ready, and can be had on 
application to Messrs. R. Bentley and Son, 8, New Burlington Street. They 
are in gi-een or brown cloth, with the stamp of the Society, uniform in 
appearance Avitli "Our Work in Palestine," and are sold at the price of 
eighteenpence. 



Lieut. Kitchener's Guinea Book of Biblical Photographs can be bought at Mr. 
Stanford's establishment, 55, Charing Cross. It contains tAvelve views, with a 
short account of each. They are mounted on tinted boards, and handsomely 
bound. 



- MEETING IJf SYDN"EY. 

The following is a report taken from the Sydney Morning Herald of a 
meeting held on April 1st in that city. The immediate result was tlie 
accession of some thirty or forty new subscribers to the Society : — 

" A meeting of those interested in the exploration of Palestine, and its 
results, was held April 1st in the drawing-room of the Young Men's 
Chri-t.an Institution, Pitt Street. About forty ladies and gentlemen 
attended, and the Bishop of Sydney occupied the chair. The pro- 
ceedings were commenced by prayer, offered by the Eev. Mr. Burdett. 

"The Bishop said that when he was asked by Dr. Steel to preside at 
the meeting his recollections of the visit he had recently paid to Syria 
and Palestine made him very desirous to assist in any way the Palestine 
Exploration Fund, and he at once consented. Of the ^vork for which 
the Fund was instituted he . only knew that portion carried on at 
Jerusalem, where deeply interesting results had already been obtained. 
The excavations there Avere confined principally to the neighbourhood 
of the Haram Area. When app)roachiDg Jerusalem from the north, which 
is the best mode of coming in view of the Holy City, travellers are 
struck with the vast number of buildings on the site of the temple destroyed 
by Titus. Again, on another space, surrounded by a lofty wall, stands the 
palace of the Patriarch of the Greek Church, and indeed the whole area 



116 MEETING IN SYDNEY. 

once occupied by tlic army of Titus is now the jDroperty of the Czar. 
The Eussians have the fee-simple of the north-east side, commanding the 
City of Jerusalem, and their property resembles nothing so much as an 
extensive barrack, with a strong fort at either end. This may be one 
probable destiny of the structure. Formerly none but Turkish subjects 
could obtain the fee-simple of land in or around the Holy City, but since 
the Eussians have succeeded in doing so, bodies of Germans have settled 
themselves in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem, erecting for themselves, 
in many instances, handsome dwellings. A Jewish population is also to 
bo found in the same locality, for Sir Moses Montefiore induced his 
countrymen to establish a series of building societies, and now 500 
dwellings outside the walls are occupied by Jews who formerly were 
shut up in the city. Looking, too, from the north, as you approach 
Jerusalem, the eye is delighted by the sight of the beautiful Mosque of 
Omar, whose exquisite dome far surpasses all others, except that of St» 
Sophia, at Constantinople. The wall surrounding the territory of the 
mosque forms on one side the wall of the city, and in the centre of the 
area (which is about nine acres), covered by a magnificent building, is 
the rock — twenty feet across and five feet above the floor of the building 
— the rock which forms the apex of Mount Moriah. jBpectators feel, in 
looking at it, certain that they are at the place where Abraham wordd 
have offered up his son, where Araunah the Jebusite was threshing 
when David saw the angel standing near, amd would have purchased 
from Araunah his oxen and implements, to sacrifice to the Lord, Araunah 
gave them to him as oneldng would give to another. There, too, Solomon 
bunt a temple, and there the altar of burnt sacrifice was erected. All 
the excavations made by Captain "Warren went to prove that this was 
the identical spot where these transactions occurred, and afforded 
additional and remarkable evidence of the truth of Holy Writ. The 
very stones of Jerusalem cry out the truth of the sacred writings. From 
the south-east side of this enclosure one looks into a valley of enormous 
depth, a depth declared by Josephus to render one dizzy to contemplate. 
The fourteen sieges sustained by Jerusalem did much to fill up that 
valley, but still there is a declivity of 140 feet. Captain Wairen 
sunk shafts along the line of the wall, and at a further depth of 
97 feet found the original level of the valley. Excavating along 
the line of wall, he saw how the lower courses of stone wore sunk into 
the bed rock, and there, too, he discovered water flowing in a well-defined 
stream. The Jews who heard of and saw this were glad, for they cherish 
the tradition that when water is for the third time found flowing at the 
foundations of the Holy City (as had been the case twice before Captain 
Warren's discovery) the Messiah is at hand. Proof was afforded them 
that the stones used for the foundations of the Temple were those which 
Hiram the Phoenician sent ready dressed to Solomon, by the facts that 
no chips or debris were found near the wall, and that Mr. Emmanuel 
Deutsch, of the Biitish Museum, had at once declared certain signs on 
them to be Phoenician characters. The speaker, conducted over 



MEETING IN SYDNEY. 



117 



the works by Mr. Bernstein, formed at once the conviction that he 
was traversing the site of the Temple. Of this portion of Palestine 
Exploration he could speak personally, and knowing how urgently 
necessary private subscriptions for carrying on the work wore, he could 
recommeud them to support the Fund. Other objects of the exploration 
expedition were the restoration of the names of many ancient places, 
and the identification of the tribal boundaries, &c., described in the Book 
of Joshua. 

" The Eev. Dr. Steel said that he had promised Mr. Fry to do what he 
could to advance the interests of the Fund, and in support of that promise 
the meeting had been called. In this course he was encouraged by the 
return from Palestine of their chairman. As long ago as 1865 the work 
had been commenced, and now it was time for the people of Sydney, at 
the ends of the earth, so to speak, to assist in it. The survey of the 
whole of Western Palestine, over 6,000 square miles, had been completed 
on the scale of an inch to the mile by officers and skilled men of the 
Eoyal Engineers. The whole of this survey had been performed with 
remarkable accuracy, and with such economy that it cost only a penny 
an acre. The map resulting from this labour is probab]y published, and 
will be found the most correct one extant of the Holy Land. It seemed 
remarkable that Christians should so long have neglected to bring science 
to their aid in exploring Palestine, for scientific exploration had so far 
gone to prove the historic, geologic, and toiiographic accuracy of the 
Holy Scriptures. The expedition had been carried out with great labour 
by a succession of brave officers, such as Captains V/ilson, Anderson, and 
Warren, Lieutenants Condcr and Kitchener, and men such as the 
late Mr. Tyrwhitt-Drake. They had suffered and toiled to secure 
accuracy, and had gained their end. The Eev. Mr. Holland and 
Professor Palmer, the latter of whom spoke fluently the colloquial 
Arabic, worked to the south of the Dead Sea, and surveyed the 
Sinaitic peninsula; while the Eev. Dr. Tristram explored the land of 
Moab. Thus the survey of Western Palestine had been accomplished, 
and that of Eastern Palestine was entrusted to a party of Americans. 
The littoral districts of the Sea of Galilee afforded a rich field for 
geologic inquiry, and altogether, in a short time, a book might be 
brought out, giving them a full account of the country. Valuable 
assistance in the compilation of this was given by the papyri and monu- 
ments of Egypt, examined by permission of Mariette Bey a.nd others- 
under the Khedive, which gave evidence of the existence of many places 
in Palestine, in accordance with the descriptions given by the book of 
Joshua. For instance, a papyrus gives an account of the travel of an 
Egyptian officer through Palestine, in the reign of that Jabin, King of 
Canaan, who oppressed the children of Israel. His chariot-pole broke, 
and he had to get it repaired by Philistine smiths, as the Israelites were 
unable to do the work. Again Mariette Bey discovered in the temple 
of Carmac a drawing of a line of captives, bearing on their breasts the 
names of the towns whence they were taken. There were 119 name?, and 



118 THE EOCK OF THE TOMEGEAKATE. 

in. ' Tent Work in Palestine ' Lieutenant Conder states his own recovery 
of twenty-nine of these places, or rather their sites, and Marietto Bey's 
identification of forty-two. More than 9,000 names had been fixed, 
and would appear in the English map, a map which should he aided by 
Australian gold. The Quartcrhj Statement of the work of the Fund would 
be supplied to all contributors of £1 Is., and it was to bo hoped that such 
contributors would bo numerous. 

" The Eev. G. Woolnougli also addressed the meeting, pointing out how 
admirable a commentary ujoonthe Scriptures, and how complete a directory 
to Palestine the map would form. The literature of Egypt and Assyria, 
at least such remains of it as could now be procured, was deeply interest- 
ing, and throws light on a great many points at present obscure. 

" The Chairman then invited those present to become subscribers to the 
work, and set the example himself of doing so. He announced that 
further subscriptions would bo received by Dr. Steel, or by the secretary 
of the Young Men's Christian Association. 

" This closed the business of the meeting, and the Bishop having pro- 
nounced the benediction, the meeting terminated." 



THE EOCK OF THE POISIEGEANATE. 

Jeeusaxem, Monday, April 28fh. 

" I have the pleasure to re^iort to the Committee of the Palestine Ex- 
ploration Fund that I have been able to examine carefully a curious 
spruig of water called Ain Suweinit and a large cave of refuge known 
to the shepherds as Mugharet el Jai, possibly Grass Cave (Jawa), in 
"Wady Suweinit, both on the soiitli, or Benjamin side of the ravine, the 
former 450 feet below the Eas el Krein (Migron?), or eastern end 
of the Plain of Jeba, and about fifteen minutes' descent from the said 
spot; the latter 200 feet lower down the cliff, and twenty minutes or 
half an hour's clamber from the spring. 

Dr. Chaplin is in reality the author of the search, and was only pre- 
vented by illness from accompanying me last week in quest of this 
spring, and to him any thanks are due for this communication. I have 
visited the spring and cavern twice ; on the former occasion I was unable, 
owing to accident, to do more than find them, but on my return to 
Jerusalem Dr. Chaplin begged me to communicate with you, and feeling 
that without measurement such communication might be of less use to 
you, and that much more might be gathered from the inhabitants of 
Jeba about this cave, I spent a second day in measurement, &c. 
On this second occasion Mr. Salami, the Consul's secretary, accom- 
panied me, and gave most valuable assistance in interrogating the 
natives of Jeba and in taking down the names of the hills, ravines, 
caves, &c., in Arabic from their lips. Since then he has most kindly 
inquired into the roots of some of these, and has furnished me with the 



THE ROCK OF THE POMEGBANATE. 119 

interpretation of the meanings of most of them that most approve them- 
selves to his mind. I enclose these names as written by him in Arabic ; 
if they prove of imijortance he will, on your returning the enclosure to 
him, gladly write them out more legibly and fully in ink. 

Both fountain and cave are well known to all the inhabitants of 
Hizmeh and Jeba, but owing to superstitious fear no shepherd, as far as 
I could learn, has ever penetrated beyond the main entrance of the cave 
Mugharet el Jay, or Jai. Oar guide on both occasions was an 
old shepherd, Mhesen Hassan, and he told us that he had been shepherd 
all his years, and as a boy used the cave for an " ossub " (a sheep 
wintering-place), but had not entered the main passage. 

The tradition in the village of Jeba, we learnt from the villagers 
assembled, is (1) That the Christians used it a long wliile ago, when 
God sent an evil wind to destroy them. (2) That it has been used time 
out of mind for refuge by the neighbouring villagers when prosecuted 
by the government. (3) That it extends from Wady Suvveinit to Jeru- 
salem. 

As to the size of the cave, the current tradition in Jeba is that it will 
hold 600 men, a coincidence in number with the Bible account of the 
Benjamite refugees in the rock Eimmon (Judges xx. 47). One man 
asserted vehemently that it Avas large enough to contain 6,000, but the 
number 6 seemed invariable with them. The shepherds asserted that 
the main entrance cave held 16 flocks of 100 sheep in each. This number 
I obtained on separate testimony from three or four Jeba shepherds. 

As to the time during which the cave is tenanted now, it appears that 
each winter the shepherds use it as an " ossub " for their sheep, remain- 
ing in it from fifteen to sixty days, according to the weather ; that it 
becomes so hot owing to want of ventilation, that when fine sunny 
weather comes they are driven from the cave by heat. But it appeared 
afterwards that want of fuel in abundance and within easy reach is also 
the cause of their not making too long a stay in the cavern. 

In old days, if one is to trust the derivation of the name Suweinit, 
from the abundance of Sunt, or Thorn, or Acacia bushes, this 
latter hindrance to a long stay in the cave would not exist ; the more so 
that of all the woods used for fuel in this country, the Sunt, when 
grown to size, is considered best by the peasantry. (A story was told 
me of a man who lit a single branch of Sunt (Acacia), cooked 
his food for three successive days by it, left the cave in which he was 
staying for a week, and on coming back found the little log still burning. ) 
But, my informant said, this is only the case if the Sunt bush is grown 
to a good big size. These big-sized Acacia bushes do not now exist in 
the upper part of Wady Suweinit. "We may argue, perhaps, therefrom 
that the wooded growth of the valley is not the same as it was in Saul's 
time. If this is so, we shall not be surprised to find no remains of 
any Pomegranate or Eumman trees, such, for instance, as the one under 
which Saul was sitting in the uttermost part of Gibeah (1 Sam. xiv. 2). 

The first question that naturally arises as to the possibility of water- 



120 THE HOCK OP THE POilEGRAXATE. 

supply for the shepherds or tenants of the cave El Jai is answered by 
the custom of to-day. The shepherds who use the cave as a wintering- 
place (ossub) take their flocks to the spring Ain Suweinit, on the cliff 
ledge to the west, or towards Jeba, but if necessary go down the valley 
to Ain Farah and Fowar, one hour and a half down east — both on the 
southern or Benjamin side; or from two other springs, Ain er E'aian 
and Ain esh Sherar, also down towards the east, but on the northern 
or Philistine side of the ravine. 

The next question we asked was, the amount of water obtainable per 
day from the spring Ain Suweinit. The shepherd said that twenty 
goat-skins woi.dd empty it, but that if so emptied it would be full in 
talf a day again. This is a smallish sujjply, but we may remember 
that time and want of care must have much choked the basin, 
and that possibly in old time a great deal more would be obtainable 
from it. One quotes the Selah Spring, near Solomon's Pools, as an 
instance of this choking up of a spring, and consequent diminution of 
supply. It appears, too, that just at the point where, after passing 
over the Plain of Jeba, we descend into the ravine to visit Ain Suweinit 
and its one large Karoob-tree, there is a large cistern by a well-known 
fig-tree at Khurbet et Tineh, which would be within easy reach of the 
cave Mugharet el Jai. This is filled by the early rains, and remains 
full till the end of haiwest time, when the farming men finish the supply 
as they work at the harvest-fields near. 

As to the approach to the spring and cave, the former is easily reached 
along a good goat-path from the big "ossub," or shepherd's shelter, 
Khurbet el Hai (the place of the camping-ground),'so called, they say, 
from the Bedouin use of the cliflF near. 

This Khurbet el Hai is on the brow of the declivity, at the easternmost 
end of Jeba Plain, and from this Khurbet el Hai, which is capable of 
affording shelter to 100 sheep, is obtained the best view of the spiing 
and Karoob-tree of the Suweinit. 

The spring could, if necessary, be clambered down to from above, 
but, placed as it is on the slight plateau half-way up the hill-side, 
above a sheer cliff with scarp below, an approach from the valley to it 
would be impossible. As to the latter, the cave Mugharet el Jai, it is 
reached with comparative ease from the Avady bed by following a goat- 
path, and for the rest is well placed as a cave of refuge ; for, whUe 
coa:munication can be kept up between it and the spring Ain Suweinit 
by scrambling along the rock scarp below the line of cliff on which the 
sj)riug is situate, till -within 100 yards of tlie spring, and then ascending 
to the ijlateaii of the Ain Suweinit and Karoob-tree, the said communi- 
cation could be most easily barred from the dii-ection of Jeba or west again, 
while ascent up the clift" under which the cave is, is possible by a climb 
close to the cave's mouth. Any descent without rope or ladder to it 
would be extremely hazardous. 

One other feature about the cave's position may bo remarked — its 
absolute secrecy. It is so placed in a corner of the chff, and so protected 






,1 ctcccccc < 
c r, t c' c , c 



1 




'f.,f.s^^., .JiM^ : 



THE ROCK OF THE POMEGRANATE. 121 

"by outstanding ledges, that until within ten yards of it you could not 
tell its existence as one approaches from the westward or Jeba end, 
while again the adjacent cliff to the eastward, curving out towards the 
north, would hide it to any comers uj) the vaUcy from the cast. 

Description of Spring and Cave in "Wady Suweinit. 

Leaving Jeba, we cross the fallows of the long eastward-going plain 
that slopes all the way at a slight angle from north to south ; on our 
left the deep Suweinit or Vale of Michmash, on our right hand the 
green open valley of Hizmeh, called as we proceed eastwards "Wady 
er Eadadeh. 

Approaching the declivity from which we obtain our first view of the 
Suweinit gorge, we find this Wady er Eadadeh, and that part of the plain 
we are crossing called El Kharjeh, or the going out. That is perhaps the 
place from which in old times the men of Jeba have gone out towards 
Jordan, or in later days have made their exodus as fugitives to the cave 
of El Jai in time of trouble. 

Arrived quite at the brow of the steep descent to the ravine, we find a 
large shepherd shelter-place, or " ossub," known as Khurbet el Hai, or 
Haiyeh, and from the front of it we can take in at a glance the position 
of Ain Suweinit and the cave in question. 

The eye at once catches two trees, neither of them such pomegranates 
as Saul once sat under, but both of them remarkable enough to be 
called The Tree. The first is close by on the hill spur to the right, a fig- 
tree, some ruins, and a cistern above spoken of, and gives its name to the 
mountain spur. 

The second is a dark-coloiu-ed Karoob-tree, half a mile away, perched.on 
the brow of the precipitous band of cliff that rises from its scarp half- 
way up the southernmost side of the wady. This seemingly inaccessible 
tree stands close to Ain Suweinit, and is nurtured, no doubt, by its 
Avaters. 

Taking the southernmost side of the wady, we find it is divided, at 
far as eye can see, into four main divisions or rounded spurs. The first of 
these — that is, the nearest to us — is Khurbet et Tineh (the Fig-tree ruin) ; 
the second is nameless ; the third. El Kuba ; the fouith, Et Mukaarat, 
By a movement of a few yards to the left we discover a fifth, Eas el 
Fowar (the head of Farah), that part of the wady near the Fiu-rar 
Spring. 

All along the wadj^-side, two-thirds from wady bottom, stands, as if 
"built by hand of man for use of fortress, a slant scarp with fortress 
wall above it from thirty to forty feet high. There is a plateau or brow 
upon this grey, steep, running line of fortress rock, and thence to the 
sky line rugged, rounded masses of rock and vegetation, in some places 
easily accessible, in other places unclimbable. 

Above this rock and scarp is hill number two. The nameless spur 
grows the Karoob-tree, and the spring is close beside it. Beyond the 
fourth spur, hid entirely from view by the outstanding spur, at a lower 



122 THE ROCK OF THE POM^EGEANATE. 

level, the foot of the fortress cliff, lies the cave Mugharet el Hai. On 
the other side— ('.e., the northern side — of the wady from where we 
stand is the Kharjeh. At the Khurbet el Hai we only seem to be able to 
distinguish a long unbroken line of cliff, till just opposite El Mukaarat 
there is seen to be a deep recess in the mountain block, and east of it is 
a curious leaning buttress, best described as a cone cut in two from apex 
to base, and laid on to the mountain side. This deep recess is called 
Wady Habibeh, and the descent from the cliff top to the wady bed is 
easy enough down it. The curious projection of half -cone buttress that 
seems to fill the valley with its grey rounded mass, is known as Kournet 
el Falkain = the "horn or corner of the two divisions," and the cliffs 
beyond to the east have the name of Jebel Oushaish, or the hill of the 

little nest. 

It is exactly opposite the quaint- featured Khurbet el Falkain that 
the cave of refuge for the Benjamites, the Mugharet el Jai, is placed 
on the southern side ; and hence the need of describing the Khurbet el 
Falkain at length. But the apparently single mountain mass on the north 
or Philistine side of the wady, between us and the deep-recessed Wady 
Havileh, is in reality, as we saw afterwards from near the Ain Suweinit, 
broken up into three masse.?, the cliff mass nearest us being called El 
Marjameh, the next Jebel el Huty, and the third Jebel el War. 

Marjameh, or the hill of the stony place, with its hint of warlike 
times and pass defence, is separated from El Honteh by a steep recessed 
wady or mountain gully known as Wady Eahab, leading up to Khurbet 
Rahab (" The Monk's Plot "). Here we have a hint of the use of certain 
caverns that dot this northern line of cliff in mediaeval days. 

But it is noteworthy that this mountain gully, with its cave Hosn or 
Houson (" Cave of Defence "), is entirely hid from view by a tooth of 
rock that, like a tower on a bracket, hangs iu mid air at the angle of the 
rock cliff. The next hill's name to the east of Jebel Huty is known as 
Jebel Arak el War. Deep caverns high up on the cliff sides have given 
their names to both of these hills. Bat the deep mountain gully dividing 
El Huty from El War is perhaps of most interest to any who attempt 
to localise the scene of Jonathan's exploit, and his climb on hands and 
knees against the men of Michraash. 

This mountain gully is called Shehab el Huty. A curious natural 
staii-way of rock is hid from all view to men at the eastward by 
an equally curious natural balustrade. A whole regiment might 
ascend to the Philistine heights unseen up this Shehab tl Huty. 
One has described this particularly because its position is exactly oppo- 
site that of the Ain Suweinit ; and if we may believe, as we arc told, that 
the Philistines had come out to the passage of Michmash (1 Sam. xiii. 
23), we can seem to see this Shehab cl Huty accurately described 
enough in the following chapter (1 Sam. xiv.), and can recognise 
a possible locality for the pomegranate on Migron (1 Sam. xlv. 2) in the 
place of the present Karoob-trec that is such a landmark, or spring- 
mark, in the uttermost of Gibeah— Jeba. 



THE EOCK OF THE rOMRGBANATE. 123 

The caverns on tliis nortLern side of tlie Wady Suweinit are many, 
the principal being Es Shcnaar, El Hisir, or Hosn, Arak el War, 
and Arak Khadaish, the latter beyond Kurnet el Fakair, and being 
exactly described by its name the Eock of the Scratch. 

From our point of vicAV of the wady, we descended along ledges 
of rock, a good safe path even for mules if need be, by yellow furze, and 
variegated-leaved thistles, till wo reached the main ledge or brow along 
the top of the cliff of naked rock that is the feature of this southern side 
of the valley. Keeping along this for about ten minutes, we reached the 
Karoob-tree and the huge blocks of limestone that seem to guard it on 
every side with their seven massy blocks (the one east of the tree was 
30 feet 18 inches in diameter). 

The spring close by was so hidden by huge masses of the fallen 
limestone that, but for the shepherd, we should have missed it. 
Ascending between these rock boulders immediately behind the largest 
of the masses near lay a little stone cup, about 14 inches by 8 inches. 
Behind this a small triangular opening, beneath overhanging masses 
of oonfusedly-piled stone, gave admittance to the spring, which lay 
at the bottom of a steep rock-hewn and stone-built passage, 12 feet 
6 inches from the entrance. Down this, feet first, we slid, and found 
every stone the whole way polished as smooth and as white as marble. 
Thousands of feet during a space of hundreds of years alone could 
have done this. It seemed on examination that the fountain head had 
been built over in this way : the passage from above scooped out 
down to the water at this angle, then walled rudely, and two large 
masses had it seemed been made to fall so as to prop each other up 
overhead, while light was admitted by a side opening carefully 
protected by stones above, but a little to the west of the roofing 
immediately over the spring. 

The basin of the spring had evidently been hewn out of the living 
rock. The water was fresh and good, bat water-leeches lay in heaps 
in the dark corners. 

No writing, no marks of any kind, were f Dund at or near the spring, 
and the noticeable features were the apparent concealment of the 
fountain by the huge natural screens of fallen rock masses, and the 
evidence of enormous use that the smooth polished stones of the 
spring entrance seemed to give. As for the Karoob-tree, its roots were 
level with the waters, and its luxuriant foliage and heavy crop of 
beaais told a tale of roots that reached to cool ground and sucked 
moisture in the driest of weather. 

Leaving the spring, we proceeded on eastwards, round the next two 
rounded bluffs, El Kuba' and El Mukaaret, to the cavern of Mugharet 
el Jay. The way was easy for the first fifteen minutes, but we then 
had to descend the cliff ledge and creep along cautiously on the bare 
rock scarp. The guide took his shoes off, for it was so slippery that 
one of the party was forced to turn back from giddiness. 

But in fifteen minutes we had gained better footing and had rounded 

I. 



124 



THE EOCK OF THE POMEGEAKATE. 



the corner of the bluff El Mugharct. A vulture flew from her nest 
five yards above our head, showing the loneliness of the sjaot. 

But though one cave, built up artifically at its mouth, with an 
artificially-hewn doorway beneath, stared at us halfway up the cliff 
that faced us as we turned the corner of the cliff, the Cave El Jai 
was not visible. 

The guide beckoned us on past a projecting shoulder of rock^ 
and crawling up the scarp and turning our faces due west, we saw & 



r 



^Erctrance t^c Cave 6 . 7x 4.5 hij^h^ 




I'LAN OF CiVvT. 
MTJGHAIIET EL JAl 

IN WADY SUWtlNlT 



CiJTJjjnJi.mna: nf large, fto-* 2itO fvxt. 



,*it/iy\T(jT-tt^ Ctsg" r^rxtS^ 



little low triangular opening in the far corner, with a smaller aperture, 
a smoke hole or window, above. 

r J Entering it over an inclined plane of slippery rock, marked by 
the feet of last winter's goats, we found ourselves in a spacious cavern, 
Avhose chief feature was the honeycombed structure of the walls, the 
overhanging mass of rock that made a pillar, as it seemed, for the roof 
in the far south-western side. 

The far-reaching gallery that ran tip hill beyond due west, the side 
gallery going away to the north, and the oily blackness of the smoke- 
grimed rock. The floor was deep with dust of ashes of the fires of 
many generations of refugees or shepherds. Our , guides shook 



o 



THE EOCK OF THE POMEGRAIfATE. 125 

in their shoes as they were pushed along with the torches. The 
roof, some thirty feet high, shone glossy black as we measured this 
entrance cave. Then we passed along the west gallery westward, 
ascending as we went. A gallery, wide and high in proportion, turned 
sharp to our left— that is to the north— and descending as rapidly, 
passed along a i^arallel passage back towards the east. At its extremity 
a lesser passage, hewn, it seemed, in the rock, gave notice of our 
nearness to the northern outside walls of the cliff, for the wind well- 
nigh blew our torches out. This was perhajas for ventilation sake. 
Eetracing our steps, and finding no marks of man but the oily 
blackness of smoke and dust of ashes at our feet, we entered a lesser 
gallery towards the north-west at top of the hill, thence retraced 
our steps to the main entrance cavern. All this way had been 
spacious enough for the living of men, but no galleries that with its 
double entraiice. Soon after meeting in one beyond the antechamber, 
if I may so call it, that opened south of the main entrance hall, was not 
lofty enough to admit of standing room, and this we had crawl up. 

Eeturning we crawled up two short passes to the west of this ante- 
chamber, examined a small cave and recess perched on the water-scooped 
rock near entrance to this vestibule, and so back into the large cavern 
and daylight. 

Our feeling about the cave was that it was not so capable of stowing 
away men as the so-called Cave of AduUam at Khureitun, but that on 
emergency more than 600 men could hide here if need bo ; 300, perhaps, 
find ample lodging. 

This made me anxious to examine the cavern called El Kuba' or El 
Karat, that was perched inaccessibly without help of rope or ladders in 
the cliff eighty yards away to the east, and within easy speaking distance 
of the Mugharet el Jai, or Jay. The shepherd could only say of it that 
it belonged to the Christians, and was large, but he added that no man 
had ever entered it, so his testimony was a little worthless. 

A natural or artificial ledge had at one time given admittance from 
above to this cavern, and the rough-hewn doorway, reminding one of a 
rock tomb below the stone-filled entrance, told of former occupation. 

Looking for the cavern's mouth we had a fine view of the Kurun el 
Falkair opposite, Avith its Wady el Habibeh (ravine of the loved ones), the 
dark low cave of Arak el War, the cavern at the head of Kurun el 
Falkain, and the cave under the ledge farther east of Jebel Oshaish, 
know as the Scratch, Khaaish. We scrambled up the cliff close by with 
help of a band from above, and so along easily back to the Ain ol 
Suweinit, in less time than we had taken to come. Such are the facts 
as to this cavern. 

I beg to enclose the notes of the names written down in Arabic by 
my kind friend Mr. Salami, the Consul's secretary. There is only one 
note that should be added. The two adjacent cliffs to this cavern, El 
Kuba' and El Mukaaret, seem to point, from all one can understand, 
to (1) Detention of an enemy in distress (Kuba'). (2) To (a) a place 



126 THE KOCK OF THE I'OMEGEAXATE. 

known as the Place of Caves, the Hill of Holes (1 Sam. xiv. 11). ()3) To 
a place whence loud crying out was made, El Mukaaret. There is a 
collateral meaning to this last to be found in the name of the valley 
from Geba to this head of the ravine. Wady cr Eadadeh, one is 
informed, means the Valley of the Waller or Crier in Return ; and some 
traditional hint may perhaps be here preserved of the Benjamites and 
the cry of peace mentioned in Judges xxi. 13. 

Lastly, one also hears that the word Sanatu means to stop. If this be 
BO, and Wady Sunt, or Suweinit, be derivable from a word meaning 
detention, this added to the cliff's name, El Kuba', with its kindred 
signification, may perhaps allude to the detention either of Saul and his 
600, or of the Benjamites and their 600 men, in the neighbourhood of, 
if not really inside of, the cavern Mugharet el Jai. 

Please make what use you can of these hastily written notes en voyage, 
and accord me the favour of taking care of both notes, plan, and sketches, 
if neither serve you or the end that, in common with you, I have at 
heart. Yours truly, 

H. B. Eawnslet. 

Wady er Eumaman = Vale of Pomegranates. 
El Khar j eh = The going out. 

Khurbet et Tineh ~ The Euin of the Fig Tree. 
Khallet el Hai = The Place of the Camiiing Ground. 

El Krein = The Little Horn. 

Wady er Pumman = The Valley of the Pomegranate. 
Wady er Eadadeh = The Vale of the Eeturn (but sec next page 

in Lieut. Conder's notes). 



Note By Lieut. Conder, E.E. 

This cavern is shown on the Survey map. The view of the Valley of 
Michmash (Tent Work, vol. ii.) includes the cliff of d Ilosn, described in 
the present paper, on the north side of the valley. 

A few remarks may be added as to the Arabic names collected, which 
appear to be all descriptive. Many of them occur only in the Suzwey 
lists, and from want of space, and in order not to confuse the clearness 
of the plate (which is full of detail), are omitted from the map. 

Furrdr is a word commonly used of a spring head where the water 
"bubbles up." 

Mm er R'aidn = " shepherds' spring." 

'Ain esh Sherdr = " dry spring." 

El Kharjeh = " the outer place " — a common term. 

W. cr Eadadeh = " winding valley." This is a common term occurring 
several times on the Survey. 

Khurhet el Haujcli = "ruin of the snake." 



THE r.OCK OF THE POMEGRANATE. 127 

KuVa, apparently the Hebrew Kola, " a lielmet," from the form of 
the hUl. 

Fdrah is the Hebrew Parah, a town of Benjamin. 

'Arakel War — " cliff of rough rock." 

Shehah (vulgar for Slicih) el HilUj, " the walled hill spur." 

The Survey party ascended this gully in 1873 after descending frorf 
the plain east of Teb'a. 

Snweiidt diminutive of Sunt — the little acacia. 

Esh Shindr — the partridge. 

El Ilisir, probably el Jlosr, "the pebbles." 

El IIosii = " the fortress." C. E. C. 



Observatioks ox the Aeove. 
By Rev. W. F. BmcH. 

The precision of the Hebrew language in the use of different words- 
again helps us in this inquiry. " Eock " in the A.V. represents (at 
least) two words in the original. Tzur and Sela. 

The latter always means a x>recipitous rock— i.e., a cliff. Therefore the- 
Eock {SeJa) of Eimmon (as also Etam) was a cliff. Where, then, was it 
situated ? 

On the tribe of Benjamin being at last defeated in the third battle at 
Gibeah, the light brigade, according to Josephus, cut their way through 
the enemy, and so anticipated Balaclava — 

" Archers to right of them, 
Slingers to left of tbem, 
Spearmen in front of them. 
Charged the six hundred," 

" and fled into the wilderness unto the rock Eimmon, and abode in the 
rock Eimmon four months" (Judges xx. 47). 

A village, three miles eist of Bethel, called Eemmoon (apparently con- 
^idered as Eimmon by Eu'^ebius), has, by virtue of its name, had greatness 
thrust upon itself, in its site being taken to be the veritable rock 
Eimmon; but though it may be described as " a white chalky height" 
(S. and P.), or " a rocky Tell" (Bibl. Ees.), on no side does it present a 
cliff {sela). This want is a fatal defect in the above identification, so 
that minor difiiculties need not be considered— e.^/., the probability of 
Eemmoon being not in Benjamin, but in Ejihraim, the scarcity of caves 
to shelter the refugees, the water supply, &c. Eimmon means the 
" pomegranate tree." In 1 Sam. xiv. 2 it is stated that " Saul tarried in 
the uttermost part of Gibeah under a (lit. the) pomegranate tree (Eimmon) 
which is in Migron " {i.e., the precipices). This position on the southern 
side of Wady Suweinit (the passage of Michmash), about a mile east of 
Jeba, suits very Avell the local indications in Judges xx.— e.^/., (43) 



]28 THE KOCK OF THE rO.MEGRANATE. 

" they trode them down* with ease over against Gibeah towards the sitn- 

visinQ,'" 

Gesenius takes Eimnion in Judges xx. and 1 Sam. xir. to mark the 
same place ; while so striking are the points of agreement between " the 
dif of the pomegranate tree" and "the pomegranate tree that was 
among the precipices " that there hardly seems room for any other 

opinion. 

That the six hundred survivors at first, and afterwards Saul and " about 
.six hundred men " found refuge among the same southern cliffs of the 
passage of Michmash, and that, therefore, here was the great natural 
fastness of the tribe of Benjamin, would be finally established beyond 
question, if there could also be found here first p?-Oj;er accommodation, and 
next sufficient ivater for GOO mai for four months, since Saul and his 
followers might have managed with a poor supply of both for a few days 
at the most. 

A small but valuable book, " Byeways in Palestine," sterns to provide 
the desired link. In 1852 Mr. Consul Finn was at Ecmmoon, inquiring 
for a large cavern that might have contained the 600 Benjamites, but he 
only found a few of inconsiderable size. Afterwards he passed through 
Mukhmas and crossed Wady Suweinit, and observes (p. 207), " at ashoit 
distance down the valley there are remarkable precipices on each side, 
which must be the Bozez and Seneh, renowned for the bold adventure of 
Jonathan and his armour-bearer, and rear these projections are some 
large old Karoob-trees." Next he comes to Geba (Jeba'), and adds : 
"The guide told us oi a vast cavern in the Wady Suweinit capable of 
holding many hundred men, near to the above-mentioned haroob 
trees, and therefore just the suitable refuge for the Israelites (1 Sam. 
xiv. 11), besides the Bozez and Seneh ; and he told us that halfway down 
the precipice there is a course of water running towards the Ghor." 

The value of this information lies in it5 being (apparently) the 
spontaneous statement of a person who thought that one who cartd to 
Zook fur a large cave at Eemmoon, would like to see one wherever he 
could, and so far the exi>,tence of shelter and water in the required spot, 
besides being desirable, becomes also prohahlc. 

A moot interesting report in this Quarterhj Statement from the Rev. H. 
B. Eawntley (on a curious spring und cavern marked Mtigharet el Jai in 
the nev,^ map, and mentioned by Dr. Eobinson as being large), both 
proves that Mr. Finn's informant spoke the sober truth, and, in my 
opinion, fixes the required position the famous ''rock of Eimmon," the 
dernier ressort of the tribe of Benjamin. 

An old error, however, is not easily uprooted; accordingly, at risk of 
■being tedious, the claims of Eemmoon shall be fully considered, and if 
false (I hope) annihilated. What, then, are its claims to be the " Eock 
of Eimmon ? " 

* In passing it may bo observe 1 tli:it the marginal reading foi- " willi ease " is 
"from 3Ienuchah," probably = Manaliath (?) near Jeba (1 Chron viii. G ; coni- 
paie 1 Chrou. ii. 52, maig. ). 



THE EOCK OF THE TOMEGRANATE. 129 

(1) Its name and (?) mention in the Onomasticon. (a) " Renimon in 
tribu Symeonis vel Judai : liodieqtie est vicus nomine Eemmon, juxta 
CEliam contra aquiloncm in quinto decimo ejus milliario." {!>) " Eemmon, 
petra Eemmon in tribu Symeonis, sive Zabulon." 

(2) Lieut. Condor says, " At Eummon there are many caves sufficient 
for any number of Benjamites." 

(3) Its elevated position. " Eummon lies high, on a rocky Toll." 
(Later Bibl. Ees. 290). 

(4) There is a spring of water in its neighbourhood. 

(5) It is within the limits of Eenjamin, as commonhj drawn. 

(6) It is in or on the borders of the wilderness. 

. Against the above site, and in favour of the position east of Jeba, it 
may bo observed (1) that there was a Eimmon in the rival, or true 
position, according to 1 Sam. xiv. 2. " The pomegranate-tree (Eimmon) 
in the precipice." The Onomasticon in («) has not in view the Iloclc of 
Eimmon, but the city Eimmon (Josh. xv. 32, xix. 7); and in (6) makes a 
ludicrous conjecture because "Eimmon" occtirs in Josh. xix. 7 and 
1 Chron vi. 77. The name Eimmon in the right position has also just 
been recovered in " Wady er Eumman." 

(2) Is well met by the counter-cave reputed to hold six hundred men. 
(4, 5, G) Even if proved for Eemmoon, hold good equally well for 

the position directly east of Geba. 

(3) This is the rode on which the claims of Eemmoon must go to pieces. 
Give the Avord rock {sela) its proper weight— i.e., call it c////"— and it 
must crush this pretender. Eemmoon does not stand on a cliff, and so 
could not give the Benjamites the security they sought and found in 
the momitain fastness in Wady Suaineet. 

That Sela means a cliff— i.e., a rock more or less perpendicular— i?, 
clear from BiblicaUisage : 2 Chron. xxv. 12; Jer. li. 25; Amos vi. 12; 
1 Sam. xxiii. 13 (Sela-ha-macheloth. See "Tent Work"). Accordingly 
the Eock [sda] Etam, though near Bethlehem, cannot be the Frank 
Mountain, which is the "Eock" {Tzur), 1 Chron. xi. 15, near the 
traditional and true cave of Adnllam. 

Happily, Benjamin had brains besides pluck, and so refused Eemmoon 
•and chose Sela Eimmon ; otherwise it had never given a Saul to be the 
best and tallest king in Israel, and the " last and least of the apostles" 
in the Church. 

So miniitely accurate is the Bible, that it is hardly surprising that 
Mr. Eawnsley's report recovers ' the pillar-roch ' in Wady Suweinit, which, 
though ignored in the A.V., is mentioned in the Hebrew; see 
1 Sam. xiv. 5. " The one rock (Hebr. tooth) Avas a pillar on the north, 
over against Michmash" (Sj). Comment.). 

This 2nllar is referred to as "a tooth of rock that, like a tower on a 
bracket, hangs in mid-air at the angle of the rock cliff." 

W. F. Birch. 



130 



THE NAMELESS CITY. 
1 Sam. ix., x. 

Whex Saul was without bread there was a whole shoulder already 
reserved for him; when he had resolved to give his servant's last 
sixpence (= \ shekel nearly) to Samuel, the seer was waiting to anoint 
him king. Similarly when expectation was at its lowest, the expenditure 
of a little more research meets with a great reward. 

It is proposed (1) to find the name and precise position of the nameless 
city where Saul met Samuel, with the " parlour " in Avhich the honoured 
traveller did justice to the prophet's hospitality, very different from the 
gloomy spectre that tasted fatted calf in the witch's hut at Endor; and 
(2) to untie, if possible, the Gordian knot in Biblical topography, caused 
by the identification of this city ^ith the home of Elkanah "of Eama- 
thaim-zophim of Mount Ephraim." 

As novel conclusions are more exciting than close arguments the case 
shall be stated first and proved afterwards. 

The nameless city was Eamah, as Josephus correctly assumes, and was 
variously called Ramath-lehi (Judg. xv. 17) and Ramathaim-zophim. 

It was one of the cities of Mount Ephron (for which the better known 
Mount Ephraim seems to have been substituted in 1 Sam. i. 1), and was 
situated on an eminence about south-Avest of Solomon's Pools, designated 
the " Bakoosh (? == Maktesh) Hill " in "Finn's Byeways." A short mile 
further on in the same direction the ground rises to another conspicuous 
summit called Dahar-es-Salahh (Finn's B. = the beautiful mountain) or 
Ras Sherifeh (the noble promontory), 3,2G0 feet above the sea ("Tent 
Work " i. 279). 

Here on the highest spot of elevation from which there is a magnifi- 
cent panorama " twenty miles round" stood "the high place," and in 
one of the adjoining stone enclosures Samuel's " parlour" might doubt- 
less have been seen any day down to the ill-fated 24th of October, 1874, 
when (infandum I) these memorable ruins wore converted iLto " Salami's 
Cairn" (/'/.2S0). 

In front {i.e., on the noith or north-east side) of Eamah the gi-ound 
slopes to a spring called Ain Kasees (the priest's spring), while farther 
down is another more copious fountain near the head of the pools, 
formerly very celebrated as En-hakkore (the well of him that called, 

Judg. XV. 19). 

Standing on this ascent to the city we have (and see ?) near us an 
ancient sepulchre {vide F. B. for sketch) ; probably in such a one, 
possibly vathis very one, Samuel was buried by all Israel. 

Not far from this spot, "at the end of the city," the prophet must 
have stood when on the first day of the month, at early dawn, ho 
anointed Saul king, and foretold to the shy and reticent young man the 
various events of his homeward journey. 

Let us stand just behind the seer while he points out the scene of each 
future incident to the astonished king. 



CAPERNAUJX. 131 

(1) "Thou shalt find two men by Eacliel's sepulchre." "We see the 
spot marked out by the present " Rachel's sepulchre " near Bethlehem. 

(2) "Thou shalt come to the plain (lit., oak) of Tabor." There is the 
place somewhere between Jebel Deir Abu Tor and the hill to the left, 
possibly the " House of the (T)crebinthi."— Jos. Wars. v. 12. 2, 

(3) " Thou shalt come to the hiU of God." "They came to the hill." 
We see it distinctly. It is the place of the Upper City of Jerusalem 
(Gabbatha, John xix. 13). 

(4) "When thou art come to the city." Wc can make out perhaj)S 
just a house or two, but the greater part lies hidden in the Valley of 
Hinnom, behind (3). 

(5) "He came to the high place." It is the Mount of Olives, 
"where David (Sp. Comra., men) worshipped God." — 2 Sam. xv. 32. 

Thus " the high place" brings Saul close to his destination — viz., his 
father's house at Zelah, on one of the eastern ridges of the Mount of Olives. 

(1), (2), (3) are certainly visible from Eamah. See chapter on the 
Bakoosh cottage. (5) is visible from " the parlour," and will prove to be 
so (I believe) also from Raiuah. Perhaps some one at Jerusalem will 
more exactly describe the view. W. F. Bir.cn. 



CAPERXAli:\r. 

By PROFESSOR ScHAFF, of K'cw York- (Translated from tlie Transactions of tlie 
German Society for the Exploration of ralcitinc.) 

The position of Capernaum is still a disputed question. Opinions are 
almost equally divided between Khan Minyeh and Tell Hum. Quaresmius 
(1639), Eobinson (1838), MacGrcgor (1869), Porter (1875), Sepp (1876), 
Lieutenant Kitchener and Selah Merrill (1877), sought for it at Khan 
Minyeh, at the northern end of the Plain of Gennesareth, near Aiu 
et-Tin and close to the shore of the Sea of Galilee. Pococke (1738), 
Burckhardt (1822), Ritter, John Wilson (1847), W. M. Thomson 
(1859), Hepworth Dixon (1^64), Eenan (1864), Captain Wilson (1871), 
Stanley (1871), Furrer (1871), and Soein, in Baedeker's "Syria 
and Palestine," place it at Tell Hum, a ruined town which lies three 
English miles to the north of Khan Minyeh, and nearly at equal distances 
between that town and where the Jordan flows into the Sea of Galilee. 
A third hypothosi=i, -which suppose the site of the town to be near the 
Round Spring (Ain el-Mudawer) at the southern end of the Plain of 
Gennesareth (el-Ghuweir) has been abandoned by its chief advocate, 
Canon Tristram. The English Society for the Exploration of Palestine 
proposes to dispatch a sjecial expedition to Galilee, in order, if possible, 
to settle definitely the sites of the towns of Capernaum, Bethsaida, and 
Chorazin. On a late journey through the Promised Land I had myself 
decided in favour of Tell Hum, but will gladly await the further in- 
formation that will soon be afforded by excavations at that place. 



132 CAPERXATJM. 

Tlie following points must be taken into particular consideration in 
this controversy : — 

I. The Biblical avgnment. Capernaum (i.e., " the village of Nahum," 
not " the place of consolation," as Origen and Jerome make it) 
Avas the most guilty of the three cities of Galilee over which 
Jesus pronounced the "woe" which was afterwards literally fulfilled 
(Matthew xi. 20-24). It is not mentioned in the Old Testament, but is 
frequently alluded to in the Gospels. It was the place where Jesus 
generally lived during the time of His public labours amongst the people 
after He was obliged to leave Nazareth. It was therefore called His " o wn 
city" (Matthew ix. 1; compare iv. 13). It was the home of Peter 
and of his mother-in-law (Luke iv. 3S), and probably also of Matthew, 
who was taken awaj^ from the receij^t of custom there and called to be 
an apostle (Matthew ix. 9). The village was large enough to be called 
a " city." It had a flourishing trade, a custom-house (Matthew ix. 9-11), 
and also a synagogue, which the noble heathen captain had built for the 
Jews (Luke vii. 1-10). 

As regards the site of the town, we only know certainly from the 
Gospel account that it w-as situated on the north-western shore of the 
sea, close to the sea, and in the borders of Zabulon and Nephthalim 
(Matthew iv. 13). The defenders of the Khan Minyeh theory coufidently 
assert that the site of Capernaum was in the Plain of Gennesareth, 
which extends about three miles from Mejdel (the ancient Magdala) 
to the rocky hill at Khan Minyeh, while Tell Hum lies farther to the 
north. But this is nowhere distinctly affirmed, it is only a conclusion 
drawn from the circumstance that after the miracle of the loaves and 
fishes, which was performed not far from the north-eastern shore of the 
sea, Josus landed in Gennesareth, according to the synoptical account. 
(Matthew xiv. 34, Mark. vi. 53), and at Capernaum, accordingto the more 
exact account given by John (John vi. 17, xxiv. 59). These two accounts 
are certainly most easUy reconciled with each other by adopting the 
<5onclusion that Capernaum was situated in the Pla,in. But, on the 
other hand, we find that the people of Capernaum reached the opposite 
shore, where the miracle was afterwards worked, more quickly on foot 
than Jesus and His disciples by ship (Mark vi. 33). This is much more 
comprehensible when Tell Hum is regarded as the point of departure 
instead of Khan Minyeh, which is more than an hour's walk further ofi*. 
The different accounts given in the gospels may perhaps be brought into 
agreement with each other by the hypothesis that on the morning after 
the miracle Jesus landed first in Gennesareth (as Matthew and Mark 
inform us), and went on to Capernaum either by land or water, and 
that when there He proceeded to the synagogue, where He explained the 
spiritual meaning of the miracle of the loaves and fishes (John vi. 59). 
Mark's account shows that Jesus passed through many villages on His 
Tvay to- Capernaum (Mark vi. 56). 

II. We turn next to Josephus, who was thoroughly well acquainted 
with the district, and who has given an enthusiastic description of its 
beauty and fmitfulne-ss at that time. He only t a ice mentions Capernaum 



CAPERKAU^r. 133 

by name, but lie does it in such a way as to bear decided witness iu 
favour of Tell Hum, He relates in his Life, § 72, that when he was 
badly hurt by a fall from his horse at the mouth of the Jordan, 
he was first taken to the village of Kejharnome, and then on 
the same night to Taricheaj. Now it is clearlj^ the most natural 
thing to suppose that, being much weakened by his injuries, he 
should have rested at the nearest village. Tell Hum, before he 
proceeded on his journey. In his " History of the Wars of the 
Jews" (iii., 10. 8), he mentions an abundant spring, Kaphernaum, 
which watered the Plain of Gennesareth, and which contained the 
coracinus, a fish that was found in the Nile. It is j^robably the 'Ain 
et-Tabigah, between Khan Minyeh and Tell Hum. This spring quite 
corresponds with the description given by the Jewish historian, and 
is surrounded by the ruins of an aqueduct which led the water 
along the sea shore to the northern end of the Plain; it is now 
used to water horses (compare " The Recovery of Jerusalem," 
p. 271, and Canon Tristram, "Bible Places," p. 26-1). Dr. Eobinson 
endeavoured to show that the 'Ain et-Tin, near Khan Minyeh, was the 
spring mentioned by Josephus ; but that spring does not possess the 
above-mentioned fish, and is too small, and lies too low, for purposes of 
irrigation. The 'Ain Mudawer has certainly plenty of water, and is 
full of fish, but it lies in too southerly a direction, and too far inland. 

III. The Jewish and Aralir traditions are in favour of Tell Hum, T/here 
they also place the graves of the Prophet Nahum and of Rabbi Tanehum 
Compare Thomson's " The Land and the Book," i., p. oiG, and Furrer's 
aiticle on Capernaum in Schenkel's Bibellexicon, iii., p. 495. 

lY. Cliristian tradition, which has been very active in localising 
Biblical occurrences, leaves us in the lurch in this instance, and gives no 
decisive opinion. 

y. The geographical argument is overwhelmingly in favour of Khan 
Minyeh, which lies near the sea, and is a very siiitable place to have a 
oustom-house, and to bo an emporium of trade on the present high road 
to Damascus. But traces are also to be found at Tell Hum and Kerazeh 
of a high road of the same kind. 

YI. The archcevlogical argument taken from the name and the ruins is 
decidedly for Tell Hum. The name is manifestly identical with that of 
■Capernaum. "Kefr,"or " Kafr," means village, and " Tell " is a sort 
-of hill or heap of nuns. A ruined Kefr becomes a Tell. "Hum" may 
be an abbreviation of Nahum. The ruins of Tell Hum are so consider- 
able tha,t they must be those of a large village or town. They are lying 
in chaotic confusion, and extend over half an English mile in length and 
a quarter of a mile in breadth. Amongst the ruins, which have been 
■circfully examined by Colonel Wilson, and which he has described in 
"The Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 268, are the columns and walls 
of the "white sjmagogue" that — if Tell Hum is Capernaum — was 
built for the Jews by the heathen captain, and in which Jesus often 
taught. In Khan Minyeh, ou the contrary, no considerable ma.'s of 
ji ins has been discovered. Dr. Robinson supposes that the remains of 



134 .CAPERNAUM. 

the town may have been sent to Tiberias by sea, and have been used up 
there for building purposes. But it is no easy matter to transport the 
ruins of a large town, and in addition to that those of a synagogue, to 
say nothing of the fact that Tiberias was already built (a.d. 20) while 
Capernaum was in a flourishing state.* 

If Tell Hum was not Capernaum it must have been Chorazin. But 
Chorazin is to be sought at Kerazeh, where considerable ruins are to be 
found, as well as a synagogue of black basalt, and houses in good pre- 
servation. The name is evidently the same. 

The position of the two other Galilean towns, Bethsaida and Chorazin, 
over which Jesus pronounced His " woe" (Matt. ix. 20-24), depends to a 
certain extent, but not entirely, on that given to ancient Capernaum. 
As for Bethsaida (Fish-house), the birthplace of Peter, Andi-ew, James, 
and John, it is generally known as the Galilean Bethsaida, in contradis- 
tinction to Bethsaida Julias, in Gaulonitis, and is then sought either in 
'Ain et-Tabigah or in Khan Minyeh. But it is extremely improbable 
that two towns in such close proximity to each other should have had 
the same name. We therefore hold with Dr. Thomson (" The Land and 
the Book ") that there was only one Bethsaida, which was situated near 
the place where the Jordan flows into the Sea of Galilee, and that, like 
many other towns, it was divided in two by the river. 

The eastern part of the town, which was improved by Philip the 
Tetrarch, and where he died, was called Bethsaida Julias, to distinguish 
it from the village on the western bank of the river, and a^so in honour 
of Julia, the daughter of Augustus. This was done by the Tetrarch 
almost at the same time as his brother, the younger Herod, built the 
town of Tiberias, and called it after the Emperor Tiberius. There is no 
difficulty in deciding the position of this eastern Bethsaida, of which 
there are still some ruins in existence. It was always western or Gali- 
lean Bethsaida that was mentioned in the Gospels (John i. 44 ; xii. 21 ; 

* It is interesting to compare tlie conclusion at AvhiL-h this iiuthor arrived 
during his travels iu Palestine in 1877 with the report given by Lieutenant 
Kitchener, who visited and mapped out this district on behalf of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund. He also identiiies the spring Kapliaruaum with the 'Ain 
et-Tabigah, although he did not lind any coraeiuus in it ; but he says that the 
water was too muddy, and too much overgrown with reeds, for it to have been 
possible to see fish which, like the coracinus, always n-maiu at the bottom of the 
water. The site of Capernaum he places at Khurbet Minyeh, a locality which he 
ftparates from Khan Minyeh, and reports that a great extent of ruins may he 
found there under the present surface of the ground, of which one can as yet 
only distinguish a few bits of wall. Kitchener makes the distance of the 'Ain 
et-Tabigah from Khurbet Minyeh three-quarters of an English mile, and from 
Tell Hum lij English miles ; moreover, as the water of the spring was led in the 
opposite direction to that of Tell Hum in old times, the spring could scarcely have 
received its name of Kapharnaura (Josephus) from a village situated at the latter 
place. See QuarlcrJi/ Statnncnt, Jidy, 1S77, p. 122 f. This continued dillerence 
of opinion awakens all the greater desire for a thorough investigation of the 
subject, and this is what the English Society now proposes to undertake. — Ed. 



CAPERXAUJr. 135 

Mark vi. 45 ; viii. 22 ; Luke ix. 10). Eastern Bethsaida was such an 
essentially heathen place that it had as little to do with the Gospels as 
the town of Tiberias. 

Thus, until further research has been made, we may look for Chorazin 
in Kerazeh, for Bethsaida on the Jordan opposite Bethsaida Julias, and 
for Capernaum in Tell Hum. 



Observations ox the Above by Lieut. Kitchener, E.E. 

Some remarks appear to me to be necessary on Professor Schaff's 
summary of the existing evidence on the position of Capernaum. 

In I. point Professor Schaff states that it would be simpler for travellers 
on foot to proceed with greater rapidity than a boat on the lake starting 
from Tell Hum rather than from Khan Minia, as the distances are pro- 
jjortional. Whether they both started from either place I cannot follow 
the Professor in his argument. 

II. By following the very graphically described fight between Scilla 
and Josephus on the map, and working out the different movements of 
the troops, it appears certain that tlie position of the battle was between 
Tell Hum and the mouth of the Jordan. TeU Hum was therefore the 
Julias that Josephus was defending. It appears only natural that when 
wounded he should be carried to the first village in rear of the head- 
quarters, which would be at Khurbet Minia. I am therefore of opinion 
that Josephus's testimony is decidedly in favour of Kh. Minia. 

It being allowed that Ain Tabighah is the spring of Capernaum men- 
tioned by Josephus, it cannot be too strongly pointed out that the water 
was undoubtedly carried to Kh. Minia directly in the opposite direction 
to TeU Hum. 

III. Though I inquired diligently for the tomb of the Prophet Nahum 
around the lake, I could not find any Arabic or Jewish traditions locating 
that sanctuary at Tell Hum, or anywhere else near the lake. 

Doubtless some Jews in Tiberias would say if asked, that the tomb 
was at Tell Hum, as they would say anything else. 

V. I would suggest an addition to this point in the Professor's argu- 
ments : " But leading by a very circuitous route, and passing over a 
very difficult covmtry." 

As far as I coxild discover, this road led from Khurbet Minia to Tell 
Hum, thence to Kerazeh — in other words, from Capernaum to Bethsaida, 
and thence to Chorazin. As Wildbad describes the journey, no doubt 
there was a road from Chorazin to the great Damascus road, but I found 
no traces of it, and it would pass over some very difficult country covered 
with loose blocks of basalt. 

YI. The synagogue explored by Colonel Wilson, C.B., is evidently 
similar in date to others in the country, such as those at Kerazeh, Irbid, 
and elsewhere. I have attempted in a paper [Quarterly Staiernerd, 
1877, p. 1 23) to prove the date of these synagogues, and that they 



136 BIRTHPLACE OF THE PEOPHET XAHUM. 

could uofc Lave been ei'ected by the heathen captain. Besides, a, 
soldier was not likely to be able to build such a magnificent and costly 
structure. There seems little or no proof that Capernaum was a large 
town, as stated, or other than a village built of mud, with a custom- 
houst and a guard-house for soltJiers, the remains of v/hich still exist 
on the summit ovei-hanging the site now called Khurbet Aureimeh. I 
am of oi)inion that the synagogue given by the centurion was probably 
only a rather larger mud building than the rest. The fact that Caper- 
naum is so rarely mentioned seems to prove that it was a small place^ 
easily liable to disappear. 

If it be allowed, as Professor Schaff states, that there was only one 
Bethsaida, near the mouth of the Jordan, it seems only possible to place 
it on the important ruins of Tell Hum. There are no ruins at the mouth, 
of the Jordan. Tell Hum is only two miles from the mouth. We know 
that it was an important place, with magnificent buildings, just such, as 
we find the remains of at Tell Hum. 

Thus, in my opinion, we may look for Chorazin at Kerazeh, for Beth- 
saida and Bethsaida Julias at Tell Hum, and for Capernaum at Khurbet 
Minia. 

H. H. KiTCHEXER, Lieut. E.E. 



WHEEE IS THE EIRTHPLACE OE THE PEOPHET IS^AHUM 

TO BE SOUGHT? 

By Dr. G. N"estle, of Tubingen. (Translated from the Transactions of the 
German Society for the Exx^loratiou of Palestine.) 

Starting from the general and well-grounded belief that the designa- 
tion " Nahum the Elkoshite" is derived from the name of the prophet's 
birthplace, and neither from that of his family nor of his father, three 
different theories respecting the position of this locality have been 
promulgated. The latest of these, which was almost unanimously 
accepted last century, and which is now as unanimously discarded, held 
that it was to be found at Alkush, a village situated not far from Mosul, 
in Assyria, where the grave of the prophet is still shown. The second 
theory rests on the authority of S. Jerome, who is known to have spent 
the last years of his life, from 385 to 420, in a monastery near Bethlehem. 
He informs us that " Helkesei " was one of the Galilean towns still in 
existence in his day, and describes it as "small, and scarcely showing- 
by means of ruins any traces of ancient buildings, but yet they were 
known to the Jews, and were pointed out to me by my guide" (Prol. 
Comment, ad Nahum). Unfortunately Jerome does not describe the 
position of the place more particularly ; it is now generally identified 
with the present el-Kauzeh (the " el-Kauzah " of Van de Yelde's map, 
33 deg. 8 min. — 35 deg. 21 min.) between Efimeh and Bint- Jebeil. The 
third theory is found in a work ascribed to Epiphanius, who was bom 



BIRTHPLACE OF THE PKOrHET ^'AHU:.!. 137 

iu Palestine, rear Eleutheropolis, became superioi- of a monastery in 
that district, and was finally made bishop of Constantia, in Cyprus ; but 
that lie was really the author of the work in question is generally 
denied. The title of the book is " De Vitis Prophetarum." It gives 
many somewhat mythical details current at the time regarding the life 
and death of certain prophets. The part about Nahum begins thus : 
" He came from Elkesei beyond Jordan towards Begabar, and was of 
the tribe of Simoon." Begabar is very little known, and is confounded 
by the later Fathers, and in the Martyrologiuni Eomanum, with the- 
" Bethabara beyond Jordan " which is mentioned in the New Testament. 
This theory has hitherto met v/ith little acceptance, especially as the 
usually received text is subject to the charge of this contradiction, that,, 
not taking any other into account, it makes out that Nahum's birth- 
place was to be found in the land ea&t of the Jordan, and yet 
holds that he was of the tribe of Simeon, although the territory of 
that tribe lay in the extreme south-west of the country, close 
to the Philistine and Egyptian borders. Now, in iSoo, Tischen- 
dorf published two recensions of two much older copies of 
this work, which date from about the tenth century, and belong to 
the Paris MSS., and which differ very essentially from the usually 
received version that rests on later MSS. In one of these, the first 
sentence that interests us is as follows: — "Nahum, son of the 
Elkesaios, was of Jesbe, of the tribe of Simeon." In the other we 
find: "Nahum was of Elkosem, beyond Betabarem, of the tribe of 
Simeon." Both authorities consequently agree in knowing nothing 
of any transjordanic position of the place in question; but both of 
them have themselves a corrupted text. In this respect the Syrian 
MSS. afford us welcome assistance. The Syrian bishop, Paul of 
Telia, who, in 617 and 618, translated the Greek Old Testament into 
Syrian in Alexandria found in the Greek MS. which ho principally 
used for his translation, all those biographical notices at the end of 
the books of the minor prophets, which we now read in the de vitis 
prophetarum ascribed to Epiphanius, and has rendered them with literal 
fidelity. This is what is found at the end of Nahum. " Nahum was of 
Elkosh, beyond Bet-Gabre, of the tribe of Simeon." The Begabar of 
the Greeks and Bet-Gabre of the Syrian text is nothing else than the 
well-known Betogabra=Bcit- JibrIn=:Eleutheropolis. It is acknowledged 
that we owe to Bobiason the discovery of the site of this once cele- 
brated town, and also that its identity with Betogabra and Eleuthe- 
ropolis has been determined on strict topographical grounds. It is 
now a question how wc are to understand where to fix the locality 
by the expression "beyond Bet-Gabre," and further, whether any place 
near Eleutheropolis can be identified with Elkesei or Elkosh. In the 
first place, the spot of ground described as being "beyond," depends 
on the geographical and also on the individual standpoint of the author. 
As far as that is concerned, we have as yet been working in the dark, 
for nothing certain is kno-vvn either of the dwelling-place of the author 



138 MODERN EESEARCIIES IX PALESTINE. 

or of himself; nevertheless I beg to call attention to the circumstance 
that a ruined village named Kessijeh is marked on Yan de Yelde's map, 
near Betogabra, and somewhat to the south-west of it ; but whether 
one can find a trace of Elkesei (by the omission of the Arabian article) 
in this name appears very questionable to me. But however that, 
may be, the object of this paper is attained if it prevents the tradition 
attributed to Epiphanius being rejected without farther inquiry. The 
statement is so decided, and is not contradicted by anything in the book 
of Nahum, that it must have rested on some old foundation. Even if it 
is of no real historical value, it is yet of much consequence to the history 
of Biblical tradition, and beyond tradition wc cannot in many cases 
advance. 

Let mc be allowed, in conclusion, to add a double reason for taking 
this into consideration. If the Arabians now caU the old Betogabra 
indiscriminately Bet-Jibrin and Jebeil, and give "House of Gabriel" 
as the signification of the latter, this is only a case of popular etymology ; 
the original meaning of the name is not merely " perhaps," as Eobinson 
supposes ii., p. 620, note 2, but it undoubtedly is " House of Men;" 
this is proved by the Sp-ian form of the name. The small link in 
the chain of historical proof which Eobmson missed in 1838, was 
discovered a few years later by Eodiger in a Syrian author. I can 
now produce a much more ancient and decisive piece of evidence in 
favour of the identity of Betogabra and Eleutheropolis from another 
Syrian book, namely, the " Doctrine of Addii," which was published by 
Philips in 18TG, and which dates from the third century of the Christian 
era. In the first page of this book the towai is mentioned " that is 
called Eleutheropolis, and Bet-Gubrin in the Aramaic tongue." 



:\IODERX RESEARCHES IX PALESTIXE. 

By Rev. Selak Mkkiiill, D.D. (Abridged from the Bulletin of the American 

Geographical Society.) 

Bridges over the Jordan. 

Between Lake Tiberias and the Dead Sea there is at present but one 
bridge over the Jordan, and that is Jisr Mejamieh, about six miles south 
of the Sea of Galilee. Just below this lake are the ruias of a once fine 
Roman bridge of ten arches, which was, no doubt, on the main route 
from Tiberias and Taricha3a to Gadara and the eastern cities and jdains. 
On the ^lenadhireh, or ancient Hieromix, or Yarmuk (for the stream is 
kuown by all these names), which is the first tributary of the Jordan 
on the east below the Lake of Tiberias, there is a bridge of five arches, 
situated only a few miles from the point where the two rivers unite. 
The next and only other bridge of which there is at present any trace 
is one, now in ruins, at the Damich ford, which was on the high road 
from Nablus or ancient Shechera to Gilead and the East. This bridge 



MODERN EESEARCHES IN PALESTINE. 1S9 

was originally Roman work, but there are evidences of extensive repairs 
by tlie Moslems or Crusaders. On the east side the bank is quite low, 
and the wide flat at that point is often overflown ; hence it was necessary 
to build a causeway across the low ground, which was done at great 
expense. I traced 450 feet of this causeway or eastern approach to the 
bridge, which was supported on arches, nine of which remain. The 
original length of this causeway was probably one hundred or more feet 
greater than that indicated by the figures which I have just given. The 
foundations of the abutments at the eastern end are still perfect. The 
bridge itself over the river must have been not far from one hundred 
feet in length. Formerly there were ruined piers in the stream, and 
my Arab guides said they used to swim to them; but they have been 
washed down by floods and are no longer visible. The foundations on 
the western side have likewise disappeared. 

Roman civilisation demanded the convenience and luxury of substan- 
tial roads and bridges ; and when some civilised power again gets control 
of Syria and the Holy Land, we may expect that these conveniences for 
travel and commerce will be restored. 

At the present time, at Damieh, and also at Jericho, there are ferry- 
boats, run by strong ropes, which are stretched across the river. Once 
in the Bible, when David returned from Mahanaim, a ferry-boat is men- 
tioned for carrying across the household and goods of the king (2 Sam. 
xix. 19). 

"Water Supply and Irrigation. 

The exploration which I conducted was the first that has ever been 
made of the entire valley on the east side of the river between the Lake 
of Tiberias and the Dead Sea. The general width of this half of the 
valley is from three to four miles, while in the Succoth region and on the 
Shittim plain it is from six to eight miles. The northern part of this 
valley, including all the portion between the Lake of Tiberias and the 
Jabbok, is not a desert, as has been supposed ; for no less than a dozen 
streams, besides two respectable rivers — the Jabbok and the Hieromax 
or Manadhireh — flow down upon it from the hills, and most of them are 
living, i.e., they flow all summer. The Hieromax is nearly as large as 
the Jordan itself where this leaves the lake. In February and March 
this portion of the valley resembles New England in the month of June. 
The soil is then burdened with its own productions. By the last of May 
the weeds, thistles, and wild mustard have become so rank that they are 
as high as a man's shoulders on horseback, and it is almost impossible 
to drive a horse through them. This portion of the valley is, perhaps^ 
thirty-five miles in length. 

South of the Jabbok or Zerka, for about twenty miles, or as far down 
as Wady Nimrin, the soil is quite barren, except during the winter 
months, because there are no fountains or streams among the hills to 
send down water upon the plain. It may be necessary to state that the 
barrenness of the soil in this portion of the valley is only apparent. 



140 MODERN RESEARCHES IN PALESTINE. 

since it is natuvally fertile, and, if it could be irrigated, would become 
as fruitful as a garden. 

Prom Wady Nimrin to the Dead Sea, a distance of about fifteen miles, 
lies the great Shittim plain, watered by three copious streams, which 
make it a rich and beautiful oasis. The Bible, in speaking of the eastern 
half of the Jordan plain, divides it according to the natural oases, which 
doubtless existed then as they do at present, namely, Beth-harau, Beth- 
Mmrah, Succoth, and Zaphon. The Talmud, in its physical divisions 
of that portion of Perea, follows the same order as the Bible (Josh, xiii, 
27). Beth-haran was the south and middle portion of the Shittim 
plain ; Beth-Nimrah was the northern portion ; Succoth was the region 
just north of the Jabbok; while Zaphon, meaning the north, ran up to 
the Sea of Galilee. (The Talmud, however, appears to identify Zaphon 
with the oasis about Wady Rajib, where the city Amathus stood, which 
is now represented by Tel Ammata). 

I have made a careful examination of the Jordan valley on the east 
side of the river, throughout its whole extent, with special reference to 
its being irrigated from the Jordan itself, and I am convinced that tho 
project is a very feasible one. Every square mile not now irrigated 
could be watered from the Jordan, and the expense for dams and canals 
would be small compared with the large amount of valuable land that 
would thus be made productive. If we reckon the valley at seventy 
miles in length, and three miles in average width, we should have one 
hundred and ten square miles of land as fertile as any prairie, and which, 
at twenty-five bushels j)er acre, would produce between three millions 
and four millions of bushels of wheat. In this calculation it will be 
observed that I make no estimate for the valley on the west side of the 
river. 

Here is a vast valley, and the means for making it one of the most fertile 
and productive on the globe, lying side by side, waiting for the skill of 
man to bring them into conjunction. 

It is an interesting fact that while in the valley itself there are almost 
no ruins, there are a good many in the foot-hills ; and these are situated 
in every case on the watercourses which I have mentioned, in such a 
way that while they had a good head of water in the fountain or stream 
behind them, they had spread out before them the fertile plain with its 
marvellously winding river, beyond which the hills of "Western Palestine 
rose in grandeur. I have visited thirteen such ruins, and some of them 
I judge to have been places of wealth and importance. 

If it should be objected that this valley, on account of the malaria and 
terrible heat, could not be inhabited, these ruins can be pointed to as 
evidence of its former condition o populousness and prosperity. Besides 
these ruins in the foot-hills, there are others on some of the tels or 
mounds in the Jordan valley, particularly those on the Shittim plain. 

It should also be mentioned that certain tribes of Arabs live in the 
valley nearly or quite all the year round. People born there can live 
there well enough. 



modern eesearches in" palestine. 141 

Hot Sulphur Springs. 

One of the interesting facts connected with the Jordan valley is that 
of the Hot Sulphur SpriiKjs, which exist at various points. Those at 
Tiberias are best known, perhaps, because they were very famous as a 
healthful resort in antiquity, and are still frequented by multitudes 
from all parts in search of health or pleasure. South of the Lake of 
Tiberias, and about one hour above the point where the Hieromax 
leaves the hills, are the hot springs of Gadara. Between this and the 
Jabbok I succeeded in bringing to light two groups of hot springs 
not previously known — at least they are not mentioned by Eitter 
or Robinson, or even in the recent scientific work of Lartet. One of 
these is just north of the site of ancient Pella, on Wady Hammat Abu 
Dhableh, and the other is at the mouth of Wady Zerka. At Tel el 
Hammam, on the Shittim plain, there is another, and east of the Dead 
Sea, on the Zerka Main, is the famous group to Avhich the Greeks gave 
•the name of Callirrhoe, 

There is good reason for supposing that the springs at Tel el Hammam, 
on the Shittim plain, are those which Herod the Great visited during 
his last illness. 

The springs at Tiberias and Calliri-hoe are the hottest, while those at 
Oallirrhoe and Gadara send forth the greatest volume of water. I was 
most interested in those at Gadara. There are four of them in one 
gi'oup, and a few miles up the valley is another, almost equal in size to 
the four just mentioned combined. The temperature of these springs ia 
respectively, 115°, 103°, 92°, 83°, and 112°. That one which has 103° tem- 
perature is the largest of the group of four, being sixty or more yards 
in length by thirty in width, and the average depth of the water is six 
feet. In it is a small floating island, covered with canes and reeds. I 
swam in this spring as many as fifty strokes in a straight line, and a 
more delightful batbing-i^lace I never saw. That one which has 115° 
temperature I found was a little hotter than I could endure, although 
the Arabs v/ho frequent the place prefer it. 

As these springs are considered healthful, some suitable for one and 
others for other complaints, the ground about them is by common 
consent regarded as neutral, and friends and foes meet here in peace. 
If the water flowing from the three hottest of the four springs forming 
the group just referred to were united, I estimate it would form a stream 
twenty feet in width and eighteen inches in depth, with a rapid 
•current. 

There are extensive ruins about these springs, including a beautiful 
theatre. After the destruction of Jerusalem, the Jews had a flourishinsr 
school at Gadara, and the rabbis used to visit these springs and walk 
for recreation along the bank of the river. If El Hamma, as this place 
is now called, could be rebuilt, it would become not only one of the 
most attractive resorts in Syria, but one of the most interesting in the 
whole world. At present it seems a pity that these delightful and 



142 MODERN EESEAHCHES I^^ PALESTINE. 

healing waters should flow on for ever without being enjoyed by those 
who would both appreciate and be benefited by tbem. 

In connection with the hot spring which I discovered near Pella, at 
Wady Hammat Abu Dhableh I found also a fine natural bridge spanning 
the deep ravine just above the spring. It is from twenty to thirty feet 
wide, eighty to one hundred feet high, about two hundred feet long, and 
its single great arch is twenty-five or thirty feet in height at the highest 
point. The Wady runs from east to west, the banks are very steep, and 
the bridge forms a striking object when looked at from below. 

Artificial Tels or Mounds. 

I wish also to call attention to the tels or mounds which exist in the 
Jordan vallej'', because, as some of them are wholly or in part arti- 
ficial, they carry us back to the Canaanito, or to the pre-Canaanite 
period, and may help us in solving the problem of the site of the " cities 
of the plain" that were destroyed. 

These mounds appear in groups. There are some interesting ones 
around Lake Merom, on the Uj^per Jordan. Again, in the Succoth 
region, just north of the Jabbok, there is a second group. And, finally, 
on the Shittim plain there is a third cluster, Avhich deserves our careful 
study. 

Independent of any historical evidence on this point, I think my 
researches have established the fact that, with regard to the Joi'dan 
valley, the flat land was never occupied by cities and towns of import- 
ance, but that these were situated either in the foot-hills or upon natural 
or artificial mounds in the plain. In connection with the lowlands, 
cities are several times mentioned in the Bible as occupying tels ; while 
in the valleys of the Tigris and the Euphrates, a city presupposed a 
mound on which it was built. There is a statement in Numbers xiii. 29> 
which shows that the Canaanites lay along the Jordan Yalley, and their 
occupation of it may have extended back into the remotest times. A 
decisive proof that these tels were the sites of cities or towns is the fact 
that several of those in the Lake Merom and the Jabbok groups have 
ancient ruins upon them ; and further, all the mounds, without excep- 
tion, on the Shittim plain, are covered with ruins, and at least three of 
these we are able to identify with places which existed in the time of 
Joshua. Hence it follows, that if we are to look for the site of ancient 
cities, no matter how ancient, in the Jordan valley, we must first of all 
examine the tvls. 

One of these ids in the Succouth group bears the name of Der-' Alia ; 
and Neubauer, in his " Geography of the Talmud," states that Succoth 
was called Ter'allah. These words are identical, with the exception of 
the two initial letters, t and d, which often interchange. My opinion is, 
that we have here a cluo to the identification of the Succoth which is 
connected with the history of Jacob. From certain indications, I suspect 
that cuttings into this mound would reveal ancient remains, which, even 



MODERN BESEARCHES IX PALESTINE. 143 

if they did not consist of numerous objects of gold and silver, sucli as 
have rewarded Dr. Scbliemann's excavations, might, nevertheless, be 
extremely important in elucidating the history and antiquities of this 
valley. (Somewhere in this immediate region were the brass founderies 
of King Solomon, where the metal work for the temple was cast ; and as 
the same physical conditions exist now that existed in Solomon's time, it 
is not improbable that future researches and excavations may enable us 
to point out the exact locality Avhere that work was done. 

It may be well to notice the fact that, at certain points along the 
valley, there are slight elevations, which may be called littoral mounds. 
They are, however, not remarkable in any way, and have no importance 
to deserve our notice. This fact is referred to because a certain critic 
of my work, who withholds his name, has stated that all the mounds in the 
valley were "mere littoral mounds J'^ With all due respect, I must say that 
this critic writes without any adequate knowledge of the facts, and that 
the mounds of which I am speaking are beyond dispute wholly or in part 
artificial. My chief reasons for this opinion are — 1st. That in a few 
cases, where they have been cut into, ruins, walls, pottery, and bricks 
have been found. 2nd. Columns, capitals, and fine squared stones 
project from the ground, suggesting the existence of buildings there in 
ancient times. 3rd. Supporting walls exist in a few cases, formed of 
several tiers of great boulders or blocks of unhewn stone, which are four 
or five feet thick, eight and ten, and even twelve feet long, and six feet 
■wide ; and in two or more cases, where the walls formed angles, there 
were foundations apparently for towers. 

The Shittih Plain. 

But I wish to direct especial attention to the Shittim plain, which is 
about fifteen miles in extreme length by seven or eight in width. "With 
it I include now the oasis of Nimrin, which is at the north end of this 
plain. Hei'e is situated Tel Nimrin, covered with ruins, which cor- 
responds to the Bethennabris of Josephua (War., 4, 7, 4), and likewise to 
the Beth Nimrah of the time of Joshua. 

For the sake of convenience, I will consider the section south of the 
Nimrin oasis as the Shittim plain proper. It is watered by two fine 
streams, which pour down from the mountains in Wady Kefrein and 
Wady Hasban. 

In some respects this plain, as thiis defined, is one of the most 
interestiivg portions of the Holy Land. Among the memorable his- 
torical events connected with it may be noticed the sin of the Hebrews 
with the Midianites, and the terrible retribution visited upon those 
idolaters ; also the completion of the law, and the farewell of Moses ; 
the sending forth of the spies to Jericho, and the final preparations 
before crossing the Jordan. 

We find here five remarkable tels, namely: 1. Tel Kefrein, which 
<3orresponds to the Abila of Josephus, and to Abel Shittim of Joshua's 
time. 2. South of this is situated Tel er Rama, which coi'responds to 



144 MODERN KESEAECHES IN PALESTINE. 

tlie Betli Ramtlia of Josephus, and to the Beth Haram (or Haran) of 
Joshua. Herod Autipas rebuilt or fortified this ]3lace, as it belonged 
to Perea, which was a part of his territory, and, in honour of Julia, the 
■wife of Augustus, gave it the new name of Julias, or Livias, for it bears in 
history both these names. There is sufficient ground, I think, for sup- 
posing that here the notorious feast was held when John the Baptist 
was beheaded. This point is one of the localities where I am particularly 
anxious to make excavations. 3. Following still south an irregular 
line from Tel Kefrein, and Tel er Eama, we have a place called Su- 
weimeh, which, from its position near the Dead Sea, also from its 
distance from the other places as indicated in the Talmud, Eusebius, or 
Josephus, and from the signification of the name, I think should be- 
identified with the Bezimoth of Josephus, and with the Beth Jeshimoth 
of Joshua. When the Hebi'ews came down from the mountains of 
Moab, they pitched from Beth Jeshimoth on the south, to Abel Shittim 
on the north, and their tents must have covered the whole plain. At 
the time of Josephus, Abila and Livias, and perhaps also Bezimoth, 
enjoyed the rank of cities. Between this irregular line already referred 
to as running north and south, and the Jordan, I crossed the plain in 
several directions, but found no ruins of any kind, nor any mounds of 
any importance. But between Tel Kefrein and Tel er Eama on the 
west, and the mountains on the east, there are two important tels which 
remain to be noticed. These are Tel el Hammam in the north, where 
there are extensive ruins and a hot spring ; and Tel Ektanu in the 
south, about two miles from the other, on Avhich are some of the oldest 
ruins that I have yet seen in the country. As to Tel el Hammam, I 
have been unable thus far to find any clue to its ancient name. 

Of Tel Ektanu I shall speak further, when considering the site of 
Zoar. 

Let me ask you to bear in mind the fact that what I have called, for 
convenience, the Shittim plain proper, i.e., the southern and main 
portion of the whole plain, has upon it a group of five tels or mounds, 
situated only a few miles from each other, all of which have ruins upon 
them, and three of which we can identify with cities which existed in 
the timie of Joshua. I think we have a right to suppose — indeed, the 
historical notices are conclusive on this point — that these cities did not 
spring up in Joshua's time, but that they existed upon these sites from, 
the earliest occupation of the valley. 

In making any suggestions in regard to 

The Site or ZoAi^ 

about which there have been various theories, it will be necessary to 
notice the account of the view which Lot had when he stood with 
Abraham on a hill near Bethel and looked down the Jordan valley 
towards the Dead Sea (Gen. xiii. 10). As the tenth verse of the thirteenth 
chapter of Genesis is rendered in our English Bible, the sense is not 



MODERN EESEABCHES IN PALESTINE. 145 

very clear ; but it will become so Avlien we read, as we should, all the 
naiddle portion of the verse as a parenthesis, as follows : — 

"And Lot lifted up his eyes and beheld all the plain of Jordan (thaf 
it was well watered everywhere, before the Lord destroyed Sodom and 
Gomorrah, even as the garden of the Lord like the land of Egypt), until 
thou oomest to Zoar." 

The last clause qualifies the first. Lot saw all the plain of Jordan as 
far as Zoar, or until you come to Zoar. Zoar was both the limit of the 
plain and the limit of his vision in that direction, as far as the land was 
concerned. How raiich of the Dead Sea he saw is not stated ; but no 
human vision, unless miraculously aided, could reach to the southern 
end and distinguish anything ; while from the point where he stood the 
greenness and beauty of the great Shittim plain are distinctly seen. I 
make this remark because it has been advocated by some writers that 
the Zoar of Moses and Lot's time was at the south end of the Dead Sea. 
Such persons suppose it to be implied in the passage just quoted, that 
Zoar, thus situated, could be seen from the point where Abraham and 
Lot stood. But I think it is to do violence to the lancfuage and to the 
facts of the case to attempt to make the phrase " all the plain of the 
Jordan" include the salt marsh at the southern end of the Dead Sea, 
which is fifty miles from that river, and has nothing to do with it. 
Indeed, the region there belongs to another water system altogether — 
entirely distinct from that at the northern end of the sea, with which 
the Jordan is connected (compare the significant phrase found in Josh. 
XV. 5, " unto the end of Jordan "). 

The plain which Lot saw as being " well watered everywhere" would 
continue so unless such great geological changes followed or accom- 
panied the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah as to cut off the water 
supply from the neighbouring mountains, which is nowhere stated or 
even hinted at, nor are there in the region itself any geological evidences 
of such a change or convulsion. 

If Lot saw the plain of Jordan as far as Zoar, and observed that it 
was well watered e7erywhere, the inevitable conclusion is that the place 
must have been at the north end of the Dead Sea. This is an important 
point gained. It is a fact which cannot be ignored, and which must be 
considei'ed in any discussion of the question of the site of ancient 
Zoar. 

The same fact is brought out in the account given in the thirty-foui-th 
chapter of Deuteronomy of the view which Moses had of the promised 
land, including the Jordan plain. The statements in this passage are 
clear and the order of events is systematic. Moses, we will suppose, 
was standing on the summit called " Siaghah," near to Mount Nebo, 
or one of the Nebo group of hills. He first looked north and saw 
Gilead and Naphtali ; then, turning to the west, he saw Ephraim, 
Manasseh, and all the land of Judah ; he next turned to the south ; 
and he finishes by looking down upon " the plain of the valley of Jericho 
unto Zoar;" and this plain and valley, at whatever point Zoar was 
situated, were at his very feet. 



146 MODERN RESEABCHES IN PALESTINE. 

One, standing where lie stood, cannot fail to realise tlie force of the 
Hebrew words of the third verse of the chapter just referred to, namely, 
ciccar, which includes the plain on both sides of the river; and bikath 
(valley), which signifies a great cleft between mountains. The mountains 
appear here as if they had been spread apart, and the plain been sunk 
far down between them. 

If Zoar is to be located at the southern end of the Dead Sea, this 
passage in Deuteronomy becomes confused, and the words " the plain 
of the valley of Jericho unto Zoar " have no intelligible meaning. Hence 
the view of Moses, like the view of Lot, appears to bear directly upon 
the question of the site of Zoar. And it is so evident that it hardly needs 
to be stated, that any hints bearing on the true site of this city help us 
also in attempting to locate the sites of what are called the " cities of 
the plain." 

I will now give a summary of the main facts bearing upon this 
question : 

1. A tradition has existed in past ages that the cities of the plain 
were submerged. Indeed, I have seen, in ancient maps, Sodom, Go- 
moiTah, Admah, and Zeboim represented, at convenient distances from 
each other, at the very bottom of the Dead Sea. For instance, Thomas 
Fuller's quaint book, "A Pisgah Sight of Palestine," a.d. 1650, has a 
map which places them in this manner ; and represents them as en- 
veloped in flames, notwithstanding the fact that they are 1,300 feet deep 
in water. But for this tradition there is no warrant in the Bible ; and, 
besides, it is established beyond dispute by geological researches that 
the surface of the Dead Sea was never less in extent than it is at present. 
During past geological periods it has gi'adually contracted to its present 
limits. I have myself traced an old shore-line distant about two miles 
from the present one. It is evident, beyond question, that the sites of 
these cities are not to be looked for at the bottom of the sea. 

2. The supposition that the shallow water south of the peninsula, or 
el Lisan, covers these sites has, for the same reasons, no foundation, 
and is to be abandoned in like manner. Dr. Eobinson advocated this 
theory ; but I am sure he would have been the first to reject it had the 
geological facts been known to him which modern researches have 
brought to light. 3. There is no warrant in the Bible for supposing 
that the sites of these cities were destroyed when the cities themselves 
were, or that they were obliterated, or that the region about them 
Taecame desolate in consequence of their destruction. Indeed there is a 
passage in Deuteronomy (xxxii. 32) where " the vine of Sodom and the 
fields of Gomorrah " are spoken of in such a way as to indicate that this 
was far from being a barren region. 

4. If the region where these stood was once fertile, it must always 
have remained so, unless, as I have before stated, some great geological 
change cut off the water supply from the neighbouring hills. 

5. The region at the southern end of the Dead Sea is a salt marsh 
and desert, with only a narrow belt of inhabitable land skirting its 



MODERN BESEARCHES IN PALESTINE. 147 

eastern border at the foot of the mountains. It is not now and never 
has been a suitable place for cities. 

6. On the other hand, at the north end of the Dead Sea, there is a large 
and fertile plain, which has been occupied by flourishing cities ever since 
the days of Moses and Joshua at least, if not from a period much more 
remote. 

7. In speaking of the td si/steni of the Jordan valley, I have shown that 
the ancient inhabitants built their cities upon natural or artificial 
mounds, and not down upon the flat lands of the plain itself; and I 
have stated the fact that such tels or mounds, covered with ruins, exist 
at the north end of the Dead Sea, while there are none at the southern 
end. 

8. As we can identify some of these tels with places which existed in 
Josephus' time, and still farther back with cities which existed in the 
time of Joshua, it is not unreasonable to suppose that these tds were 
occupied by cities in the time of Lot and Chedorlaomer. If we have 
historical evidence that those mounds were eligible sites for cities for a. 
period of fifteen centuries before the time of Christ, and during that 
oeriod were occupied for that purpose, we may be justified in supposing 
that they were thus occupied from the earliest advent of man in that 
part of the country. 

9. With regard to the account of the vicAV of the Jordan valley which 
Lot had or of that which Moses had, in both of which Zoaris mentioned, 
any justifiable rules of interpretation comj)el us to look lor the site of 
Zoar, which was one of the doomed cities, at the north end of the Dead 
Sea. 

10. Only five sites are required, namely— Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, 
Zeboim, and Zoar; and on the Shittim i^lain we have exactly five sites 
— Tel Kefrein or Abel Shittim, Tel er Eania or Beth Haram, Suweimeh 
or Beth Jeshimoth, Tel el Hammam and Tel Ektanu 

11. AVhat are termed the " cities of the plain " appear to have formed 
a group in rather close proximity to each other, because cities that are 
many miles apart cannot be said to be destroyed by one and the same 
conflagration. Hence, if we find their sites at all, we should expect 
them do be quite close together; and this is precisely the case with the 
five sites to which I have just referred. 

12. It is important to remember that Zoar formed one of the group 
that were to be destroyed. It was near the others and in the same 
plain with them, but nearer the mountain than any of the rest. As 
Lot, who had no time to flee to the mountains, wished to make this 
city his temporary refuge, it was spared on his account. 

13. In the account of the catastrophe, all the time allowed to Lot to 
flee from Sodom to the " little city," which was his temporary refuge, was 
from dawn to sunrise. The fatal objection to all the hitherto proposed 
sites of the " little city " is that they are several times too far from the 
scene of the disaster, whether the cities that were destroyed are placed 
at the south or at the north end of the Dead Sea. Zoar, consequently, 



14S MODEEN EESEAPX'nES IX TALESTIXE. 

Binst form one of a group of cities, as I have said, and this fact mnst 
l:)oJ )orneprominent]3- in mind in any attempted identification of its site. 
Tliese thirteen facts, now stated, seem to be fair and reasonable. 
They are forced upon lis by an examination of tlie Hebrew record of 
tlie event, in connection with cai-eful researches upon the ground itself r 
and they all appear to have a legitimate and important bearing upon 
the question which we are trying to solve. 

But is it possible for us to come to any more definite conclusion as 
to the site of ancient Zoar ? I think we are able to decide with strong 
probability, if not with absolute certainty. 

In the group of mounds which exist on the Shittim plain I have 
refei-red to one called " Tel Ekfanu." This is in some respects the 
most remarkable one of all this cluster of ancient sites. In the first 
place, the ruins upon it appear to be of a very great age. Again, its 
position deserves notice, since it is nearer tlie mountains of Moab than 
any of the others ; and although it cannot be reckoned as one of the 
foot-hills, it is so situated as to command an extensive view of the 
whole plain around and below it. I learned the name from some of the 
most intelligent of the Arabs who belong in that region — questioning 
different persons on different occasions, that there might be no mistake 
about it. They could, hov.'ever, give no account of the origin and 
meaning of the name, except to say that it was very old. They said, 
also, that the ruins upon this tcl were the most ancient of any that were 
known to them. 

The name itself has no meaning in Arabic, and we are compelled to 
look elsewhere for its origin and signification. It appears to be the 
Hebrew word " Katan," which means little or the little one. Zoar 
has the same meaning, and the two words are synonymous. This 
signification is appropriate for this tcl, as compared with the others. 
It is a well-known fact that the Phoenicians had, in ancient times, one 
or more cities named " Katana " or " Katane." 

If the cities that were destroyed were at the north end of the Dead 
Sea, this Tel Ektanu would be exactly in the direction which Lot would 
take, if his intention was to hasten to the neighbouring hills, or towards 
them, for safety ; and its distance from the rest of the mounds cor- 
responds well with the time allowed the fugitive — namely, from dawn 
to sunrise. 

The fact that one Hebrew word has been substituted for another 
identical with it in meaning, i.e. — Katan for Zoar, ought not to be 
m-gcd as an objection to identifying Tel Ektanu with the site of the 
"little city" to whicli Lot fled, provided all the other circumstances 
of the case point to it as the real one. Besides, it is much easier to 
understand how this substitution could have taken place than it is to 
understand how the name " Bela," by which this place was known in 
Chcdorlaomer's time, could have given way to Zoar. 

The anonymous critic ali*eady referred to thinks he has overthrown 
this whole attempt to identify Ektanu with the Hebrew word Katan by 



MODEKN RESKARCIIES IX TALESTINE. H9 

asserting that "those words resemble each other only in their English 
transcription— the t of Katau being the Hebrew teth, and the t of • 
Ektanu being the Arabic ta—two letters,'' he continues, " ivhich never 
interchange." To which I reply that we have the Hebrew word Katal 
written with a teth ; while the same or a corresponding word in Arabic^ 
Katala, is written with a ««— precisely the change which this critic 
says can never occur. If this person had examined any standard 
Hebrew grammar or lexicon, he would have seen that the change which 
he asserts is impossible is recognised by the authorities as existing and 
occurring in certain cases (see Gesenius, Fiirst, Bottcher, Ewald, and 
others). 

To sum up, I would say that, in my judgment, they are not merely 
accidental circumstances: 1. That this tel should be one of a group of 
five, the exact number required by the Scripture narrative, and all of 
them ancient sites. 2. That it should be in the same plaui, but nearer 
the monntains of Moab. 3. That the direction and distance should 
correspond minutely with the requirements of the Biblical account. 

4. That the ruins upon it should be some of the oldest in the country. 

5. And that the name it bears should have no meaning in Arabic, but 
be apparently the Hebrew word signifying "the little one," which is. 
the precise meaning of the name of the place to which Lot fled. 

After a thorough examination of the region itself, and a careful con- 
sideration of all the facts bearing upon the question, I think there are 
unanswerable arguments in favour of the opinion that the " cities of the 
plain " were situated at the north end of the Dead Sea, and iipon the 
mounds whose names I have givea^ and that Tel Ektanu is identical 
with the site of ancient Zoar. 

It is a matter of gi-eat interest to know that some of the apparent 
difficulties connected with the Bible have been solved or dissipated 
by the researches that have been made in the Holy Land. One of these 
is with regard to the vast number of inhabitants which the country is 
said to have possessed, and the great fertility which it is alleged the- 
country formerly enjoyed. And in the time that remains to ns this 
evening, I propose to invite your attention to a general summary of the- 
evidence for thefertUitij and iwpulousness of this region east of the Jordan 
in ancient times. 

I. Let us glance first at the jjeo/j^e who have occupied this region. 

1. For some centuries previous to the Moslem conquest, in a.d. 635, 
the population was largely Christian, industrious and peaceful, with 
churches and schools, enjoying the benefits of education and religion^ 

2. Before them were the Eomans, who filled the land with temples, 
and public works, which they adorned with the highest art. 3. Before 
the Romans were the Nabatheans, who are described as united and 
peaceable, enterprising, and considerably advanced in culture and 
wealth. When a Greek army was sent by Antigonous, the suc- 
cessor of Alexander, three centuries before the birth of Christ, against 
Petra, their capital, they were routed and slaughtered by these Uttle- 



150 MODERN RESEABCIIES IN PALESTINE. 

known people of the desert. This was the first introduction the 
Greeks had to these inhabitants of the desert; and the Assyrian 
records wliich have recently been brought to light show that six or seven 
centuries before Christ, the Nabatheans were a powerful kingdom, and 
able to offer a formidable resistance to the disciplined armies from the 
Euphrates, -i. As we cannot give accurate details of the period inter- 
vening between the Nabatheans and the Hebrews, it will be sufficient 
for our present purpose to mention the Israelitish occupation, Avhen 
the desert bounded their country on the south and east, the Jordan on 
the west, and Mount Hernion on the north. The children of Israel— 
i.e., the two and a half tribes that occupied that region — were possessed 
of wealth, and could at one time command over forty thousand valiant 
men of war. 5. Before the Hebrew invasion under Moses and Joshua> 
the land was occupied by the Amorites, under the leadership of the 
famous Kings Sihon and Og. G. And history reaches yet further 
back, even to a race of giants who had flourished and grown old upon 
this soil, and whom the Elamite King Chedorlaomer once subdued, at 
least six centuries before the time of Moses. I have found in at least 
half a dozxni places east of the Jordan some remarkable Cyclopean 
remains, which I have good reason for supposing date from the people 
called " the giants," or the people that had flourished and grown old 
here before the advent of the Hebrews. If we except the twelve 
centuries that have elapsed since the Moslem conquest, this region has 
always l)een inh;i,bibed by people who were distinguished by enterprise 
and strength, or by intelligence and wealth. 

II. Again, we learn from the cuneiform records that the provinces 
east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea were invaded by the Assyrian 
armies as many as six or more times previous to the year 600 B.C. — a 
fact which shows that these lands, with their cities and people, Avere 
regarded by those Romans of Asia as enviable objects of conquest. It 
is noticeable that these stone pages of history mention that the con- 
querors took back with them from this region immense spoil— silver 
and gold and camels and costly articles, that had been captured or 
paid as tribute or ransom to the victorious king. 

III. One of the most striking and convincing proofs of the populous- 
ness and the prosperity of this region in ancient times are the ruins 
which literally dot its surface from the Jordan and the Gilead hills east 
and south to the very border of the desert. Whoever has passed through 
this East- Jordan land is surprised at the number and magnificence of 
these ruined towns. Amman and Gerash, Kunawat and Bozrah, vie 
with Palmyra and Baalbek in the splendour and beauty of their ruins. 
At Gerash two streets ran through the city, crossing each other at 
right angles — one of them over a mile in length, and both of them were 
lined on either side with columns. Tliree hundred columns still stand 
upright amid these ruins — a mere remnant of the forest of columns 
that once adorned this city, which docs not now boast of a single in- 
habitant ! We speak of the " multitude of ruins ; " of the surface of 



MODERN KESEARCHES IN PALESTINE. 151 

the country being " dotted with ruined towns ; " let us look closely at 
the evidence and see for ourselves that these general statements are not 
exaggerations. The accurate Wetzstein, a former Prussian consul at 
Damascus, whose book is a standard work upon the Hauran, counted, 
from the castle at Bozrah, on the plain about that city, as maiiy as 
thirty ruined towns. Dr. J. L. Porter, who by his researches and 
writings has rendered very important service to Biblical geography, 
stood once upon the castle at Salchad— the Salcha of the Old Testament 
—and counted not less than thirty ruined towns and villages from that 
commanding spot. From the ruins of Melah es Sarra, some hours east 
of Salchad, the Rev. W. Wright, formerly a missionary in Damascus, 
counted as many as fourteen ruined towns within sight from where he 
stood— i.e., in the south-east direction toward the desert. At 'Are an 
intelligent Druse, from whose house-top I overlooked the surrounding 
country, pointed out to me upwards of forty ruined cities and towns, 
most of which he called by name. Clustering about Kunawat, the 
Kenath of the Old Testament, there are the ruins of a dozen or 
more important places, some or all of which, in ancieno times, were 
doubtless dependant upon the chief or central city ; so that the group 
strikingly illustrates the Hebrew phrase, " Kenath with her dau'jhter 
towns." The places already referred to are either south or in the most 
southern part of the Lejah, the Argob of the Old Testament ; while the 
northern part of the Lejah, and the eastern and the surrounding plain, 
is likewise covered with ruins. Consul Wetzstein is authority for the 
statement that this eastern section of the Lejah and the slopes of the 
Hauran mountains contain at least 300 ruined cities and towns. It 
should be mentioned that a town of ordinary size contains 600, 800, or 
1,000 houses. In the ancient Gaulanitis, lying between the Lejah and 
the Lake of Tiberias, Dr. Porter has stated that he had a list of 127 
towns and villages, all of which were deserted with the exception of 
eleven. Among these random data no reference has been made to the 
cities, towns, and villages in the Gilead hills, in the Jaazer region, 
directly north of Heshbon, or in Moab, where they are numbered by 
scores and hundreds. I think that, taking the country from north to 
south and from east to west — go where you will and in whatever direc- 
tion — you will come upon an important ruin in every half-hour of 
travel. I do not know where else on the face of the earth there is any- 
thing to equal or even to compare with the ruin-dotted surface of this 
East-Jorda,n land. Among these ruins I have myself visited and 
examined upwards of sixty ruined churches. I have examined and 
measured eleven of the thirteen theatres which there exist, including one 
vast Naumachia, or place where mock sea fights were held. The smallest 
of these would seat 3,000 people ; and the largest, at Amman— the Eab- 
bath Ammon of the Bible— which I measured a few months ago, would 
actually seat 10,000 people. Of these theatres the one at Kunawat, the 
two at Gerash, the one at Bozrah, one of those at Amman, and one of 



152 MODERN RESEAECnES IN TALESTINE. 

tliose at Gadara, could easily be repaired aud made ready for use again, 
at an expense of only a few thousand dollars. Three theatres at Gadara, 
tAvo and a naumachia at Gerash, and two at Amman — how could the 
citizens of these places have needed so many costly structures of this 
kind ? At the warm springs of Gadara, three miles from the city, there 
was a beautiful theatre, for the accommodation of those who frequented 
this famous pleasure-resort of antiquity. It is possible that the smallest 
of these theatres may have been roofed over, but generally they were 
open to the sky, unless covered by awnings. In some cases they were 
so built as to command a fine view of the surrounding country. That 
one in the western part of the city of Gadara, is especially worthy of 
notice on this account. The view is not only extensive but beautiful 
and magnificent. The spectators from their seats, while enjoying the 
play, could overlook the finest portion of Palestine. Five great fortresses 
were in sight ; the whole country, from white-capped Hermon in the 
north far down towards Jericho in the south, filled with flourishing 
cities and towns, was before them in the distance ; and sunk below 
them to a vast depth was the Jordan valley, with the river winding 
through it; while almost at their very feet was spread out the charming 
Sea of Galilee, covered at that time with vessels, and surrounded with 
cultivation and life. And as this is but a specimen of the marvellous 
views which may be obtained from many of the mountain summits of 
the Holy Land, I sometimes feel that I can forgive its ancient inhabitants 
for choosing these hill-tops as sacred places. Tet it should be remem- 
bered that the grooves, the attractive scenery — all that was beautiful 
and enchanting in such localities as these, could not save the people 
from the grossest idolatry and the most lascivious rites. 

lY. I have mentioned that I visited as many as sixty ruined churches. 
But I visited only a portion of those that still exist; and how many 
existed in former times it is now impossible to tell. Among these wei*e 
cathedrals; and several of the larger edifices must have been erected at 
great expense, since they are spacious, splendid structures, and adorned 
with the highest art. And to give a hint of the extent of Christian 
influence in this region during tke early centuries following the birth of 
Christ, I will mention that at one time Bozrah had seventeen bishops 
subject to its archbishop, and Damascus, Scythopolis or Bethshean, 
andPetra, had respectively twelve, seventeen, and twenty-three bishops 
subject to their archbishops. The ecclesiastical provinces of Damascus 
and Scythopolis included some territory not embraced in the East- Jordan 
district which wo are especially considering; but with this small reduc- 
tion the bishoprics that remain are numerous, and the churches were 
no doubt reckoned not by scores but by hundreds. 

V. A fifth fact illustrative of the condition of this country in former 
times is that of the Eoman roads. According to my own estimate, 
which I have made with considerable care, there wereeast of the Jordan, 
between Petra on the south and Damascus on the north, not leas than 
500 miles of road, touching all the important cities in that region and 



MODERN KESEAECHES IN PALESTINE. 153 

leading to the seaboai'd. These roads were built upon honour. The 
engineers vpei-e skillful, and the workmanship was substantial and 
enduring. Some of their bridges still remain, together with perfect 
sections of their roads here and there — surprising monuments of the 
character of the Koman people. Hills were cut down, streams wero 
bridged, a solid road-bed made of gravel, sand, and cement ; on this bed 
a pavement of squared stones was laid ; the line of the road, wherever 
the country would admit of it, was as straight as an arrow ; the width 
of the roadway was pretty uniformly twelve feet ; each side was lined 
with curbing-stone ; and at proper intervals there were stations for 
watchmen and overseers, and others for relays of horses. On these 
roads they travelled one hundred, and sometimes two hundred miles in 
twenty-four hours ; and at certain points I have found the ruts which 
were worn in the pavement by the chariot wheels. Whenever in " the 
wilderness beyond Jordan," I find a section of a Roman road that ig 
well preserved, I always stop to admii-e the substantial workmanship 
which it displays, and especially to reflect upon the character of 
that government and people — that state of civilisation which de- 
manded such convenient but costly means of intercourse. What a 
conti'ast in this respect between the Romans and the Turks ! TJiosc 
a people who made the land a paradise; these a people who turned the 
paradise into a desert. 

VI. A sixth fact which must be considered in judging of this country 
in former times is that of the inscriptions. Perhaps 2,000 Latin, Greek, 
Nabathean, and Palmyrene inscriptions have been collected here, which 
furnish a multitude of details with regard to the government, religion, 
arts, and social life of the different races and peoples that once flourished 
on these now deserted and desolate plains. 

VII. A seventh fact bearing on this subject is the evidence which the 
existing remains afford of the complete system of irrigation which the 
ancient inhabitants perfected and employed. Details with regard to 
the numerous wells, cisterns, aqueducts, and vast reservoirs which 
were provided, cannot now be given; but we will simply refer to the 
valley of'the Jabbok as an illustration. This valley is perhaps seventy 
miles long, and half a mile to two miles in width; and in ancient 
times every acre of it was reached by irrigating canals. Only the 
best portions of it are now under cultivation. The present owners 
of the soil never dig any canals ; but whenever they wish to plant 
a certain piece of ground, they clear out and repair an old one. 
The Arabs say they did not make these canals, and that their 
fathers did not make them ; but they have existed here from the 
oldest time. Some of these I have traced for five or six miles along 
the side of the hills or mountains, and the skill displayed in their con- 
struction — leading them under ledges and around bold, rocky headlands 
— shows that their builders had more means and intelligence than any 
people that have been settled here since the Moslem conquest. These 
-couldl have been built by the Romans ; but as this valley was settled 



154 MODERN RESEARCHES IN PALESTINE. 

and cultivated in tlie Hebrew times, it is more probable tbat tliey date 
originally from that remote period. 

With regard to to the populoiisness of the country east of the Jordan 
in ancient times, I think the evidence is cumulative and overwhelming. 
In evei-y age previous to the Moslem conquest in a.d. 635 — running 
clear back to the time of the giants — this Ixnd has been thickly in- 
habited, generally by intelligent and wealthy people. Churches, theatres, 
palaces, temples, castles, baths, porticos, splendid roads, a multitude of 
inscriptions, remains of a perfect system of irrigation, historical notices 
of cathedrals, bishops, and a wide-spread Christian influence, notices of 
conquests and vast spoils falling into the hands of the victors, authentic 
notices of many successive and powerful races that have flourished here, 
and the surface of the whole country dotted with ruined towns, cities, 
and villages, are convincing proofs that the statements found in the 
Old Testament respecting the numbers of their armies and people may 
be accepted, so far as the capacities of the soil for supporting such a 
population are concerned, as the literal truth. 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND: 

A SOCIETY FOR THE ACCURATE AND SYSTEMATIC INVESTIGATION OF 
THE ARCHAEOLOGY, THE TOPOGRAPHY, THE GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL 
GEOGRAPHY, THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS, OF THE HOLY LAND 
FOR BIBLICAL ILLUSTRATION. 



PATRON : 
HEE MAJESTY THE QUEEN. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE: 
ARCHBISHOP OF YORK, Preudent. 



Dr. H. VV. Acl\ni>, F.R.S. 

Rev. \V. Lindsay Alexander, D.D. 

Rev. Henry Allon, D.D. 

The President OF th e American Association 

W. Amhurst T. Amherst. F-sa. 

Major Anderson, R. E., C.M.G. 

Rev. Joseph Axgvs, D.D. 

Duke of Argyll, K.T. 

James Bateman, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Rev. Canon Bmcu 

Samuel Birch, Esq., LL.D , D.C.L. 

Rev. W. F. Birch 

Rev. H. M. Butler. D.D. 

Marquis of Bute, K.T. 

Archbishop of Canterbury 

Earl of Carnarvon 

T. Chaplin, Esq., M.D., lion. Sec. for 

Jerusalem 
Bishop of Chester 
Dean of Chester 
Dean of Christchubch 
Lord Alfred Churchill 
Lord Clermont 
J. D. Grace, Esq. 
Lieut. Conder, R.E. 
Colonel Cooke, R.E. 
John Cunliffe, E^Q. 
Duke of Devonshire, Iv.G., F.R.S. 
Earl of Ducie 
\V. Hepworth Dixon, Esq. (^Chairman oj 

Executive CommitUe) 
Professor Donalhson 
Earl of Dufferin, K.P., K. C. B. 
Blshop of Durham. 
F. A. Eaton, Esq. 
S. Jackson Eldridge, Esq.. Beymut 
Sir Howard Elphinstone, K.C.B. 
Bishop of Exeter 
Rev. Canon Farrar, D.D. 
James Fergusson, Esq., F.R.S. 
A. Lloyd Fox 
H. ^V. Freeland, Esq. 



M. C. Clermont-Ganneau 

F. Waymouth Gibbs, Esq., C.B. 

Rev. C. D. Ginsburg, LL.D. 

Cyril C. Graham, Esq. 

George Grove, Esq , D.C.L. (7/ow. Sec.) 

James Glaisher, Esq., F.R.S. 

Samuel Gurney, Esq , F.R.G.S., F.L.S. 

Rev. H. Hall-Houohton. 

H. A. Harper, Esq. 

Rev. J. C. Harrison 

Ri;v. F. AV. H,jlland {Eon. See.) 

A. J. Beresford Hope. Esq.. M.P. 

Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.I. 

IIijLMAN Hunt, Esq. 

Bishop of Jeru.salkm. 

Li but. H. H. Kitchener, R.E., F.R.G.S. 

E. H. Lawrence, Esq. 

Right Hon. Sir A. H. Layard, K.C.B. 

Sir p. Leighton, P.R.A. 

General Lefrov 

Professor Hayter Lewis 

Bishop of Lichfield 

Dean of Lichfield 

Bishop of Llandaff 

Samuel Lloyd, Esq. 

Bishop of London 

John MacGregor, Esq. 

W. McArthur, Esq., M.P. 

Duke of Marlborough, Iv.G. 

Rev. Samuel Manning, Li. D. 

IMaster of University College, Oxford 

R. B. Martin, Esq. 

Henry Maudsl.vt, Esq. 

Edward Miall, Esq. 

Rev. Dr. Moffatt 

Sir Moses Montefiorf, Bart. 

Noel Temple Moore, Esq., II. 3. HI. Con^ 

sul, Jerusalem 
Samuel Morley, Esq., M.P. 
W. Morrison, Esq. (Treasurer^ 
John Murr.vy, Esq, F.R.G S. 
Sir Cit.iRLEs NicHOLsor, Bart. 



GeneeaIw Committee (continued)- 

duke of kokthumberland 

Dean of Norwich 

Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommaxney 

Professor Owex, C.B., F.R.S. 

Professor E. H. Palmer 

Sir S. Morton Peto, Bart. 

Rev. E. H. Plimptre 

Eev. Professor Porter, LL.D. 

Rev. C. Pritchaup, F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof. PrsEV, D.D. 

Rev. Professor Rawlixson 

Hekry Reeve, Esq., C.B. 

ilARQVIS of RiPOX, K.G. 

Bishop of Ripox 

Bishop of Rochester 

Dh. Sandreczky 

Rt. Hon. Viscovxt Saxdox, M.P. 

IvI. De Saulcy 

Lord Hexry J. M. D. Scott, M.P. 

Earl of Shaftesbury, K.G. 



William Simpsox, Esq., F.R.G.S. 
"William Smith, Esq., LL.D. 
"W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 
Major R. W. Stewart, R.E. 
Rev. Johx Stoughtox, D.D. 
ViscovxT Stratford de Redcliffe, 

K.G., G.C.B. 
DcKE OF Sutherlaxd, K.G. 
Lord Talbot de Malauide 
William Tipping, Esq. 
Rev. Caxox Tristram, LL.D., F.R.S- 
W. S. W. Vavx, Esq., F.R.S. 
The Marquis de Vogue 
Lieut. -Col. Warrex, R.E., C.M.G. 
De.vn of AVestminster, F.R.S. 
Duke of Westminster, K.G. 
Lieut. -Col Wilsox, R.E., C.B., F.R.S. 
George Wood, Esq. 
Bishop of AVixch ester 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 
^Y. HEPWORTII DIXON, Esq., CJiairman. 



Major Axdersox, R.E., C.M.G. 

Samuel Birch, Esq., LL.D. 

J. D. Cr.\ce, Esq. 

F. A. Eatox, Esq. 

Tames Glaisher, Esq., F.R.S. 

ijeorge Grove, Esq., D.C.L. 

Samuel Gurney, Esq., F.Pi.G.S., F.L.S. 

Rev. F. W. Holland 



Lieutexaxt H. H.KitchexeRjR.E. ,F.R.G .S. 

Professor Hayter Lewis. 

Johx IMacGkegor, Esq. 

Walter Morrison, Esq. 

William Simpson, Esq., L L.D. 

Rev. Caxox Tristram, F.R.S. 

W. S. W. Vau.x:, Esq., F.R.S. 

Lieut. -Col. Wilson, R.E., C.B., F.R.S. 



Bankers — Messrs. Coutts axd Co., 59, Strand. The Uxiox Baxk of Lont)on, Charing 

Cross Branch, 66, Charing Cross. 

Treasurer — Walter Morrison, Esq. 

Hon. Secretaries — Rev. F. W. Holland, and George Grovb, Esq., D.C.L. 

Acting Secretary — Walter Besaxt, Esq. Office, 11 and 12, Charing Cross, S.W. 



Cheques and P.O. Orders payable to order of Walter Besant, Esq. It is particularly 
re<iuested that both cheques and orders may be crossed to Coutts and Co., or to the Union 
Bank of London, Charing Cross Branch. Post Office Orders may be made payable at 
Charing Cross. 



rIOTE.--Tlie Price of the "Quarterly Statement" is Half-a-Crown. 

Sent free to Subscribers. 



Quarterly Statement, October, 1879.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND, 



NOTES AND NEWS. 
The work of the last quarter has been chiefly occupied with the Special 
Etlition of the "Survey of Western Palestine." AVe are happy to be able to 
announce that the subscription has been entirely covered. The reception of the 
prospectus was from the first extremely satisfactory. It was sent, to begin with, to 
the members of the General Committee, with results which appeared in the last 
Quarterly Statement ; next it was issued with the July number to the general 
body of subscribers, and shortly afterwards the circular was sent to a few leading 
libraries. It has not been found necessary to advertise the edition in any way, 
or to appeal to the general public. Some of the local honorary secretaries were 
good enough to draw up lists of names to whom the circular might be sent, but 
the rapid application for copies made the use of these lists unnecessary. Further 
on will be found a complete list of the subscribers, in their order. 



It may happen that some whose names are in the list may be disposed to cede 
their copies. To meet such cases names are still received and will be placed on 
the list of the two hundred and fifty, should vacancies occur, in order of priority 
of application. 

A paragraph in the July Quartcrbj Statement explained that there would be no 
cheaper edition of the Survey. Arrangements, it was said, would be made to 
enable the public to purchase any portion or portions of the work separately, such 
as the maps, the plans, the Arabic lists, or the special papers. Some misunder- 
standing seems to have been caused by this announcement. The Committee, it 
should be further explained, have no intention whatever of disregarding the 
manifest rights of subscribers to have the maps at a lower rate than the general 
public. The reduced price cannot yet be announced because it has not been found 
possible as yet to arrive at the exact cost of the maps to the Committee. 



An idea may be formed, however, of what the maps will cost subscribers by 
reckoning the actual cost of the large map at eighteenpence a sheet, and of the 
small map at six or seven shillings, to which the cost of carriage must be added. 
Probably the price of the large map to subscribers will be two giiineas, carriage 
paid. 



158 NOTES AND XEWS. 

The memoirs are being printed as rapidlj' as possible. Colonel "Wilson, the 
eilitor in chief, has the proofs sent to him in As-ia ]\Iinor, which necessarily causes 
a delay of five or six weeks for each volume. But this is unavoidable. Major 
Anderson, his colleague, has now returned from Servia, and is prepared to take 
up the work. The introduction, which forms a general history of the Society 
from its foundation, will be furnished by the Chairman of the Executive Com- 
mittee, the scientific account of the methods of the Survey by the officer who 
carried out the greatest part of the work— Lieutenant Conder. Professor Hayter 
Lewis has undertaken the revision of the architectural illustrations. 



Colonel Wilson's paper on the Masonry of the Ilaram, promised for this number, 
stands over for January, to allow of the illustrations, which could not be got ready 
iu time for the October number. 

"\Ve are indebted to the Zeitschrift of the German Association for the Exploration 
of Palestine for the interesting papers l)y Professors Goldziher and Sepp, and 
Herr Schick, which are printed in this number. 



The income of the Fund from all sources, from June 12th to September 17th, 
1879, was £508 15s. 8d. The expenditure was as follows :— Liabilities on Tent 
JVorlc, £107 9s. ; rent, parcels, postage, salaries, and offices, £145 53. 8d. ; 
printers, £204 lOs. All the " unpaid accounts " which have figured so formidably 
iu the annual balance-sheets are now paid off. 



It is suggested to subscriljers that tlie safest and the most convenient 
manner of paying a subscription is by means of a bank. Many subscribers have 
: adopted this method, recommended in the Quarter! ij Statement of January last. 
Among ether advantages, this method removes the danger of loss or miscarriage, 
and saves the Society's office the labour and expense of acknowledgment by 
official receijit and letter. 

Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly Statement regularly are asked to 
send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward the periodical to all 
who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes give rise 
to occasional omissions. 



It has been asked whether, since the Survey is finished, the Quarterly State- 
ment will be discontinued. The Siirvey, as stated above, will be actually com- 
pleted wlicn it is entirely published, and not before. lUit its completion does 
not mean the completion of the work of the Society, as reference to the original 
prospectus will show. And there is, more than ever, need of a periodical devoted 
to the special line of research which is the raison d'etre of this Quarterly Statement. 
It will therefore be continued as long as the Society exists and there is work of 
the kind which it represents to be done and reported. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 159 

Several eases have been at various times discovered of postage stamps being 
lost on their way to the office. The only way to avoid such loss, unless subscrip- 
tions are paid tlirough the bank, is to send money by P. 0.0. or by cheque, 
in txcrij case pay ahlc to tlie order of Walter Bcnant, Esq., and crossed to Coutts 
aivd Co., or the Union Sunk, Charing Cross Branch. 



The ninth tliousand of "Our Work in Palestine" is now ready (price Ss. 6d.), 
and may be ordered of booksellers. Tliis book carries the work down to the 
commencement of the Survey, but does not embrace M. Ganneau's discoveries 
Bor the results of the Survey itself. 



The following are at present Representatives and Lecturers of the Societ}', in 
addition to the local Hon. Sees. : — • 

Archdeaconry of Hereford : Piev. J. S. Stooke-Vaughan, Wellington Heath 
Vicarage, Ledbury . 

City and neighbourhood of ilanchester : PiCv. W. F. Birch, St. Saviour's 
Piectory. 

Lancashire : Eev. John Bone, St. Thomas's Vicarage, Lancaster. 

London : Rev. Henry Gearj% 16, Somerset Street, Portman Sipiare. 

Norwich : Rev. W. F. Greeny. 

Suffolk : Rev. F. C. Long, Stow-upland, Stowmarket. 

Peterborough : Rev. A. J. Foster, Farndish Rectory, Wellingborough. 

Worcester : Rev. F. AV. Holland, Evesham (Member of General and Executive 
Committee, and one of the Hon. Secretaries to the Fund). 

Diocese of Ripon : Rev. T. C. Henlej^, Kirkby Malham V^icarage. 

Xorth Wales : Rev. John Jones, Pwllheli, North Wales. 

Yorkshire, Durham, and the North : Rev. James King, St. Mary's Vicarage, 
Berwick. Mr. King has recently returned from the Holy Land ; communica- 
tions for lectures, &c., can be sent to the Office at Charing Cross. 

Scotland. — Rev. R. J. Craig, Dalgetty, Burntisland. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee beg it to be distinctly understood that they 
leave such proposals to be discussed on their own merits, and that by publishing 
them in the Quarterly Statement tlie Committee do not sanction or adojit them. 

Annual subscribers are earnestly rerjuested tj forward their subscriptions fur 
the current year when due, at their earliest convenience, and without waiting for 
applieation. 

The Committee are always glad to receive old numbers of tlie Quarterly State- 
ment, especially those which have been advertised as out of print. 

Attention is called to the statement already advertised, that subscribers to 
the Fund are privileged by the publishers to receive the "Recovery of Jeru- 



160 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



salem," "Tent Work in Palestine," the "Literary Eemaius of the late Mr. C. F. 
Tyrwhitt Drake," and the "Underground Jerusalem" of Colonel Warren, at 
reduced rates. But letters asking for them must be sent to the office at 11 and 
12, Charing Cross only. 

Cases for binding the Quarterly Statement are now ready, and can be had on 
application to Messrs. E. Bentley and Son, 8, New Burlington Street. They 
are in green or brown cloth, with the stamp of the Society, uniform in 
appearance with "Our Work in Palestine," and are sold at the price of 
eighteenpence. 

Lieut. Kitchener's Guinea Book of Biblical Photographs can be bought at Mr. 
Stanford's establishment, 55, Charing Cross. It contains twelve views, with a 
short account of each. They are mounted on tinted boards, and handsomely 
bound. 



THE SURTEY OF WESTERN PALESTINE. 



SPECIAL EDITION. 



The following is a complete list of subscr 

The Archbishop of York (President's 
Copy). 

1. Mr. W. Hepworth Dixon 

2. Rev. F. W. Holland 

3. Mr. John MacGregor 

4. Rev. Canon Tristram 

5. The University of Durham 

6. The Chapter Library, Durham 

7. Mr. W. Morrison 

8. Ditto 

9. Rev. E. J. Selwyn 

10. Magdalen College, Oxford 

11. Rev. J. H. Harrison 

12. Mr. James Glaisher 

13. Mr. .L D. Crace 

14. Mr. Herbert Birch 

15. The Earl of Ducie 

16. Rev. Lindsay Alexander 

17. Dr. H. W. Acland 

18. Lord Sandon 

19. The Bishop of Exeter 

20. liOrd Talbot de Malahide 

21. The Marquess of Ripon 

22. Mr. W. Spottiswoode 

23. Yen. Archdeacon Birch 

24. The Dean of Norwich 

25. Mr. R. B. Martin 

26. Miss Peache 

27. Rev. C. D. Ginsburg 

28. The Duke of Northumberland 

29. Rev. W. F. Birch 

30. Rev. C. Pritchard 

31. The Duke of Westminster 



ibers : — 



32. 

33. 

34. 

35. 

36. 

37. 

38. 

39. 

40. 

41. 

42. 

43. 

44. 

45. 

46. 

47. 

48. 

49. 

50. 

51. 

52. 



56. 
57, 
58. 
59, 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 



Rev. Professor Pusey, D.D. 
Do. for Keble College Library 
The Bishop of Jerusalem 
Mr. George Grove 
The Duke of Devonshire 
Mr. D. Macdonald 
Mr William Tipping 
Professor Hayter Lewis 
Rev. John W. Dulles 
Rev. Stephen Hawtrey 
Lieut. -Col. Warren 
Mr. AValter Besant 
Rev. Sholto D. Douglas 
Rev. Arthur M. Rendell 
Mr. George Bartram 
Rev. H. R. AVhelpton 
Mr. Henry Barker 
Rev. C. H. Wallace 
Ilr. Henry S. Perry 
Mr. James M'Corkell 
Mr. Edward Stanford 
Mr. Alfred Putney 
Mr. George Bentley 
The Dake of ilarlborough 
I\Ir. Henry J. Davis 
Mr. AVilliam Adams 
Chelmsford Museum 
Hon. Sec. Sydney 
, Mr. Sanuiel Morley, M.P. 
Rev. T. G. Rooke 
Mrs. Rashleigh Rodd 
Mr. Henry Lewis 
Yen. Archdeacon Yesey 
Montrose Public Library 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



161 



66. 


Mr. C. Baring Young 


126. 


67. 


Rev. A. Mackennal 


127. 


68. 


Mr. W. H. Wright 


123 


69. 


Mr. Thomas May 


129. 


70. 


Mr. Hugh Masoa 


130. 


71. 


Mr. Edward Whymper 


131. 


72. 


Mr. Alexander M'Grigor 


132. 


73. 


Mr. W. Boswell Lowther 


133. 


74. 


Mr. George F. ^Yatt3 


lU. 


75. 


Rer. G. St. Clair 


135. 


76. 


Mr. N. C. White 


136. 


77. 


Mr. Bryce Smith 


137. 


78. 


Mr. Chaiies Walton 


138. 


79. 


Mr. AVilliam Stuart 


139. 


80. 


Miss Frances Wakeham 


140. 


SI. 


Mr. Giles T. Pilcher 


141. 


82. 


Mr. Thomas Roberts 


142. 


S3. 


Mr. B. Woodd Smith 


143. 


.84. 


Mr. W. B.Young 


144. 


85. 


TheWesleyan College, Richmond 


14.5. 


S6. 


Mr. R. W. M'Douell 


146. 


87. 


Rev. Harry Smith 


147. 


88. 


Mr. William Long 


148. 


89. 


Rev. W. A. Hayes 


149. 


SO. 


Rev. Thomas Ladds 


150. 


91. 


Mr. H. M. Ormerod 


151. 


92. 


Mr. Henry Lee 


152. 


93. 


Rjv. D. D. Robertson 


153. 


94. 


Mr. W. H. Owen 


154. 


95. 


Rev. Clement H. Prance 


155. 


9C. 


Rev. H. Hall-Houghton 


156. 


97. 


Mr. G. S. Gibson 


157. 


98. 


Mr. William Lethaby 


158. 


99. 


Rev. Canon Jarratt 


159. 


IGO. 


Mr. John T. Mallet 


160. 


101. 


Mr. Eliezer Flecker 


161. 


102. 


Rev. Charles H. H. Wright 


162. 


103. 


Rev. Henry Collis 


103. 


104. 


Rev. G. W. Dal ton, D.D. 


164. 


105. 


Mrs. Cator 


165. 


106. 


Mr, George Burns 


166. 


107. 


Dr. Cranage 


167. 


108. 


Mr. J. D. Lamb 


168. 


109. 


Rev. A. R. Grosart 


169. 


110. 


Mr. W. Cust Gwynne, M.D. 


170. 


111. 


Rev. Donald MacLeod, D.D. 


171. 


112. 


Mr. W. Thomas Lewis 


172. 


113. 


Mr. Robert Turnbull 


173. 


114. 


Mr. W. Bewley 


174. 


115. 


Rev. F. Antrobus 


175. 


116. 


Rev. G. Christian 


176. 


117. 


Mr. John A. Eastwood 


177. 


118 


Mr. Edward Gotto 


178. 


119 


Rev. J. J. Burton 


179. 


120 


Mr. Lewis Biden 


180. 


121 


Rev. AVilliam Morton 


181. 


122 


Mr. Edward B. Dawson 


182. 


123 


Rev. J. Ingham Brooke 


183. 


124 


. Rev. Arthur Atkinson 


184. 


125 


. Mr. John A. Brooke 


185. 



Mr. A. H. Heywood 

Mr. Joseph Carrick 

IMessrs. W. and A. K. Johnson 

Mr. Sydney Gedge 

Mr. W. Dunkley Paine 

Algernon H. Paley 

Mr. J. H. Plowden 

Colonel Haig 

Mr. E. B. Wheatley Balme 

Colonel Peard 

Miss Harriet Barlow 

Mr. T. L. Gooch 

Mr. D. M. Watson 

Mr. Edwin H. Lawrence 

Rev. Andrew Melville 

Rev. G. C. M. Douglas 

Mrs. Huish 

Mr. Thomas Greenhalgh 

Mr. John Spencer 

Rev. George Horner 

Monsieur Lortet 

Mr. Edward Flatman 

Mr. D. M. Watson 

Mr. John M. Davenport 

Rev. Alexander Henderson 

Captain Philp 

Rev. T. P. Phillips 

Rev. Thomas Rurdett 

Rev. R. V. Barker 

Sunday School Union 

Rev. L. W. Waterhouso 

Mr. G. J. Philip Smith 

Rev. W. Chatterley Bishop 

Captain Anderdon 
Rev. Howard A. Crosbie 

Monsieur A. Dutan 

Mr. Joseph Thompson 

Mr. F. J. Thynne 

Rev. W. A. Hayes 

]\Ir. G. Lowe Reid 

Rev. Prebendary Hedgelaud 

Rev. J. Clement P. Aldous 

Rev. W. R. Bell 

Mr. James Falshaw 

Miss Garnett 

Rev. L. J. Scott 

Rev. T. B. Coulson 

Rev. Alexander Whyte 

Dr. Chaplin 

Rev. H. B. Rawnsley 

Mr. Savery Pinsent 

Mr. Edward Dyson 

Colonel E. Smyth 

Mr. Oliver Heywood 

Rev. M. W. Clarke 

The London Library 

Rev. John J. Bonar 

Mr. Horatius Bonar 

Mr. John G. Good 
, Mr. Alexander Peckover 



162 



MEETING OF GEXEEAL COMMITTEE. 



186. Rtv. Horrocks Cocks 

187. Signet Library, Edinburgh 

188. Mr. James Davies 

189. Mr. Andrew Taylor 

190. Mr. H. G. Murray Stewart 

191. Public Library, Plymoutli 

192. Mr. R. Govett 

193. The LTui versity Library, Aberdeen 

194. Mr. John Miller 

195. Clifton College Library 

196. Mr. William Simpson 

197. Mr. Charles W. Barclay 

198. Rev. .Joseph G. Bourne 

199. Rev. Roswell D. Hitchcock, D.D. 

200. The Royal Academy of Aits 

201. New University Club 

202. Miss Ridding 

203. Mr. Thomas Brooke 

204. Mr. W. E. Stevenson 

205. Prof. Albert Socin 

206. Mr. John Turnbull 

207. Very Rev. James F. Montgomery 

208. Rev. Roderick Terry 

209. Colonel Gawk-r 

210. Lenox Library, New York 

211. Rev, Henry Russell 

212. Rev. A. E. Noithey 

213. Mr. J. W. McGarrey 

214. Mr. M. H. Milner 

215. Mr. R. L. Kirby 

216. Messrs. D. Wvllie and Sons 

217. Mr. P.M. Hail-Dare 



218. L'Abbe Laurent de St. Aignan 

219. Rev. Howard Osgood 

220. Rev. J. G, Smyth 

221. Mr. Gardner B. Perry 

222. Rev. Alfred Bourne 

223. Mr. R. F. Martin 

224. The Church Missionary Society 

225. Mr. W. F. Burnley 

226. Mr. J. Eustace Grubler 

227. Yale College 

228. Dr. T. Miihlan 

229. Rev. D. M. Brymer 

230. ]\Ir. Henry Richardson 

231. Mr. C. D. Hartrauft 

232. Mr. George W. Childs 

233. The I\Iaster of Clare College 

234. Mr. W. Edwards, sen. 

235. Colonel Hebbert 

236. Rustnn Pasha 

237. Colonel Wilson, R.E.C.B. 

238. Major Anderson, R.E.C.M.G. 

239. Professor Paine 

240. Mr. B. Khiliowo 

241. Mr. Hjine 

242. Mr. W. Morrison 

243. Mrs. Maxwell 

244. Haivird College Library 

245. The Archbishop of Canterbury 

246. Owens College 

247. Mr. C. E. G. Crawford 

248. Dr. R. F. Hutchinson 

249. Mr. F. A. Eaton 



MEETIXG OF GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

Meeting of General Committee of June 24, 1879. 

Chairman, Lord Talbot de Malahide. 

Letters were read expressing inability 'to attend from Sir Mosc5 
Montefiore, Messrs. Grove, Harper, Martin, and Morrison. 

The Minutes of the last General Meeting were read and confirmed. 

The Secretary then read the Report of the Executive Committee, 
which was as follows :— 

My Lords and Gentlemen, — On resigning the trust committed io 
them on June 11th, 1878, your Committee render an account of theix- 
administration during the last twelve months. 

1. On their first sitting, Mr. W. Hepworth Dixon was re-elected 
Chairman for the ensuing year. 

2. The number of meetings held during the year has been nineteen,, 
without counting many meetings of sub-committees. 

3. The memoirs and plans belonging to the sheets of the map executed) 
by Lieut. Kitchener were completed by that officer in September, 1878. 
He handed over to the Committee on the 10th day of that month the- 
whole Survey of "Western Palestine, consisting of (1) a complete survey,. 



MEETING OF GENERAL COMMITTEE. 165 

l-inch scale, of rather more than 0,000 square miles, prepared for 
publication with hill-shading by the Ordnance Survey Department. 
(2) Twenty-six volumes of memoirs— namely, twenty by Lieut. Conder, 
and frix by Lieut. Kitchener, comprising the notes made by the Survey 
party while at work. (3) A reduced map prepared by Lieut. Kitchenei; 
in accordance with the instructions of the Committee, with corrected 
photographs, to enable the printer to proceed. (4) A number of photo- 
graphs taken by Lieut. Kitchener. !o) A number of special plans 
drawn by Lieuts. Conder and Kitchener. The Committee, by a special 
resolution, expressed their sense of the ability with which Lieut. 
Kitchener had brought the Survey to a successful termination. It was 
gratifying to hear that he had been selected by her Majesty's Govern- 
ment for an important work of the same kiud in the Island of Cyprus. 

4. The Committee have great satisfaction in announcing that, by 
authority of her Majesty's Government, the map of Western Palestine 
has been photo-zincographed by the Ordnance Sm-vey Department, and 
is now so far advanced that it might, if necessary, be published without 
further delay. The map is kept back only for the memoirs, which are 
necessary to explain it. 

5. The Committee have been in correspondence with the Rev. Dr. 
Hitchcock, of New York, President of the American Association for the 
Exploration of Palestine. The correspondence has resiilted in the 
arrival of the materials resulting from the American Survey, which have 
been placed in the hands of this Committee for publication. They 
consist of (1) thirteen sheets of the country lying east of Jordan. (2) 
Name libts. (3) Memoirs which arc now being comi^leted by the Rev. 
Selah Merrill, of New York. These sheets will also ba lahoto-zinco- 
graphed, under authority of her Majesty's Government, by the Ordnance 
Survey Department. They are now in the hands of Col. Cooke, R.E.> 
the director, for that purpose. 

6. The Committee proceeded immediately after their appointment to 
consider the preparation and reduction of the smaller map. They asked 
for estimates from the principal map-makers and geographical engravers 
of the country, and finally came to an agreement with Mr. Stanford, in 
Avhose hands they placed the twenty- six sheets reduced by photography, 
and the hill-shading. The agreement was signed on the 13th day of 
December, 1878. The outline is now engraved, and considerable pro- 
gress has been made with the hill-shading, which is necessarily a long 
and costly work. It will probably be a year before this map is ready. 
It will be issued in six theets. It is hoped that we may add the 
American work on the same reduced scale. 

7. With regard to the publication of the memoirs, plans, &c., the 
Committee have given the subject very careful consideration. In the 
first place. Col. Wilson, one of the General Editors, examined and 
reported on the materials placed in his hands. 

On the receipt of this Report, the Committee empowered him to get 
certain imperfect portions completed ; to make arrangements with 



164 MEETING OF GENERAL COMillTTEE. 

Professor Palmer for the examination of the Ai-abic name lists ; and 
•with Lieut. Conder for the execution of any new work which might be 
required. 

The Committee then instructed theu- Secretary to prepare a report on 
the cost of printing and publishing. Such an estimate is necessarily 
rough, but it affords some guide to the responsibilities incurred in this 
great publication. It was found that about £4,000 would be required 
for the undertaking, counting the engraving of the small map. The 
Committee thereupon invited a few of the leading publishers in London 
to associate themselves with the Society in the risk of publication. It 
was found, however, impossible to make the arrangements proposed, 
and the Committee have now decided on issuing the large map, with all 
its memoirs, plans, &c., first, in a subscription edition limited to 250 
members, every copy to be numbered and signed by the Chairman, at 
the price of 12 guineas. The price to the general public after these 
copies have been taken uj) wiU be considerably higher. 

The proposals have as yet been sent to the General Committee only. 
They will be published in the next number of the Quarterly Statement. 
There seems to be little doubt that the whole edition will be taken up. 
No time will then be lost in the printing. 

As regards the small map, the Committee have undertaken the whole 
risk out of the regular subscriptions, and have i^assed a resolution to 
place on deposit account a certain sum of money as soon as possible to 
meet the outlay. 

During the year, Mr. George Grove sent in his resignation as one of 
the editors, and his part in the work has been undertaken by Major 
Anderson. 

Though Col. Wilson has been appointed Consul- General in Asia 
Minor, he will continue to give his advice and supervision of the proof 
sheets. 

8. Your Committee have great pleasure in recording the success of 
" Tent Work in Palestine," a book which they announced in theii- last 
Report as just ready. It speedily ran through the first edition of 
1,500 copies, and a second edition of 500 copies followed, which is 
rapidly going off. 

9. Last year the Committee recommended that an expedition should 
be sent to Galileo. Subscriptions were invited for this special purpose, 
and a deposit account was opened. The amount subscribed up to date 
is £186 53. The mission Avill be sent out to Galilee as soon as the 
necessary funds are raised. 

10. The Committee have to regret the loss by death during the past 
year of General Cameron, E.E., the Director-General of the Ordnance 
Survey; Col. Home, E.E., C.M.G., of the Intelligence Department; 
and Herr Petermann, the German geographer. 

11. The Committee have received during the year, from all sources, 
the sum of £3,219 3s. Id., of which £891 Is. Id. was received on accomit 
cf their new book, " Tent Work in Palestine." The expenditure during 
the same time has been as follows : — 



MEETING 01' GENERAL COMMITIEE. 1G5 

Printers and old liabilities 



£446 


16 


10 


471 








£918 


16 


10 


839 


2 


2 


270 


5 


10 



"Tent Work" 

Exploration 

Eent, Salaries, Advertising, Postage, and all Office 

Expenses 790 12 9 

The liabilities, which at the beginning of the year 1878 were nearly 
£900, have been all paid off. The Society, almost for the first time since 
its foundation, is now out of debt. There is also a balance in the bank 
this day of £522 17s. lid. 

The income of the Society during the year has been almost entirely 
due to annual subscriptions, showing that the interest taken in the work 
is permanent. As in the case of other societies, the receipts have been 
influenced by the gi-eat depression of the times, but the income of the 
Society has been affected chiefly by the paucity of large donations. 

12. Your Committee have to recommend, as the special business of 
this day, the registration of the Society as a limited liability Company. 

The position of the Society at present is as follows. It has no consti- 
tution and is governed by no rules. 

An Executive Committee was appointed in 1S6G, under the name of a 
sub-committee, with full powers of management. It has been the 
practice since then for this Executive Committee to resign their office at 
an annual meeting of the General Committee, and at the same time to 
report on their action during the past twelve months. The General 
Committee have then, after accepting and approving their Eeport, pro- 
ceeded to elect an Executive Committee for the ensuing year. Of the 
original members present on the formation of the Society, May 12th, 
1865, four, viz., Mr. Hepworth Dixon (now Chairman), Mr. Grove, 
Mr. Morrison, and Mr. Vaux, have remained continuously on the 
Executive Committee to the present day. 

During the fourteen years of its existence the Society has become 
possessed of very valuable property, consisting of a large collection of 
antiquities, photographs, the copyright in three books, a great quantity 
of plans and drawings, and — the most valuable possession of all — the 
memoirs, map, plans, and drawings of the Survey of Western Palestine. 

The Committee are advised by their solicitors that they have no power 
of defending this property, and that should their books or maps be 
pirated they cannot even sue the pirate. Under these circumstances it 
seemed advisable, before proceeding with fresh publications, to consider 
what steps should be taken to remedy this defenceless position. A sub- 
committee, consisting of Mr, Hepworth Dixon, Mr. Glaisher, and Mr. 
Morrison, was therefore appointed. This sub- committee reported on 
Feb. 18, 1879, as follows :— 

1. We are of opinion that, considering the large amount of property 
now belonging to the Committee, consisting of collections, drawings, 



166 MEETING OF GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

plans, maps, memoirs, books, photographs, copyrights, &c., it is desirable 
to take steps for the protection of the property. 

2. We are also of opiaion that of the three methods proposed to us by 
Avhich this end may be obtained, viz., by Royal Charter, by private 
Trusteeship, or by Registration, the last offers the simplest and most 
convenient means of attaining that object. 

3. We are of opinion that at the next meeting of the General Com- 
mittee part of the business shall be to consider a recommendation to 
register the Society. 

4. We are of ophiion that the original members forming the Society 
should be taken from the Executive Committee, and as many as are 
■willing to sign from the General Committee, to the number of seven or 
more, that being the number required by law, but in order to cover con- 
tingencies, at least ten should be registered at first, and that number 
kept up. 

5. We are of opinion that perpetual succession should be secured by 
providing that all future elections of members to the General Committee 
should be, as at present, made by co-optation, and that such future 
members of the Committee should necessarily be members of the proposed 
Society. 

This Report having been received and adopted, the same sub- com- 
mittee was elected again to draw up the Memorandum and Articles of 
Association. 

The Memorandum and Articles of Association have been accordingly 
drawn up, submitted to counsel, and are now printed and in your hands. 

The Resolutions which will be submitted to you, notice of which has 
been sent to every member of the General Committee, are necessary 
before the papers can be submitted to the Board of Trade. 

Lastly, the Committee have to acknowledge the receipt of donations 
and subscriptions of £5 and over from Lord Lawrence, Mr. C. F. Fellowes, 
Mr. J. P. Bacon, Miss Baxter, Mr. Watson, Mr. Hall Dare, the Bishop 
fif Durham, the Marquis of Bute, Mr. Braithwaite, Mr. J. E. Wilson, 
Mr. Few, Mr. McArthur, Mr. Samuel Morley, Col. Haig, Mr. Atkinson, 
Mr. Reiss, Mr. G. Burns, Mr. II. M. Ormerod, Mr. W- D. Fane, Mr. 
Govett, Mr. H. S. Officer, Mr. C. E. Barlow, the Provincial Grand 
Lodge of Freemasons, the Sunday School Union, Anon., per Rev. F. H. 
Murray, Rev. J. T. and Mrs. Brown, Mr. A. W. Jones, G. M. E., Mr. 
G. M. Hicks, Rev. F. S. Wigram, Mr. A. H. Heywood, Mr. Hugh 
Mason, Mr. W. H. Gamlen, Mr. G. W. Digby, Rev. J. Lyon, Rev. W. 
H. Walford, G. C, the Bishop of Exeter, Miss S. A. Borrer, Mr. John 
Noble, Rev. H. Hall Houghton, Mr. John MacGregor, Mr. E. G. Gibson, 
Miss Wakefield, Rev. J. T. Houghton, Mr. Charles Morrison, Mr. 
Hastings, N. Middlcton. AV. Hei'WOIith Dixon, 

Chairman Executive Committee, 

The Report was unanimously adopted. 

Mr. Hepworth Dixon then proposed that the four resolutions, copies 
of which had been sent to the members of the General Committee, be 
passed. In proposing the motion he explained the circumstances which 



MEETING OF GENERAL COMMITTEE. 167 

bad led to the steps proposed. The motion was seconded by the Bishop 
of Jerusalem, and was carried nnanimously. 
The Eesolufions were as follows : — 

(1) " That considering the large property of the Fund now in the hands 
or under the control of the Committee, consisting of maps, copyrights 
of books, and other publications, collections, drawings, sketches, and 
photographs, &c , and the present unsatisfactory position of the Com- 
mittee should any infringement of the copyright take place, which 
would destroy the value of their property, it is desirable to take steps 
with a view to its protection." 

(2) " That the best method appears to be the registration of the 
Society, with Limited Liability, under the Joint Stock Companies' Acts 
of 1SG2 and 1867, as a Comj^any, but without the addition of the word 
' Limited ' after the name of the Company, if the necessary licence can 
be obtained from the Board of Trade." 

(3) " That the draft memorandum and articles of association, copies 
of which have been distributed among the members of the General 
Committee, and which have now been read, be adopted for the purpose 
of the registration of the Company, and that steps be at once taken to 
procure the licence of the Board of Trade." 

(4) " That the Executive Committee for the year 1879-1880 be 
empowered to take such further steps as may be necessary for the 
■establishment of the Society as a Limited Liability Company under the 
Acts of 1862 and 1867." 

Mr. Glaisher then proposed, and Mr. Holland seconded, that the 
General Committee should be increased by the addition of the foUowino- 
gentlemen, should they accept the invitation, viz. : — 

Bishop of DuJiHAM. 
Eev. J. Hall Houghtox. 
Colonel Cooke, E.E. 
Mr. George Burns. 
Lieut. H. H. Kitchener, E.E. 
The proposition was carried unanimously. 

It was proposed by the Bishop of Jerusalem, seconded by Mr. Yaux, 
and carried unanimously, that the Executive Committee be re-elected 
with the exception of Mr. Harper, whose resignation was accepted with 
regret, and with the addition of Prufessor Haytcr Lewis and Lieutenant 
Kitchener. 

It was proposed by Mr. Hepworth Dixon, and seconded by Mr. Eaton, 

ihat the honorary officers be re- elected. This was carried unanimously. 

It was proposed by Mr. Hepworth Dixon, and seconded by Mr. Lewis, 

that the thanks of the meeting be passed to the Chairman. This was 

■carried unanimously. 

The Committee then adjourred. 



At a meeting of Executive Committee, held immediately afterwaris, 
Mr. Hepworth Dixon was re-elected Chairman for the ensuing year. 



168 



KOTES OX THE TOPOGEAPHY OF THE SEA OF 

GALILEE. 

In tlie coutroversies on the sites of Capernaum and Betlisaida, every 
crumb of information will bo considered of intei'est, and it is important 
to clear np every point liable to misconception. The following notes 
may therefore be of value. 

Ga^pernaum. — It is now generally admitted, I believe, that Christian 
tradition from the fourth century downwards points to TeU Hum. 
Col. Wilson was the first clearly to array this evidence. As regards 
the testimony of Josephus, however, the advocates of Tell Hum consider 
that the " Fountain of Caphaniaum" was the 'Ain Tabghah, and that it 
" fertilised the plains of Gennesareth " by an aqueduct. 

I would suggest that as Josephus does not mention this aqueduct, it 
is of importance to i5rove that the existing aqueduct is of antiquity 
sufficient to satisfy the condition of its existence in his days. 

The level of the aqueduct is 52 feet above the Sea of Galilee, and the 
water is dammed up to this level by an octagonal enclosing wall round 
the spring. The spring wall is of small masonry, apparently modern, 
and said to have been constructed by 'Aly, son of Dhahr el 'Amr, in the 
last century. 

The masonry of the aqueduct has not been described. If of the 
Herodian age, the masonry should be large and the mortar hard and 
white (as at Csesarea). Small masonry and hard red, or soft white, 
mortal' are marks of Arab work, as is also the working of the stone 
with a toothed chisel, which was apparently not used in Roman work. 

The Tabghah spring is brackish and unfit for the Coracinus. That 
fish cannot find access from the lake because of the 50 feet dam, and 
the adherents of this site seem thus placed in a dilemma. Without a 
dam the water cannot be conducted to Gennesaret. With a dam (as 
Col. Wilson remarks) the water becomes unfit for the Coracinus. 

It is often said that Capernaum was in the borders of Zebulon and 
Naphtali, but any student who will consider the line of that border as 
traced in Joshua xix. will find that it ran west of the plateau called 
El Ahma, which extends above the Sea of Galilee as far west as Tabor. 
The following sites within the territory of Naphtali lay far west of the 
Sea of Galilee : — 

Bitzaanaim . . . . . . . . . . Bessum. 

Adami . . . . . . . . . . . . Admali. 

Nekeb (Siadatha) . . . . . . . . Seiyadah. 

Jabneel (Kefr Yama) . . . . . . Yemma. 

Hukkok . . . . . . • . . . Yakilk. 

Adamah . . . . . . . . . . JSd DamtJi, 

Ramah . . . . . . . . lidmeh. 

The position of these sites makes it impossible to extend the border of 
Zebulon as far east as Capernaum, and the meaning of the passage in 



TOPOGRAPHY OF THE SEA OF GALILEE. 169 

the Gospel (Matt. iv. 13) appears to be that Nazareth was in tbe 
territory of Zebulon, and Capernaum in that of Napbtali. 

Professor Scbaff states that Jewish traditiou connects Capernaum 
with Tell Hum. The only Jewish tradition with which I am acquainted 
connects Caphar Nahum with the city of the Minai, and thus with 
Minieb. (See " Tent Work," vol. ii., p. 183.) 

It seems to be assumed that the Nabum in question must be the 
prophet, but in that case the city would be named Elkosh. The Jewish 
tradition makes Capernaum to be named after a Eabbi named Nabum 
the Old, mentioned in tbe Talmud (Beracoth vii. 48). 

As to the tomb of Eabbi Tanbum, Jewish tradition appears to 
place it at Mejdel, which favours the Minieb site, as it is mentioocd with 
that of Nabum (Sichus ha Tzadikim, seventeenth century). 

Before entering into the question of the ancient name of Tell Hum, 
it seems to me that we require to know whether the site existed in the 
time of Christ or of Josephus. The style of the synagogue so closely 
resembles that of the synagogues known to have been built by Eabbi 
Simeon Bar Jochai in the second century a.d. — a time when the Jews 
are well known to have flourished in Gahlee, tlie Sanhedrin having its 
seat at Tiberias— that we may perhaps be justified in considering Tell 
Hum, which is not on a site naturally fitted for a city, as having sprung 
into existence after tbe first century a.d. 

But even if it be older, it does not follow that it must of necessity be 
mentioned in the New Testament or by Josephus. Josephus does not 
mention Chorazia, and the Gospels do not speak of the important city 
of Taricbese. 

Bethsaida. — Professor Schaff proposes a Galilean Bethsaida just west 
of Jordan, but this seems to be unsatisfactory. It will not meet the 
old objection of Reland that the Galilean Bethsaida must have been in 
the neighbourhood of Gennesareth (" Palestina Illustrata," s.v., vol. ii.), 
and if it is placed so far east a single site— Bethsaida Julias— would be' 
suflBcient. The Galilean Bethsaida is supposed to be necessary to the 
explanation of Mark vi. 45, 53, compared with John vi. 17, but tbe 
difficulty is not met by Professor SchafE's proposal, as will be seen on 
consulting the passages cited. The true explanation, as I hope to show 
in a forthcoming work, seems to be found in tracing the site of the 
miracle of feeding the 5,000 at the south ei^d of the lake, opposite 
Bethsaida Julias. By such an explanation we are able to unravel tbe 
tangled topography without supposing a second Galilean Bethsaida— 
not noticed by any author of antiquity— to have existed within a few 
miles of Julias. 

Lieut. Kitchener proposes to place Julias at Tell Hum. Against such 
a theory may be quoted the absolute statement of Pliny that this town 
was on the east side of the lake, and the description of Josephus that 
Jordan passed Julias before entering the Sea of Galilee (Wars iii. 10. 7). 
Neither of these descj iptions could be applied to Tell Hum. 

The whole difficulty respecting Bethsaida is caused by its being 



170 EIMMON. 

mentioned in Luke ix. 10, and it is most remarkable that the Sinaitic 
!MS. omits the name in this passage. 

I may perhaps be permitted to remark that the difficulty as to Beth- 
■saida is greater than would be supposed by any one first attackiug the 
question. It has been carefully considered by Reland, Grove, and other 
authorities, and cannot be settled out of hand (as the Crusaders settled 
it in placing it at Khiirbet Minieh), without reference to the arguments 
and authorities citei by such scholarly critics as those named above. 

0. XV. C. 



EIMMOX. 

p The suggestion that Mugharet el Jai was a cave inhabited by the 
remnant of the Benjamites is based on the identification of Eimmon 
with the Pomegranate-tree under which Saul pitched his tent. The 
latter identity was first suggested by Gesenius, and is strongly advocated 
by Mr. Birch, whose zeal and originality in the study of such subjects 
must excite the admiration of all interested in Biblical topography. 

The place of refuge of the Benjamites has always been previously fixed 
at the present village Eammun, and the following points seem to be 
worthy of consideration. 

1. There is no necessary connection between Sel'a Rimmon ("rock 
Eimmon," Judg. xx. 47, xxi. 13) and Ha Eimmon Asher bi Migron, 
"the pomegranate which is by Migron" (1 Sam. xiv. 2). The latter 
micht be very suitably fixed at "a tree in Ramah" (I Sam. xxii. 6), 
which, like the pomegranate in question, was the place of Saul's encamp- 
ment and in the district of Gibeah. 

2. There is no mention either in the Bible or by Josephus of any 
cave as bein"' the hiding-place of the Benjamites. The English transla- 
tion "^'/' the Rock Eimmon," is misleading, as the Hebi-ew particles 
are Al " at " (Judges xx. 47), and Bi, " by" (Judges xxi. 13). The exist- 
ence of a cave in Wady Suweinit named Mugharet el Jai has therefore 
no direct bearing on the question. 

3. The site of Rammun is within the boi'der of Benjamin, since it is 
south of the latitude of Bethel, whence that border ran "southward" 
to Archi ('Ain 'Arik), after crossing westwards from the "shoulder 
north of Jericho," which seems evidently to be the great Wady el 'Aujeh, 
beside which Xaarath, the border town of Benjamin and Ephraim, ap- 
parently stood (Josh, xviii. 12, 13). The site is also within the Midbar, 
or desert of Bethaven. 

4. The Eock Eimmon was apparently not far from Shiloh (Judges 
xxi. 12), which is an argument in favour of the northern site. 

5. As rcards the meaning of the word ScVa, which is still in use 
among the Fellahiu of Palestine, I may remark that it is not generally 
applied to crags or preciijices, which are called SJiuIc/ or 'Ardk, but in 



THE NAMELESS CITY. 171 

the neighbourhood of the village of Eammun there are cliffs sufficiently 
high to be called Shukf (especially that now called Shukf Daud). Ac- 
cording to Gesenius the root SeVa means " elevated," but not necessarily 
precipitous. 

6. Migron was apparently farther north than Wady Suweinit, and 
near Ai (Isaiah x. 28). 

7. Josephus places the site of Saul's camp at a place called Ai'oura 
(Ant. vi. 12. 4), and it is remarkable that he translates the expression 
"under the tree" (1 Sam. xxxi. 13), in another passage, by the same 
word Aroura (Ant. vi. 14. 8). He probably follows a Targum rendering 
of the Hebrew Ashed. There is a village 'Arura north of Bethel, but 
this could scarcely have been in the district of Gibeah, 

C. A. C 



THE NAMELESS CITY. 

[See Quarterly Statement, July, 1879, page 130.] 

Thb position of the city — called Ramah by Josephus — where Saul 
and Samuel first met (1 Sam. ix. 6; Ant. vi. 4, 1) is a crux iaterpretum, 
and one of the most difficult questions of the Old Testament topography. 
I have enumerated in a former paper the arguments in favour of a posi- 
tion near Soba, where Robinson endeavoured to fix Ramathaim Zophim, 
the main objection to which is the mention of Rachel's tomb on the line 
of Saul's return journey. 

There are two indications which seem to point to the identity of the 
nameless city with Bethlehem. First, the fact that it was in the " land of 
Zuph," by which we may perhaps understand the couatiy of Zuph, 
Samuel's ancestor, to be intended, who was an Ephrathite, or in- 
habitant of Bethlehem (1 Sam. i. 1). Second, the connection between 
Eamah and Bethlehem implied in the New Testament (Matt. ii. 18). 
The term Eamah, or " hill," would apply to the situation of Bethlehem 
on a well-defined spur. 

It seems to me that we should be cautious in introducing any element 
of pure conjecture into such a question. Eamah was a common name 
for towns in Palestine, and Ramath Lehi was apparently on the border 
between Judah and Philistia, below the rock Etam (Beit 'Atab), and 
thus not near Bethlehem. 

Dr. Robinson was equally unsuccessful in attempting to identify the 
city with Eamah on Mount Ephraim, and the attempt to identify several 
Eamahs on one site resembles that of Jerome to combine various Gibeahs 
and different Rimmons, which has caused endless confusion. 

Mr. Birch supports a view which has often been put forward before, 
that the " hill of God " (Gibeah ha Elohim) to which Saul returned from 
the land of Zuph was Jerusalem. The objection to such a view appears 
to be that Jerusalem was at tbat time held by the Jebusites, whereas 
the " hill of God " was a garrison of the Philistines. Geba of Benjamin 



I7i THE TOMB OF DAVID. 

standing- ia Saul^s native district, Gibeah is more probably the place 
latcaded, for we know tliat it remained a garrison of tlie Philistines 
imfcil os.-e year after the accession of Saul (1 Sam. xiii. 3). 

Tlie siaaie Gibeah is nowhere connected with Jei'usalem. Gabbatha, 
or "^tke pavement," which Mr. Birch connects with it, is derived from 
a. diS&'ent root, without any guttural, and applies to the Coui-t of 
AntoEi&. 

Mr. Birc'n Sui-ther remarks, "the high place of Samuel might doubt- 
less have been eeen any day down to the ill-fated 24th October, 1874, 
•wtea {m/andumJ) these memorable ruins were converted into Salami's 
Cairo. 

Tkeeaira in question (now known as Eujm el Kabtan) was built of 
scatfeai-^d stones. It stands in a modern ruined hamlet, with a Kubbeh 
of Neby Danial, which I visited at least three times before the cairn was 
built, and examined carefully without finding any traces of antiquity. 

C. R. C. 



THE TOMB OF DAVID. 

Jeekmiah bought his cousin's field at Anathoth, though the 
Chaldbsans were besieging Jerusalem. Will any one buy the ground 
overt jiag David's Tomb (the plot is not large) while the Turks are in 
the EalyCity? Few would care to dispute the right of redemption 
with aoe patriarch on our Committee. 

It \rtfuid be money well spent to buy the field of " ," which is 

before /erusalem, " the field, and the cave which is therein, and all the 
trees tkafc are ia the field, that are in all the borders round about " 
(GecL. Exiii. 17) ; " to gather out the stones thereof ; to plant it with the 
choicest rine and fig trees, so that even Eehoboam could recognise the 
sepufckre of his fathers. 

Wha is to " etep in and rob our Society of the fruits of our long toils 
in the past" {Quarterly Statement, Report, 1869, p. 49) through 
discoveiing the actual tomb of David by means of excavations 
judicio3.€4j made on reliable datu obtained by the Fund ? 

Q wicg to Moslem jealousy, the Fund may not dig in the Haram Area, 
so as fc» settle the debatable points about the Temple ; owing to the 
great expeoee, it aiunot dig among the buildings of the city, so as to 
recover t'te second ivall, which may fatally affect the claims of the Holy 
Sepukhre ; but it may and can (if funds ai-e forthcoming) dig on the 
south. a3(ie of Jerusalem, on Ophel (so called), in search of David's 
Tomb, 

Nine years &go Mr. Grove said, " I think that at present the object we 
should feave in view and keep steadily before us is Jerusalem — the 
explocaiioa of Jerusalem itself. . . . We do not intend to let the 
exploratioa of Jerusalem slip or go to the wall at all." 

The survey is secured. Not so the spoils of Jerusalem. Why not 



THE TOMB OF DAVID. 173 

combine with the Galilee Expedition, a few excavations at the Holy 
City ? It is stated in the Report of the Executive Committee, 1869, 
*'■ that it would be interesting to endeavour to test the value of the con- 
jecture, that somewhere in the face of the Kedron Valley, buried deep in 
the debris, is to be found the tom.b of David, of Solomon, and the tombs 
of the kings of Judah." This attempt will be unnecessary if we can 

■only fill up correctly the lacuna " " above. 

We hope to show that the true position of the sepulchre of David 
may be fixed within very moderate limits. Our plan will hurt no 
religious susceptibilities, for the belief of Jews, Moslems, and Christians 
has consecrated the " Coenaculum " in the upper city as the tomb of 
David. From it we will hold aloof. Full success would, however, 
cause a wholesale smash of theories, since the tomb has been placed 
with varying confidence in at least nine different localities, and onli/ one 
can be true. These are 

1. The traditional site above named. 

2. Towards the north-east of the Haram Area, or under the Sakhra 

(Mr. Fergusson). 

3. Under the south-west corner of Haram Area (Mr. Thrupp). 

4. On Olivet (Mr. Lewin). 

5. At the Tomb of the Kings north of Jerusalem (M. De Saulcy). 

6. South-east corner of Mount Zion (so called) near Silwan, Quarterly 

Statement, 1874, p. 98 (M. Ganneau). 

7. At the royal quarries, 1875, p. 103 (Colonel "Warren). 

8. Higher up the Tyropoion Valley than the present Pool of Siloam (Colonel 

Wilson; letter, April, 1877). 

9. On the end of Ophel, near Siloam {Quarterly Statement, 1877, p. 201\ 
Of these we may reject (5) as utterly untenable and possibly already 

■withdrawn, and (9) as without real support, since I rested it on the 
erroneous though generally accepted tradition that the present Pool of 
Siloam represents the Pool of Siloah {Quarterly Stateme)d, 1878, 187). 
See Note on " The pool that was made." 

As Zion or the city of David v^as on the hill south of the temple 
{id., 182), and David was buried "in the city of David," which would 
seem to mean, if not icithin the city, yet certainly on the hill on which 
the city of David was situated, we have at once to reject 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7 
as out of the question ; the course of the wall in Nehemiah iii. renders 
(2) impossible ; while the fact that at (3) the tomb would be covered 
over in Herod's time by the south-west corner of the Royal Portico 
must lead us to reject this position; (8) alone is left, and we elect to 
win with it, proposing to narrow its wide situation by means of 
Nehemiah iii. and of the discoveries of Colonel Wilson and Colonel 
Warren. 

The Note above referred to leads us to place the Pool of Siloah some- 
where in the Tyropaon, north of the present Pool of Siloam {Quarterly 
Statement, 1878, 187, and as pools are usually in hollows, we do not 
hesitate to assume that it was in the bed of the ravine). The fountain 



174 THE TOMB OF DAVID. 

gate would probably be near to it, for (1) the Pool of Siloah was by 
the king's garden; and (2) we read of the "gate between the two 
walls which was by the king's garden " (Jer. Hi. 7). It is hardly rash 
then to say that the fountain gate was certainly this gate, and probably 
also the gate in Jer. xix. 2, " The Valley of Hinnom which is by the 
entry of the Harsith (Vulg. Pottery, A.V. East) gate." 

In Neh. iii. 15 we read, Shallum repaired " the wall of the Pool of 
Siloah by the king's garden and unto the stairs the city of David ; " 
in xii. 37, " At the fountain gate, which was over against them, 
they went np by the stairs of the city of David, at the going up of 
the wall." 

The meaning apparently is this : The gate was in the valley ; the 
wall made a sort of dam aci-oss the valley (with the pool a little to 
the north of it), and then was carried east up the step side of the 
Ophel (or Zion) ridge, while the steps went up (alongside), of course, 
again to the north of it. 

We are next forced to make the wall tura south to the Pool of Siloam 
(= "pool that was made"), passing at some point "over against" the 
sepulchres of David, by which expression, for consistency's sake, we 
must concede that the sepulchres were on the ieft hand — i.e., ivithin 
the wall. 

Now the great question is, " At what point did the wall cross the 
valley ? " Having settled this, we could find tlie pool, the ascending 
tvall, the stairs, and the vxill going south " over against " the sepulchres. 

Colonel Warren's exhaustive excavations on the east, at the Virgin's 
Fountain, enabled us last year {Quarterly Statement, 184) to follow Joab 
through the gutter into the stronghold of Zion ; if only there had 
been funds sufficient for him to make those on the west equally 
exhaustive, the question before us would be answered, and we could 
at once follow Ezra the scribe up the stairs of the city of David. 

Apparently the valley might have been crossed at any one of three 
different points. 

1. The line of the present wall is antecedently the most probable. 
The rock here is sixty feet below the present surface (Jer. Eec, 131). 
If excavation should show that the foundations were deep, a led of 
concrete just north of the wall would, I believe, show the Fool of Siloah. 

2. Somewhere south of the old part of the aqueduct under Robinson's 
Arch (Jer. Eec, 106). This aqueduct seems (to me) to have been made 
by Hezekiah to carry water into the Pool of Siloah, and, if followed, 
ought to lead to it. 

3. Near the end of the 600 foot passage in the bed of the Tyropoeon 
(Jer. Rec, 131). 

In favour of this point one might ask, "What would bo the use 
of continuing the passage much beyond the city wall ? " 

It seems hard to judge between the three. Happily Colonel Warren 
found a scarp (Jer. Eec, 297) on the Ophel hill (just south of where the 
present city wall turns north), facing luest, twelve or fourteen feet high, 



THE TOMB OF DAVID. 175 

which he traced for fifteen feet to north-west and south-east. This he 
thought might have been cut to give additional height to a wall running 
from the rocky knoll on Ophel towai'ds the Haram Area. This clue 
seems worth following. If the scarp ends at the present city wall, it 
seems highly probable that (1) is right. If (2) be right, the scarp 
should lead north to the crossing wall. If (3) be right, the scarp traced 
south, or other indications of a wall, should at last bring us to a crossing 
wall, and lead onward to Siloam, passing the sepulchi'es of David on the 
left hand. If the scarp has had nothing to do with the loall, I can only 
conjecture that it must have been cut to make the face of a tomb, and 
any tomb here ought to be royal. 

Next, for Colonel Wilson's evidence. He says (Ordnance Survey) that 
at Jerusalem there is a great bed of soft rock, called malaki, forty feet 
thick, while the layer above it is hard rock {missce). He was of opinion 
that David's tomb was in the " great malaki bed," since all the tombs at 
Jerusalem are so except those at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and 
those high up on Olivet. It seems that it is usual to find the soft rock 
cut away, and the hard rock left to form a roof. Here is another clue. 
"We must first look for the tomb of David in the great malaki stratum, 
and it will be beyond measure astonishing if it is ever discovered else- 
where. This thick bed of soft rock is found in the quarries at the 
Damascus gate (Ord. Sur.), and again in the Haram Area, where, south 
of the dome of the rock, there are cisterns cut in it forty feet deep. It 
seems to dip to south-south-east at about 10°. Colonel Wilson had not 
time to make a geological map, so that it is not possible to show exactly 
on a plan how the malaki bed lies on the Ophel hill. This, however, 
could easily be ascertained on the spot. A tomb is marked on the 
Ordnance Map a little south-west of the Yirgin's Fountain, so that it 
probably reaches to that point. If the Ophel hill slopes more rapidly 
than the malaki bed, then the layer of soft rock ought to crop up on the 
original surface in the form of the letter Y. It would seem, however, 
that, with a dip of 10° south-south-east, it ought to bury itself, and yet 
it appears on the hill south of the Pool of Siloam (Work in Pal., 22). 
I have no doubt, therefore, that it really comes out on the Ophel hill like 
a V (see diagram). The part within the dotted lines denotes the 
malaki, as it would appear if the rock were cleared of soil, &c. The 
entrance to the sepulchre, of course, must be in the west limb of the Y, 
BO as to be over against, i.e., opposite to, the wall, going south to the Pool 
of Siloam. The superficial breadth of the malaki, lying as before stated, 
on a hill falling to the west 1 in 4, ought to be less than 160 feet. 

At some point the crossing wall ascends to the east, cutting the 
malaki (say) in the line A B C D. 

Again, as the missce will cease to overlie the malaki at some point, 
called G, if we draw a line parallel to A D, viz., E F H G, cutting the 
malaki in F and O, then we may confidently assert that the entrance to 
the sepulchre of David is within the figure B F G D. 

Further, this area may possibly be divided by the line of wall running 



176 NEHEHIAIl's WALL. 

to i he south from A C (the crossing wall), and cutting E G in H, so 
tnat the area to be searched is further reduced to C H G D. 

From Isa. xxii. 16, " graveth a habitation {i.e., tomb) for himself in 
a rock" (i.e., se/« =: in a cliff), and from the general construction of 
Jewish tombs, the entrance (which Colonel Wilson thinks may possibly 
have been a perpendicular shaft) I firmly believe must have been cut 
in a vertical scarped face of rock. The spot may probably now be 
encumbered with the ruins of Herod's white (marble) monument (Jo?. 
Ant., xvi. 7. 1), which apparently fell down in the time of Hadrian (Dio, 
Cass. Ixix. 15). 

It may be added that if the malaki does not crop up south of the 
Haram Area, this theory is worthless. If it does not reach as far as the 

tomb " (Ordnance Map), I shall be surprised. That it was within the 
city wall seems required by the " over against " (Neh, iii. 16), though 
" the gate between the two walls by the king's garden" (Jer. Iii. 7), and 
vii. 32 and viii. 1, might seem to be in favour of a iDosition outside the 
ancient wall. 

Surely, with such promising ehies, we ought to try to recover the 
sepulchre where David's dust "rests in hope" — the magnificent cata- 
combs where Solomon "lies in his glory" — the loculus (bed) of Asa, 
" filled with divers kinds of spices ;'' in short, the one intact monument of 
the Kings of Judah. 

Surely, with such check lines to guide us, we ought to be able on a 
correct plan to fix the entrance within wonderfully narrow limits. 

Surely, an officer of the R.E., of the " W." calibre, could, without 
literally " turning every stone," nevertheless discover the entrance (if it 
be there) at a moderate expenditure of time, labour, and money. 

Surely those who are interested in the full illustration of the Bible, 
especially such as have offered funds to reopen Jacob's Well and 
to explore Rachel's Sepulchre, would not be backward to provide the 
means for trying to bring to light the sepulchres of the Kings of 
Judah, if the Executive Committee considered that there were sound 
reasons for anticipating complete success. 

W. F. Birch. 



NEHEMIAH'S WALL AND DAVID'S TOMB. 

IP the Bible is the handbook for Palestine, Nehemiah is the guide for 
Jerusalem. How far does he enable us to make a correct reconstruction 
of the ancient city ? 

As experience has shown that in topographical matters general consent 
is occasionally wrong, it is necessary to show reason for the following 
obvious premises. 

The description in Nehemiah iii. mentions in strictly consecutive order 
certain points along a single line of outer defences, and beginning- 
near the north-cast, goes round by north to west and south and east, 
endiug at the starting-point. 



THmteitif 






CamerTfmWi, 




A Temple 

B y\jilorna 

C C Briagie 

Cenoatb G 

E Koyal ToATcr* 

F livwer J»Iivi-liet 

C "Upper do-.^ 

H 'WaleTgaie 



47^^^^'^ 



N R Ilia dels ^ETP pomta "wliere ihe rock las tecn-meaEured 



NEHEMIAll's WALL. 177 

(1) That the line was single is obvious, since the one olject "was 
to fortify Jerusalem as quickly as possible. 

(2) That the places occur in consecutive order is obyiorss frcan xii. 
31-39, where, starting from an intermediate point,, os^e pRirtj passes 
certain points in the same order as in iii., the other, going the opposite 
way, certain points in exactly the reverse order. 

(3) That " the description begins near the north-east/' i£c, f« teriam. 
Eobinson says this course is obvious. Mi-. Pergiisson ahaudons an 
earlier view in favour of it ; at least, so far as the " fountaiii gate.'' 

Above all, it is the only theory which can possibly M ia Tsyitli the 
approximately known positions of "the tower of Hanansel, iihe Tiillcy 
gate, the fountain gate, the city of David," and "the hors-e gate." 

As it is stated that "the breaches began to be stopped,"' it is also 
obvious that the wall was not thrown down along its whole leogOi. 

The Course of the Wall. (Neh. iii.) 

1. The sheep gate was evidently in the outer wall on the BorSi fade oi 
the temple, close to " Moriah" in the annexed plan. The ides, lily of 
name requires us to place in this part " the Pool c-f B'etbesila by the 
sheep market (or gate)," so that it could not possibly have been the 
Virgin's Fountain, south of the temple, as siiggested by RobinsoHj &c. 
Passing the tower of Meah, we come to 

The tower of Hananeel, appai'ently on the ridge- rraming^ scscatls fix)m 
" Bezetha," but projecting somewhat northward towards B, so as {!) to 
form the most northern iioint of the city, since in Zech. si^. 10^ "from 
the tower of Hananeel unto the king's winepresses " = fsoea iKo-ih to 
south, and (2) probably to protect immediately to the west. 

3. The fish gate (probably in the valley running soi^b from the 
Damascus gate), a very weak point where the GhaJxLeaos sitcred 
(Zeph. i. 10). 

As the importation of fish (xiii. 16) through this gats- ssaght Lave 
given rise to the name, it has often been placed on. the fvest side^ 
towards the sea, through inattention to the fact that ths cid way to 
Joppa would be by the north road, and near Gibeon. 

6. The old gate. — Here (I believe) the^ north wall turned sotstlj, makiiDg 
the corner ; so that this is identical with the corner gate^ liot expressly 
named in Nehemiah. 

It is desirable to place this gate well to the west, pe:Fh:£ip5a3faT as 
"Acra," since Zech. xiv. 10, "from Benjamin's gate raitotbe place of 
the first gate, unto the corner gate " = from east to wist. iW the 
same reason the Benjamin gate must have faced east at the Borlli-east 
corner, or been close to it, and so could not well be the sJ>£ep <^'i: If it 
is meant above that the corner gate was the first gaisy thftc. tbe iir^ (in 
point of time) gate = the old gate. 

Distant at least 400 cubits (2 Ki. xiv. 13) from this last gate-w:i8 ?//*• 
gate of Ephraim, which could not be the gate of Benjamin (as ofttsa srip- 
posed), since that was "by the house of the Lord" (Jer. xs. 2}; prtv- 



178 nehemiah's wall. 

bably it was near (7) "the throne of the governor," since the place for 
administering justice was at the gate. 

13. The valley (jate. As it had its name from the Yalley of Hinnom 
{Quarterly Statement, 1878, p. 180), which here lies on the north side of 
the "upper city," this gate must be placed either (1) in the valley 
(marked "Tyropceon") facing west, or (2) on the brow of the " upper 
city " facing north ; in any case a little east of E. Its resemblance to 
the Gennath Gate {id. 180) of Josephus is in favour of (2). The order 
of places in 2 Ohron. xxvi. 9 inclines to (1) : " Uzziah built towers in 
Jerusalem at the corner gate, and at the valley yate, and at the turning of 
the wall." The last expression means apparently a re-entering angle, 
which I can only suitably place at the junction of the wall from the 
corner gate, with the wall on the north brow already named. 

The wall next ran due south at least for 1,000 cubits to 

14. The dung gate, near south-west corner of the "Upper City." 
Here apparently was "the place called Bethso" (= dung-place), 
Jos. W., v. 4. 2. 

15. Hence to the fountain gate the wall did not need repairing; 
obviously for the reason that, as no one would ever think of attacking 
Jerusalem on this south side, it would have been labour lost to over- 
throw its fortifications. So Nehemiah (ii. 13, 14) obsei-ved the walls 
broken down as far as " the dung gate." 

Thus with little trouble (" facilia descensus Averni")we have got 
down to the fountain gate in the valley of the son of Hinnom, but to 
return from Tophet (Jer. xix. G, 14) by the stairs that go down from the 
city of David, until we know the precise position of the fountain gate, is 
quite a different thing.—" Hoc opus, hie labor est." 

Two years ago, on the assumption that the present Pool of Siloam 
really represented (as is usually supposed) the Pool of Siloah (iii. 15), 
I gave reasons (which seemed to me conclusive) for fixing the sepulchre 
of David close to it, at the south extremity of the Ophel ridge 

(so called). 

That the assumjition was unsound and the conclusion tvorthless, 
appeared prolahle when it was pointed out {Quarterly Statement, 
1878, 179) that the Tyropaon was the Valley of Hinnom, and the 
ridge named the tnie site of the city of David (as all along required 
by Neh. iii. 15 ; xii. 37). Instead of prohahle it now seems to me 
perfectly certain for reasons given in Quarterly Statement, id., 188, that 
neither of the two Pools of Siloam represents the Pool of Siloah, and 
that while the upper one {Quarterly Statement, 1877, 204; 1878, 188) 
represents "the pool that ivas made" (iii. 16), " the Pool of Siloah" 
(iii. 15) was higher up the Yalley of Hinnom, with " the fountain gate " 
and "stairs of the city of David" of course close to it {Quarterly 
Statement, \S11, 200, 203). See " Note on the Two Pools." 

Omitting these three points for the present, it is clear from 
Neh. xii. 37 that the waU having crossed the valley of Hinnon ascended 
the Ophel ridge near "the staii-s." Then (obviously bending to the 



NOTE ON THE TWO POOLS. 



I7y 



south) it passed " over against tiio sepulclires of David," and went 
on to " tlie pool that was made," i.e., the present Pool of Siloam. This 
sweep to the south seems improbable, uutil we consider (1) that the 
object was to rebuild the wall of Jerusalem (ii. 17), and not simply to 
make a fortification ; and (2) that the wall here, like that from the dung 
gate, probably needed but few repairs. After turning north, the wall 
was continued apparently on the line of Manasseh's outer wall " without 
the city of David on the west side of ' Gihon ' in ihe valley " (nachal) 
2 Chron. xxxiii. 14 {Quarterhj Statement, 1878, 182). 

That this later wall was the one repaired by Nehemiah seems to be 
the true explanation of the strange fact that the wall now rebuilt, 
instead of embracing as part of itself such points as " the armoury" 
(iii. 19); "the turning of the wall and the tower," &c. (25); "the 
water gate and tower " (26) ; " the great tower" (27) only passes " over 
against,'" i.e., "opposite to" them. This expression ''over against" is 
used ten times in Nehemiah iii. ; eight or nine times it obviously and 
necessarily refers to objects tvithin the wall. One seems forced there- 
fore to admit that in the remaining cases or case (iii. 15) it has the same 
reference, and therefore" over if gainst the sepulchres of David" means 
that they were within the wall (see below). 

26. As the "gutter" {Quarterly Statement, 1878, 184) may have been 
made when the stronghold of Zion was constructed, the water gate need 
not have been near the Virgin's Fountain, as stated in Quarterly State- 
ment, 1877, 202. 

27. Here we seem to join the ivall of Ophel (? = the swelling) near K, 
which word seems to denote that part of the hill where the narrow ridge 
(of Zion) swells out to the east as we approach the Haram Area. 

28. The horse gate probably was near the south-east corner of the 
latter (Jer. xxxi. 40, corner). 

29-31. The wall may have gone north exactly on the present line. 
The massive luall, however, mentioned in Jerus. llec, pp. 156-7, offers a 
suitable course, bending west to the sheep gate, to complete the circuit. 

31. The place of the Nethinims {e-neavvadivlfi) is perhaps referred to in 
1 Mace. xii. 37. " The wall toward the Irooh on the east side was fallen 
down, and they repaired that which was called Caphenatha " (? corrupted 
from Cephar Annathinim=village of the Nethinims). The gate Miphkad 
{i.e., of the appointed place) was evidently on the east of the temple, 
and near it "the bullock of the sin-offering was burnt in the appointed 
place (Miphkad) of the house, without the sanctuary" (Ez. xliii. 21). 

W. F. BiKCii. 



NOTE ON THE TWO POOLS. 

A. The Virgin'' s Fountain is cei'tainly Solomon's Fool (Jos. W., v. 4. 2), 
and so may well be the King''s pool (Neh. ii. 14). As the valley here ia 
narroiD, it is not strange that Nehemiah could not go up on his beast 



180 KOTE OX THE TWO POOLS. 

througli the ruins, by the hroolc (Nachal), since at tliis point the fields of 
the Kedron cease and the hrooJc begins (Jer. xxxi. 40). It is unsatisfac- 
tory for the same pool to be called by two names in Neh. ii., iii., so we 
must consider that the Virgin's Fountain — i.e., the King's pool — was not 
the pool that ivas made. 

B. The channel to the present Pool of Siloam must have been under- 
taken by Hezekiah ; but ShrLoah is mentioned earlier. Therefore the 
waters of Shiloah (Isa. viii. 6) did not mean the waters at " Siloam." As 
the fountain flowing from the city of David would better represent 
the royal line of David than would water from an aqueduct or pool else- 
where in Jerusalem, it would seem that the Virgin s Fountain must have 
been intended by Shiloah. 

C. Adonijah feasted at Enrogel (the Virgin's Fountain) = Gihon , in the 
valley (Nachal, 2 Chron. xxxiii. 14), so that Solomon must have been 
anointed at some other Gihon (?=stream or spring), obviously in a higher 
position, and so mentioned in 2 Chron. xxxii. 30. " The same Hezekiah 
also stopped the upper watercourse of Gihon " (= rather " the springhead 
of the upper Gihon'") " and brought it down to the ivest side of the city of 
David." 

This passage seems (to me) not to allude to the channel from the 
Virgin's fount, but rather to that under Eobinson's arch, conveying 
water to (1) some pool in the Valley of Hinnom {i.e., Tyropoeon), elue 
west of Zion, and not to (2) the Pool of Siloam (so called) hardly west 
(it all. 

To (1) and not to (2) I would also refer the following passages : — - 

(a) " Hezekiah made a j'ool and a conduit, and brought water into the 
city" (2 Kings XX. 20). 

(6) " Hezekiah fortified his city and brought in tvater " (Thrui:)p reads 
Tiiy for Tiu^j^zriupper Gihon) "into the midst thereof: he digged the hard 
rock with iron and made wells for waters " (Eccles. xlviii. 17). 

Now we have to place in the Tyropoeon Valley both the Pool of Siloah 
and the pool that was made (Neh. iii. 15, 16), since it was not the King's 
pool (see A). The two Pools of Siloam (so called) cannot be the two 
wanted, since it would have been labour lost (for Hezekiah apparently) 
to have made the upper one if the lower already existed. We have 
therefore to seek for a pool higher up the Tyroposon, and we seem to 
have one above in (1, a, h). Was this then (x) the Fool of Siloah or {y) 
the pool that ivas made ? As the wall ran from (.r) to, and not to near or 
opposite to {y), we conclude that (1) above was the Pool of Siloah, and 
(2) the pool that was made, since the wall could run to (2) from (1), but 
not from (2) to (1), situated in the deep led of the Tyropoeon. 

The Mishna says, "Now Siloam was in the midst of the city," and 
Lightfoot that Shiloah and Siloah are not the same. {Quarterly State- 
ment, 1878, 188.) Isa. xxii. 9, 11, and "the two walls" (2 Kings xxv. 
4), also bear on this question, but the point of them is not to me satis- 
factorily clear. W. F. B. 



ISl 

THE SACRED CUBIT— TEST CASES. 

"We sliall never arrive at any definite determination of tlie valno of 
the sacred cubit, and of its equivalent value expressed in English inche?, 
until some standard case be taken as a test case, wherein the actual 
length in cubits is given by contemporaneous writers of things which 
can now be measured in English equivalents. And, in order that it 
may be rendered the more useful in our researches in relation to Temple 
measurements generally, the test case should be confined to the Area of 
the Haram, the undisputed site of the ancient Temples of Solomon and 
Herod. 

I. The Test Case— Eobestson's Arch. 

This ease has the decided advantage of being the first thing identified 
in the Haram Area as one of the landmarks of the Temple Area at the 
time when Titus destroyed the Temple and. its surroundings. Dr. 
Eobinson suggested that this abutment of the arch was a vestige of the 
bridge from which Titus addressed the Jewish leaders. Colonel. Warren's 
excavations at this spot seem to j)rove that it was the abutment of a 
bridge of two arches, which did not cross the Tyropoeon ravine, biit 
merely formed a handsome extension of the middle or central roadway 
of the Royal Cloisters, and that these two arches were a magnificent 
termination of the central roadway. It was simply a handsome stair- 
way extending to the middle of the Tyropceon ravine, on piers and 
arches, and permitted an exit from the Eoyal Cloisters to the suburbs 
below by means of steps and a stairway. I propose to use the distance 
of the north side of this arch and Royal Stairway in English feet and 
inches as a test of the distance of the north side of the middle or central 
roadway of the three Eoyal Cloisters, given in cubits. 

Josephus gives the following description of these Cloisters : — 

"It had the Eoyal Cloisters, with three walks, which reached in 
length from the east valley unto that on the west. 

" This Cloister had pillars that stood in four rows . . the fourth 
row was interwoven into the wall ; and the thickness of each pillar was 
such that three men might, with their arms extended, fathom it round, 
and join their hands again. 

" These four rows of pillars included three spaces for walking in the 
middle of this Cloister ; two of which walks were made parallel to each 
other . . the breadth of each of them was 30 feet (20 cubits), and 
the length a furlong ; but the breadth of the middle part of the Cloister 
was one and a half of the other." — Antiq. xv. 11. 5. 

The pillars were equal to the span of three men, being exactly the 
same diameter as the two pillars, Boaz and .Jachin, in the Porch of 
Solomon's Temple — namely, 4 cubits. Hence the entire width of the 
Eoyal Cloisters was 4 + 20 + 4 + 30 + 4 + 20 + 4 = 86 cubits. But our 
test case only includes two of these three Cloisters and two rows of 
pillars, with half the diameter of the third row of pillars ; therefore, the 
distance of the northern side of the Middle Cloister from the outer edge 



182 THE SACEED CUBIT. 

of the soutli waU would be 4 + 20 + 4 + 30 + 2 = 60 cubits. These 60 
cubits should have exactly the same value in English feet and inches as 
the distance of the north side of the Royal Arch from, the south-west 
angle of the Haram, whatever that equivalent value may be. 

The typical values of a cubit, which has been selected for comparison, 
are those assumed by Prof. Piazzi Smyth, Colonel Warren, S. Beswick, 
and Lieut. Conder. And the estimated values of these 60 cubits will 
be as follows : — 

Inches. Cubits. Feet. 

Smyth 25-00 x 60 = 125'00 

Warren 21-00 x 60 = 105*00 

Beswick 17-72 x 60 = 88-60 

Conder 16-00 X 60 = 80-00 

Now the actual distance of the north side of the Royal Bridge from the 
south-west angle of the Haram, as measured by Colonel Warren, is thus 
given by him : — 

" The north end of Robinson's Arch is 89 feet from the south-west 
angle." — " Jei-usalem Eestored," p. 117. 

My estimate, as given above, is 88-60 feet, and the values of the 
Cloisters in detail will be found to be almost identical with admitted 
measurements. Take Capt. Warren's estimate given in his latest 
work : — 

" The diameter is 5 feet 9 inches for each pillar. The middle walk 

was 45 feet wide, and the side walks 30 feet each."—" Underground," 

&c., p. 71. 

My values are : — 

Cubits. Inches Feet. 

Diameter of pillar 4 X 17-72 = 5-91 

South cloister 20 X 17-72 = 29-54 

Middle cloister 30 X 17-72 = 44-30 

The formula I have adopted for the actual value of a cubit is 
v/3'14159 X 10 = 17-7245 inches. And I regard V 3 14 1 59 as the ancient 
standai-d or Canon of Proportion, and the foundation of every standard 
of length and capacity uced by the ancients. 

II. Ancient Length and Width of El Aska. 

An old Arabian MS. was published by the Oriental Translation Fund 
of Great Britain and Ireland, in 1836, and translated by the Eev. James 
Reynolds, B. A., under the title of " History of the Temple of Jerusalem," 
and dating back to April, a.d. 1444. In this old Arabian MS. we have 
a description of the area covered by the Mosque El Aska at that date, 
of which the following is a translation : — 

"Looking directly in front of the northern boundary wall, just above 
the gate called the Tyropceon Gate, and within the xoall of the marble 
pavement, and thence estimating the length and breadth of the Mosque, 
the length will be 784 cubits, and the breadth 455 cubits " (p. 35). 

It would appear from this old Arabian MS. that El Aska once extended, 



X 


784 


= 


1372-0 „ 


X 


784 


= 


1158-0 „ 


X 


784 


= 


1045-3 „ 


X 


455 


= 


948 width. 


X 


455 


= 


796 „ 


X 


455 


= 


672 


X 


455 


= 


607 



THK SACRED CUBIT. 183 

in some shape or other, over the entire area now occupied by the pave- 
ment or platform of the Dome of the Rock, and perhaps this platform 
and mosque may have formed a part of what was then known under the 
general title El Aska. The discoveries of Colonel WaiTen prove that 
the northern side did once extend to the length of two tunnels, which 
run 8 feet beyond the vault No. 29, or 58 feet beyond the northern edge 
of the present platform of the Dome of the Rock. Let us, therefore, test 
the above values of length and width with what we find in the Haram 
to-day. And first, let us test the value of these 784 and 455 cubits by 
the four typical values of a cubit given in the previous case. 

Inches. Cubits. Feet. 

Smyth 25-00 X 784 = 1633-3 length. 

"Warren 21-00 

Beswick 17-72 

Conder 16-00 

Smyth 25-00 

"Warren 21-00 

Beswick 17-72 

Conder 16-00 

The actual width of the area from the north-eastern angle of the 
platform to the westei-n wall of the Haram is exactly 672 feet. And the 
actual length of the area from the northern end of the two tunnels of 
vault No. 29, at the northern end of the platform, to the southern wall 
of the Haram, is exactly 1,158 feet. The whole civilised world has 
long been accustomed to the approximate measurement of 1-5 feet to 
the cubit — 18 inches, and this value has received the almost universal 
approval of every standard writer on Biblical standard measures of 
length in every age and country. The actual and precise value, however, 
is 17-7245 inches, instead of 18 inches, which is sufficiently accurate for 
popular use and reference. 

A very simple test is furnished by estimating the value of a digit, or 
finger-width. The Talmudic writers say that a cubit consisted of six 
palms or handbreadths=24 digits. Hence the following test values : — 

Inches. Digits. ^^^ 

Smyth 25-00 -^ 24 = 0-96 

"Warren 21-00 -^ 24 =- 1-13 

Beswick 1772 -^ 24 =• 1-35 

Conder 16-00 -^ 24 = 1-50 

According to Professor Piazzi Smyth's value of a cubit, the] finger- 
width should be equal to 0-96 of a digit per inch, or 3-84 finger-widths 
= 4 inches. That would do vei-y well for a giant, but not for ordinary 
mortals. In Colonel "Warren's estimate, 4 digits would be equal to 3-54 
inches, which is too great a width for the average hand aci-oss 'the 
fingers. And Lieut. Conder's estimate would only give 2-66 inches for the 
average width of the hand of 4 fingers, which is the average value of the 
width of a youth's hand across the fingers of the age of 8 to 10 years. 



184 THE SUPPOSED TOMB OF ST. LUKE. 

The value of 18 inches to the cubit (17-72 inches) would give an avei-age 
of a little over 3 inches to the 4 finger-widths or handbreadth. And this 
value will be true in 99 cases out of a hundred amongst men who do not 
use the hand for heavy work. 

Colonel Warren speaks of his discoveries in relation to this scarp at 
the northern edge of the platform as the " north wall of the Temple of 
Herod." And in another place he says, "I found there the old north 
scarp wall of the Temple courts, not far from the gate Tadi." I am of 
the same opinion, and regard this scarp as Solomonic and not Herodian. 
It was the site and boundary of the northern wall of the Temple courts 
both to Solomon and Herod. The distance of the northern end of the 
two tunnels of vault No. 29 is exactly 250 cubits = 369 feet from the 
central line of the Sakhrah, and is at the same distance from the Sakhrah 
as a central cave at the western wall of the Haram is from the centre of 
the Sakhrah, namely, 250 cubits = 369 feet. It indicates the northern 
limits of the Temple Courts of Solomon, as much as the western wall does 
its western limit. And I am of the opinion that Captain Warren's 
discovery of this northern limit to the Temple Courts has never been as 
much appreciated as it really deserves. S. Beswick. 

March, 1879. 

THE SUPPOSED TOMB OF ST. LUKE AT EPHESUS. 

Reprinted by permission from the Transactions of the Society of Bihlica 

Archceology. 

On a recent visit to Ephesus, I made some rough sketches of what 
Mr. J. T. Wood, in his work on the discoveries he made at that place, 
describes as the probable tomb of St. Luke. Afterwards, on comparing 
my sketches with the illustrations at p. 58 in "Discoveries at Ephesus," 
as well as with the description there given, I found that at least one 
very important feature of the monument had been entirely omitted, and 
as this feature seems to bear on the original character of this ancient 
work, I submit a few notes on the subject, and a couple of sketches of 
the place by way of illustration. Mr. Wood's celebrity as the discoverer 
of the Temple of the great Diana is so great, and so well deserved, on 
account of his labours and their final result, that his name naturally 
carries with it great authority, and as the illustration which he gives of 
this monument may be copied and re-copied into other works, I may be 
excused for attempting to add some information on the subject. 

The place is within, and near to the Magnesian Gate ; and all that 
remains at present of it is little else than a mound ; but an external wall 
of large slabs of marble is visible in some parts. This base was circular, 
and between each slab there has been a dwarf pilaster, a sketch of 
which is given, and on one of these still standing there is a panel 
with a Christian cross cut so as to stand out in relief ; in a smaller panel 
beneath is the figure of a bull or ox, with a well-developed hump, similar 
to that of a Brahminic bull. The bull being the symbol of St. Luke, led 
Mr. Wood most naturally to the conclusion that the monument had had 



THE SUPPOSED TOMB OF ST. LUKE. 



185 



some relation to the Evangelist, a conclusion which I think few will 
dissent from — the doubt wiU only be expressed as to this having been 
his tomb. 

This sculptured pilaster seems to have marked an entrance which led 
into a small chapel, and the sketch-plan of it, which is here submitted, 
will make it evident that this did not belong to the original design of 
the structure. The irregalar form of what 
we may suppose to have been a Christian 
«hrine, bears no connection with the cir- 
cular outHne of the monument. The one 
may be described as an invasion and a 
conversion of the other. 

The question arises as to the character 
of the remains. There is a small tunnel- 
like passage, into which I could enter, 
it seemed to me to be circular, and con- 
centric with the outer wall of marble 
slabs ; and from this we may faii'ly con- 
clude that it belonged to the first inten- 
tion of the building. As this passage 
was blocked up with fallen earth, I could 
only penetrate through a small portion 
of its length, but in that I found a ceU, 
which, from its size, was evidently in- 
tended for a tomb. This cell extended 
outwards between the passage and the 
external wall, and although only one 
cell was visible, I came to the conclu- 
sion that there were others, and that 
originally the passage had gone round, 
completing the circle, and that sepul- 
chral cells similar to the one still to be 
seen, had radiated from it along its 
whole extent. I find myself confirmed 
in this conclusion from Mr. Newton's 
description of the ' ' Lion ' ' tomb at Cnidus 
{" Travels and Discoveries in the Levant, " 




Pilaster, with Cross and 
Bull : Ei'Hesus. 



vol. ii. p. 224). He thus describes it : " The lower part of the chamber 
is, as I have already stated, built of blocks, and is pierced with openings, 
which radiate like embrasures from the centre of the chamber to the 
outside of the basement. There can bo no doubt but these passages 
were intended as receptacles for bodies. Such an arrangement of cells, 
or e-riKai, branching out from a principal chamber, may be seen in Hellenic 
tombs at Budrum, and at Pyli, in the island of Cos. I have never, 
however, before met with the circular arrangement adopted hero." It 
will be noticed that there is a slight difference between the monument 
at Cnidus and the one at Ephesus — the first has a central chamber, 



186 



THE SUPPOSED 10MB OF ST. LUKE. 



whereas in the other there is a passage from which the cells radiate. 
The cLrciilar form of such tombs, it would seem from Mr. Newton's 
accoimt, are not common. He also explains that these tombs belonged 
♦' to the class called by the Greeks Fol tjuiidr ion— snch. as were dedicated 
to the memory of those slain in battle for their country." 

The only evidence which Mr. Wood quotes to give a colour of proba- 
bility to the supposition of this being the tomb of St. Luke, is that of 
the Greek Archbishop of Smyrna, who found it stated in a historical 
work in his library, that St. Luke died at Ephesus. As the name of this 
author is not even given, and nothing is said as to his character for 
authenticity, the reference is aU but worthless. Almost everything 
regarding the life of St. Luke, as well as his death, is obscure and un- 
certain. Anything reliable regarding the place where he died, or even 
his sepulchre, would be a valuable contribution to Biblical archaeology. 




Sketch-Plan of Polyaxdrion. 

The value of the contradictory traditions Avhich exist may be illustrated 
by this reference to the Greek Archbishop, who quoted a second his- 
torian, according to which, St. Luke had been hanged at Patras. 

The position of this Hellenic t imb, situated in such a public place, so 
close on the thoroughfare leading to the Magnesian Gates, renders it, 
one would think, all but impossible tbat the few early Christians, at the 
probable period of St. Luke's death, would have been permitted to select 
what was perhaps a public monument for his sepulchre. The insertion 
of the chapel into the monument must have been of a later date. 
Although not the tomb of the Evangelist, yet it is to the student of 
Biblical as well as of Greek archfcology, a monument of considerable 
interest, and we are indebted for it to Iho lucky accident, as Mr. Wood 
himself relates, of his foot striking upon a block of marble one evening 
as he was wearily walking home after his day's work, and which led 
him to excavate at the spot next day. 



187 



JOUEXF.Y INTO MOAB, 

Made ill April, 1S77, in company with Bauox vox Muxchhausex, the 

Imperial Germanic Consul. 

By C. Schick, Architect in Jerusalem. 

April I'Sfh. — The so-called Glior, a wide, low-ljang plain through 
which the Jordan flows, has a gradual but imperceptible rise of 300 feet 
by barometrical measurement from the river to the foot of the eastern 
mountains. The winter torrents proceeding from the hills have 
ploughed beds for themselves through the plain ; those beds are on an 
average 10 feet deep and are full of boulder?. The fruitful country 
round Jericho, and other well-watered places, lie on the western side of 
the valley, while on the eastern ridge oasis-like stretches of land are to 
be found, but they are more limited in extent than those on the 
western side, and each is marked by an artificial hill lying from north to 
south, Nimrin, Keferein, Eameh ; they correspond wdth the "acacia 
valley," of the Old Testament (Numbers xxxiii. 49). 

The tents were pitched at llameh for the night. The old town was 
situated on a plateau between the Wady Hesban and one of the 
conduits for water that proceeded from it. The walls of the dimi- 
nutive castle are built of blocks of stone of about o feet in 
length by 1 foot to li- feet wide and f of a foot thick. There are 
numerous vaults in the neighbourhood, which are now used by the 
Bedouins as granaiies, and also a large cromlech which they regard 
as a holy place. The ground is covered to a considerable extent 
with fragments of hewn stones and with potsherds. About a quarter 
of an hour's walk towards the north of this, on a spur of the ridge of 
mountains, is another group of ruins called Kal'at er-Rameh, and a third, 
of which the name is unknown, lies towards the east, beyond the 
northern side of the narrow glen called Wady Hesban. The position of 
the place reminds one forcibly of Banias at the source of the Jordan ; 
it is healthy, the soil is rich, and it appears to have bten a con- 
siderable settlement in days of yore. It may possibly have been the 
site of the Roman Livias, named Betramta by the Syrians, whereas the- 
Old Testament calls it Beth-Haran (Numbers xxxii. 36) or Beth-araui. 
(Joshua xiii. 27) ; not only does the distance given in the Onomasticon,. 
five miles south of Beth-Nimro (now Nimrin), confirm this hypothesis,. 
but its present name even seems to show traces of the old one. 

April lith. — A steep ascent of 1,200 feet (or about 900 feet above the 
level of the Mediterranean) leads to a spur of the mountain, which 
may be regarded as the highest point of the east Jordanic range of 
mountains. Here, at the northern end of the Dead Sea, the compass 
showed that Jericho was nearly W. 10 N., Tell Rameh "W. 26 N., Tell 
Keferein N. 42 W. 

A second height, about 1,950 feet above the level of the sea, is 
remarkable for ten or twelve pillars, apparently of a much later forma^ 

P 



188 JOURNEY INTO MOAB. 

tion towards the top than at the base, some of them broken and 
standing on solid square pedestals. 

From this point one can distinctly see Mount Neby, the Nebo of the 
Old Testament on the other side of the deep valley of "Wady 'Ayuu 
Musa," or "Spring of Moses." The road leading up to the summit 
passed by the first corn-fields, and here it was that we first met some 
natives east of the Jordan ; they were Bedouin women, who were driving 
their asses laden with water, from the spring we have already mentioned, 
back to their tents, spinning wool as they went. 

Another ascent, 2,680 feet above the level of the sea, brought us to the 
highest point, on which was a Bedouin encampment, and there we found 
ourselves on the edge of the extensive plateau. We had climbed the 
whole way from the Ghor to this place through rocky gullies and over 
stony, red ochreish, and chalky ground impossible to cultivate. But 
from this point onwards not another rock and hardly a stone was 
visible ; far and wide only good land was to be seen, with flat undula- 
tions and depressions, which formed the beginning of the Wady, but not 
until further down hill did they become real valleys. 

The first place worthy of notice in this wide plain is the group of 
ruins called Akfair, in the midst of which stands a stone table, about 
8 feet liigh and 10 feet broad, visible at a great distance. 

After a journey of many hours' duration through this part of the plain 
we reached Ma'in (the ancient Baal Meon), a ruined town on its southern 
border, which is already well known from the descriptions of former 
travellers (De Saulcy, 1863, and Tristram, 1872). It is situated on the 
top of one of the flat hills enclosing one of the flat valleys, and is visible 
at a great distance. The hill on which it is to be found is connected on 
its western side, by means of a saddle, with other hills, likewise possess- 
ing ruined houses and cisterns. The lowest storeys of these old houses 
are partially hewn out of the chalk rock that crops up here through the 
thin layer of soil. The greater number of the stone buildings and arches 
to be found in this place belong to the Roman period ; one long red- 
coloured stone alone shows signs of ornamentation, and it was manifestly 
the upper step of a doorway. Besides this, the entrance to one of the 
vaults is noteworthy from the fact that the stone forming its threshold 
has three letters carved on it. 

We fixed the points of the compass in this place; Hesban E. o S., 
el-'Al E. 25 S., Timed E. 50 S., Sarnatsch. Between these two last 
nothing could be determined with certainty. A number of Bedouin 
tents were pitched round the ruins, and on the following day we passed 
a gipsy encampment at a short distance from this place. 

April loth. — The undulations are more marked to the south of Ma'In, 
and at a further descent of about 550 feet they become valleys. After 
■ a short ascent from this point in a westerly direction, and towards the 
▼alley sloping upwards to Wady Zerka Ma'in, we again reached the 
plateau, at one point of which there are distinct traces of a Eoman road 
skirting a dilapidated round tower. This road continues its course 



J0I7BNEY INTO MOAB. 189 

towards tlio south through a gently undulating country, and jjasses by 
more remains of ancient buildings ; it answers to the description, given 
by old authoriiies, of the principal highway running from Hesbon past 
Baal Mcon and Dibon to Eabbath-Moab and Keralc. Pursuing the 
road along an old arch of a bridge over the dry bed of a brook we 
reached Libb, a smaller place than Ma'In, but which contains caverns 
hewn out of a hardish kind of rock, and now used by the Bedouins as 
stables and barns. "VVe descended the valley towards the south-east ; it 
became narrower and more i>recipitous the further we went, and towards 
midday we reached the encampment of the friendly Sheikh Lafi', where 
the hospitality of the Bedouins necessitated our spending the night. 

April IGtJi, — We went along the road Avliich first skirts the top of the 
sloping sides of the valley towards the south and then winds along the 
ascent of the southern hill-side, at a jilace where the valley itself runs 
in a westerly direction. On arriving at the summit we again come 
upon traces of the Eoman road near the ruin of a tower and cromlech. 
At a still higher point (2,150 feet above the sea) Wady Wali suddenly 
comes into view, stretching from east to west. It also possesses a tower 
and cromlech, from whence the descent of oOO feet is made by means of 
a steep zig-zag path. Here, in a broad part of the valley, and at the 
commencement of a smaller valley running south, is a hill about 150 
feet high, but sufficiently precipitous, named Eas (head) el-Waly, from 
whose base a considerable spring proceeds, bearing the same name, and 
goon becoming a good-sized brook ; it is full of fish and frogs, and is 
surrounded by oleander bushes. We made this our head-quarters for 
some days. Lower down the valley the brook is fed by other springs, 
and at a short distance further on there is a mill, that was not working at 
the time, because the mill stream had been put out of order by the 
winter floods, which had left traces of their overflow of from 70 to 
-SO paces wdde, and from 10 feet to 12 feet deep.* At this place, marked 
by the ruins of an ancient hamlet called 'Amman Getto (?), two valleys 
branch off^, one of which running from the south is of a good size, and 
in it we find distinct traces of the old road to Dibon, while in the same 
direction the ruins of a bridge are to be found in the bed of the river. 
Between this point and the camp is a flat hiU sloping to the east, west, 
and south ; on its northern side alone there is a narrow path, defended 
by walls and a fosse, and covered with the ruins of an old village, 
which, however, showed no traces of Eoman occupation. This place is 
called Skander (Iskander, Alexander). On the other side of the little 
valley, shut in on the east by this hUl, and lying due north of the camp, 
are some scattered remains of houses, in the midst of which is a cromlech 
Avith a paved floor, and one large and several small hewn stones, some 
in an upright position and others lying on the ground. The largest of 

* Herr Schick's knowledge of mechanism enabled him to put the mill in 
temporary working order in a very short time, and it was hoped that the 
kindness he had shown the Bedouins might induce them to forward the real 
obJBot of his journey, but this hope proved vain. 



190 JOURXEY IXTO MOAB. 

these is over 10 feet bigh, and is found on the southern side of the- 
principal valley opposite the camp. It resembles in every respect the 
Wady Zerka Ma'in, which we shall describe later on, except that it 
shows no trace of any inscription. 

As the journey here from our last encampment was a very short one, 
we took an hour's Avalk further up the valley in the afternoon, and 
found that we could again reach the plateau leading to Kubeibeh by 
means of a steep rocky path, ascending GOO feet, by following the 
southern branch of the valley called Wady Deeb and passing the ruin 
of Emku Nasrallah (Amka N. or Amku N.). One of the most con- 
siderable heap of ruins is situated on a precipitous peak to the north of 
the principal valley. 

Half an hour's walk south of this place, on the other side of the 
valley, are a few ruined houses called Mak 'ad, and under these are 
about a dozen caves hewn out of the rock. 

Ajjril 20</(.— After having spent three days in making attempts at 
excavation, we continued our journey on the 20th of April. A long 
two hours' march from our last place of encampment along the eastern 
side of the valley Wady Abu Sidr, and following the course of the old 
road across the plateau, brought us to Diban, the ancient Dibon, which 
was so celebrated lately as Mesa's capital. It was built on two hills, the 
most northerly of which, although surrounded by deep valleys, was 
fortified by strong and in some places double walls, and in addition to 
these by a fosse hewn in the living rock, but uncompleted. This miist 
have been the new town that was built after the Moabitish conquest 
under King Mesa, as is shown by the inscription. The southern quarter 
of the town was distinct from this, and was nmch less fortified. It may be 
called the more ancient Dibon of the tribe of lleuben. According to the 
statement of the Bedouins, who saw the stone before its removal from ita 
original position, which statement is corroborate! by the missionary 
Klein, Mesa's stone was found within a large cromlech; but strangely 
enough neither Klein nor Tristram mention this cromlech, although the 
Bedouins still honour it as the supposed tomb of a neby (prophet), 
and therefore reg.rd it as a safe 7-epository for anything of value. 
Close to this, on the south of the high town, are the ruins of a cas- 
tellated building, within which is a white stone tablet with a few crosses 
and a rosette carved ujion it. It serves as the cover of a grave, and the 
skeleton beneath is percejjtible through the crevices. Another stone of 
black basalt sti-uck us immediately on our arrival in the valley to the 
north-east of the town by the strangeness of its form, as it also did our 
predecessor Tristram, who held it to be a mill-stone. 

The road to 'Ara'ir runs in an easterly direction over a high plain ; 
the height on which the ruins are situated has only a slight elevation 
above this X)lateau ; but on the southern side it has an unusually steep 
and rocky descent towards Ihe narrow glen Wady Mojib (the ancient 
Amon), wliose watercourse down below is only perceptible by the green 
stripe of brushwood along its banks. This magnificent view, contrasting 



JOURXEY INTO MOAB. 191 

splendidly witli the high plateau, embraces, besides the principal valley, 
a. second one stretching out towards the east, of almost equal size, and 
several smaller glens branching out from it. 

The ancient town Arocr was of moderate size, and regularly built ; 
there are distinct remains of a perfectly square wall built of large blocks 
•of unhewn freestone, each of which was about 500 feet long ; and 20 feet 
from it is a still higher inner wall ; the highest central point is marked 
by some ruined buildings. Outside the walls, towards the north-east, are 
the remains of considerable suburbs ; on the highest point, east by north, 
an upright stone is placed. 

Half an hour's distance further south we come upon the much less 
important remains of Lejun, only remarkable for some stones with 
indecipherable hieroglyphics. We found several ancient cisterns amongst 
the ruins ; they were perfectly dry, as the Bedouins have never given 
themselves the trouble of restoring the ruined conduits. Eather than 
■do this, they let their women, whenever the encampment is pitched in 
this place, carry what water they require up the steep rocky path from 
the valley below. 

On our return to Wady Wall we visited the ruins of Karjet-'Alejan, 
which, surrounded by a wall, are situated on a promontory jutting out 
between several flat Wadys ; owing to the crumbly nature of the stone 
there are but few subterranean caverns to be found there. 

After spending another day in exploring the Wady Wali, where the 
Arabs who accompanied us had remained encamped, all further excur- 
sions and explorations were brought to an abrupt close by the arrival of 
a messenger sent by the consul, Avho brought us news of the outbreak 
of the Russo-Turkish war. We were therefore obliged to return to 
Jerusalem by the shortest route, this time taking a westerly direction. 

April 22n(l. — The road ran under the rocky, narrow, and sometimes 
perpendicular cliffs overhanging the valley of Wady Zerka-Ma'in, and 
-descended the same until it turned due west, at which place the sinuous 
■course of the brook begins. High above this spot we came upon another 
upright stone, 10 feet high, with signs resembling letters carved upon 
it. The road now became more level, with cultivated fields on either 
side, until we reached the most north-west border of the plateau. 
Another descent brought us to the spring 'Ain Suweineh and here, 
among heaps of stones rich in iron ore, we pitched our tents for the 
tiight. 

April 23rd. — We continued our route through the so-called Ghor- 
Seiseban, that sandy, unfruitful part of the plain lying near the Jordan, 
till we reached the ferry. Half an hour further on we passed the ruins 
■of Suweineh (Beth-Jesimotli of the Old Testament), on the bank of a rapid 
rbtream ; and an hour further we came to another ruined citj', the name 
of which was unknown to our Arabs. The chief features of the country 
east of the Jordan are the numerous cisterns and caverns hewn in the 
chalk rocks, and often used as habitations. The flat-topped hills are gene- 
rally covered with earth of a foot deep ; there we find caves of from five 



192 JOURXEY INTO MOAB. 

to six feet in height, and burrowing far into the mountain. They are 
partly hewn in the hard chalk rock, which covers a strata of softer chalk. 
The entrance is partially built up, leaving only a small aperture. Most 
of these caves have so many chambers communicating with them that 
they deserve the name of labyrinths. The soft chalk formation is not 
very substantial, nor is it deep enough for the Ioav dwellings. To gain 
the necessary height, one or two layers of a conglomerate of flint, much 
harder than the chalk, but still easily broken, had to be pierced. This 
conglomerate is usually from nine to sixteen inches thick, in consequence 
of which the caverns, including their floors, are irregular in form and 
level, as they are dependent on the formation and layers of rock. We 
find a marked difference when we compare these caves with those hewn 
in the chalk rock at Jerusalem, which are perfectly regular in form. We 
occasionally find blocks of chalk rock close to the walls, which the 
inhabitants evidently left there, not only on account of the hardness of 
the rock, but also because they were useful as tables and seats. There 
are no traces of inscriptions, excepting a single raised letter on one of 
the many potsherds lying in the niche of a cavern at Mak'ad, about five 
feet above the floor. The caves are generally used as cellars for storing 
the provisions belonging to the houses which are built over them. It is 
true some stand isolated, but still they may always be looked upon as 
signs of the former presence of ancient buildings, for very few are com- 
pletely isolated in the rocky sides of the valley. 

Stone monuments as well as caves are found in considerable numbers- 
on this eastern bank of the Jordan, while none are to be seen on the 
western. They resemble the rude memorial stones of a like nature in 
the Keltic countries of Western Europe. The same typical names have 
been used by other travellers for these Oriental monuments, and for that 
reason they are also used by us. 

I. Dolmens consist of twenty-three or more periaendicular blocks of 
stone connected on the toi5 by a horizontal slab ; these are only found 
on the ascent from the valley of the Jordan to the plateau — not on the 
];)lateau itself, but on both roads leading to it. 

II. Cromlechs are circles of stones of from twelve to fifteen feet in. 
circumference, surrounding a paved floor, and all possessing a low 
entrance on their western side. To this day they are considered sacred 
by the natives, and on that account are called Nebi. 

III. Menhirs are huge isolated columns of stone, are less frequently 
met with than the preceding, and, like them, are given on the laajx 
The principal ones we saw were at Akfair, an hour south-west of MaTir 
and west of AVali, and at Araer. 

Only about one-tenth part of the plateau is used for agricultural 
purposes ; it is totally devoid of stones and trees ; indeed,, we only met 
with two specimens of these out of the well-watered valleys^ 



193 

MOHAMiAIEDAN TRADITIONS RESPECTING JOSHUA'S 
PLACE OF SEPULCHRE. 
By Ign. Goldziher, Budapesth. 

A^ article in tlie Loudon Athenceim (18V7, page 601) identifying 
the burial-place of Josliua Timnath-serali (Joshua xxiv. 30) or Timnath- 
hercs (Judgo3 ii. 9) with " Kefr Harit," and also a paper by Professor 
Socin in the Zeitschrift of the German Palestine Exploration Society, have 
induced me to add a few remarks on those places which Mohammedan 
tradition point out as Joshna's burial-place. In my book, "Myths of 
the Hebrews," pages 336-40 (English translation, pages 279-82), I have 
spoken more at length of the activity of Muhammedan tradition in 
determining the locale of the sepulchres of prophets, patriarchs, and 
saints, utterly regardless of dates ; indeed, popular traditions affirm the 
grave of one and the same person to be in different localities. We could 
easily become acquainted with the circumstantial and singularly copious 
traditions on this subject, if we could only gain access to some of the 
Arabian writings relating to the pilrimages made to Muhammedan 
graves. Take for example the " Book of the Pilgrimages to Graves" 
—that of 'All ibn Abi, Bekr el-Harawi, and that of the Ibn el-Hawrani, 
which, however, are only referred to for bibliographical purposes. At 
the same time we have valuable sources of information in the extra- 
ordinary number of books of Arabian travels found in European libraries. 
The most important among the manuscripts is that by 'Abd-el-GhaIn 
ibn en-Nabulusi. After having written various short accounts of his 
travels, this work appeared as the result of a journey undertaken by 
him more than half a century ago, for the special purpose of making 
X)ilgrimages, from Damascus to Mecca, in the course of which he travelled 
through Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Arabia. Alfred von Kremer 
(A.D. 1850-51) and Gustar Fliigel (a.d. 1862, vol. xvi.) have made 
valuable analyses of this work. 

I shall extract from the work of Ibn en-Nabulusi, a book which con- 
tains full accounts of the traditions relating to these graves, such facts 
as treat of the burial-places of Joshua, son of Nun. 

One of the fifty-one places bearing the name of Minyeh is the Minyeh 
near Tripolis in Syria. "We entered the large village, well supplied with 
Avater, and surrounded by gardens. This village is divided in two ; one 
part lies low, the other is on the brow of the hill. The whole place is 
the property of the Egyptian Sufi, owing to a bequest made by Kajit 
Bej. We here inquired where the grave of the prophet Juscha' was, and 
were informed that we should find it in the upper part of the village. 
We climbed thither, found the door open, and then saw the guardians 
who have charge of the grave. These people came to meet us, and 
invited us to take up our abode in a castle standing close to the burial- 
place, the windows of which command a view of the gardens. We then 
entered a cavern on the ridge of the hill, which contains the grave of 
Jusch'a. We lighted ovir lamps and candles, and judged the grave to 



19-i JOSUUa's place or SEPULCnRB. 

be about ten yards long by two yards high. It is quite empty inside, 
but is surrounded by loopholes. On the grave there is a stone spout, 
by means of which Allah supplies the village with water in times 
of drought. We noticed this inscription carved on the grave- stone : 
"This is the grave of the poor servant Scheikh Juscha', restored by 
Sultan el-MuktafI es-Salihi in Tarabulus in the year 684." The inscrip- 
tion astonished us. We asked each other how it wa? possible that this 
grave should be known as the burial-place of the prophet Juscha', 
when the inscription is so worded as to make it appear to be only a 
Weli of the pious Sheiks ? We saw in the book of the pilgrimages 
of the Harawi that this author is in doubt respecting the grave of 
Juscha'. He mentioned it as being in the following places :— Ma'arra, 
in the district of Hamat, and 'Awarta, on the road between Jerusalem 
and Nabulus " (compare Jakut Georgi., W.B , vol. iii., p. 745, in which 
'Awarta is mentioned as the burial place of Joshua, Ezra, and seventy 
more prophets). " Mudschir ed Din el-HanbatI relates in his ' History 
of Jerusalem' according to a popular idea of the taking of Jericho 
(which is pretty true to the biblical account) that Juscha' died, and was 
buried at Kefr Harit, near Nabulus. . . . Another opinion exists that 
Juscha' was buried in the village es-Salt in the Belka ; his grave in that 
place is looked upon with great respect and reverence. It is twelve 
yards long, and enjoys great celebrity throughout the district. But I 
have never seen it stated in any book that Juscha' was buried in Miuyeh ; 
it is simply an oral tradition, and Allah alone knows if it is true. Still it 
is quite posnble that this tradition may be correct ; it has arisen at least 
from the respect and reverence in which the grave is held, from its size, 
and from other circumstances of a like nature. As regards the inscrip- 
tion, however, it was perhaps composed by aa ignorant man, who did 
not know what epithets to use in describing a prophet of God, for he 
was aware of no other grave of a real prophet, except that of Muham- 
med, in holy Medina." Then comes a poem written by the author in 
■honour of the grave of Joshua in el-Minyt-h, and at the end of it is the 
following story: . . . "Now it happened that we visited the grave 
towards sunset, so we prayed to God to stay the course of the sun once 
more, as He had done at the request of Joshua, for whose sake He had 
performed this miracle, because we had still a long way to go before 
reaching distant Ttirabulus. And Allah granted our prayer." 

The identification of Timne with Minyeh was caused by the resemblance 
the two names bear each other in sound (mana is the root of both 
words). In Jakiit, vol. iv. p. 707, a church in the Jewish quarter of 
Majjafarikin is mentioned, where a bottle, containing a few drops of 
Joshua's blood, is preserved as a miraculous antidote against leprosy. 

In conclusion, let me take into cons'ideration some of the Jewish 
opinions given in Eabbi Jechiel Minsk's book, called "Seder Nad-Dorot.'' 
Kefr Harit is there mentioned as being the place where both Joshua 
and his father, Nun, were buried. The graves are marked by two fine 
trees. However, this author also gives another opinion, according to 



THE STONE HAT-TOIM. 195 

%Tliich the sepulchre of Joshua is to be sought in 'Awarta. As we have 
shown above, this view is also held by the Mohammedans. In a 
book of travels in Judea, by R. J. Kitzingen (Jerusalem, 1844), 
in which all the Jewish traditions about the tombs in the Holy 
Land are exhaustively treated. Joshua's grave is also' given in the 
same work as being in Kefr Harit, and the following remarks are added 
to this statement : — " Joshua's grave at Kefr Harit is situated on a high 
hill. No trace of building is to be found there, except four walls. It is 
said that there is a cave underneath, in which the grave is contained. 
Many attempts have been made to erect a building there, but it always fell 
down again, and so at last the attempt was given up. We went through 
a short passage which led to the grave of his father. Nun, and found it 
marked by a large and handsome monument. We entered the little 
mosque, which the Mohammedans have built in front of this grave. We 
were told that Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, was buried there." Eabbi J. 
Schwarz also mentions Kefr Harit as the burial-place of Joshua. 



THE STOXE HAT-TOIM ON" THE ECCE-HOMO AECH. 

By PnoFESsoK J. N. Seit. 

The treatise of Herr von Alton in the first volume of the German 
Society's Transactions, " The Antonia'and its Environs," quietly settles 
to the author's satisfaction the hypothesis that still exists in the legends of 
the cloister and amongst pilgrims, to the effect that the castle in the north- 
west corner of the Temple was at one time used as a pra3torium. " The 
police, whose duty it was to see that peace was preserved in the court of 
the Temple during the tumultuous times of the Feast of the Passover, 
were stationed in the Antonia ; " thus the worthy author expresses him- 
self. I, on the other hand, believe that I proved long ago that Herod's 
new palace, situated on the south-west hill between the citadel and the 
garden of the Armenians, was the station of the Roman authorities. 
At the upper end of the niaiket-place stood the tribunal, or public seat 
of judgment, which Pilate also ascended. It was made of stone and 
not of wood, therefore it was impossible to move it. This dais of the 
Torum was called in Syrian Gabbatha, and to this fact the mistakes of 
tradition are referable. 

We find in the Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin, fol. ii. 2. Tosefta c. 2, 
and in the Jerusalem Talmud Sanhedirn, fol. xviii. 4 : "The elders held 
their sitting on the furthest point of the Temple hill." On this terrace 
the dome is still to be found, with the legendary royal throne from 
which Solomon the Wise dispensed justice, on which Pilate sat in 
judgment, and where, according to a story in the Thousand and One 
Nights, Omar discharged a case. The Mutesellim told me many other 
things about it. All of this explains the miraculous legend told by 
Antoninus of Plaeentiii, a.d. 570, that the Saviour had stood on the 



196 THE STONE HAT-TOIM. 

square rock, on whicli tlie present Kubbet es-Saclira is built, during 
His trial, and that the marks of His feet are still to be seen tbere. 

The hall of the Synedrium, whose semicu-cle extends into the Holy 
House, was called the mosaic hall, or Lithostroton ; and the same name 
is given by Josephus (Bell. vi. 1. 8) as by Ariiteas before him, to the 
whole pavement of the Temple. Does not this recall John xix. 13, 
and does not the learning of later days lead to misapprehension ? 
When Mudschir ed-Deed wrote of the " splendid pavement of rock," 
he meant the high terrace within the Haram esch-Scherif, on which 
the rocky dome stands, as though resting on the candlestick. 

The younger Agrippx, in order to give the idle populace something 
to do, had the town of Jerusalem paved with marble flags. The 
Emperor Claudius expressed his approbation of this conduct, Strabo 
mentions as an extraordinary and praiseworthy fact that Smyrna "was 
paved with stone in the days of Augustus. 

Let us now consider the Ecce-homo Arch in the so-called Yia Dolorosa, 
both of which names, as well as the search for the pra^torium in the 
Antonia, date from long after the crusades and owe their existence to 
the Franciscan order. From this place we enter the educational 
convent of the French Sisters of Zion, and become the sooner recon- 
ciled to their having settled down in this place, which was by no means 
that intended by the Gospels, because they confess, in the name they 
have taken, that they belong by rights to the Hill of Zion. Some 
beautiful stone flags are to be seen in the cellar of this large convent, 
and they are supposed to have been brought therefrom the Lithosti'oton 
of the New Testament. They are interesting to us as measuring the 
depth of the old street, and manifestly date from the time of King 
Agrippa the Second. Here, to the north of the Antonia, the ascent of the 
Bezetha hill begins, and there is no room for the Forum. The Arch of 
Triumph or Gate of Victory of Hadrian's time is to be found in this 
place ; it holds the same position as the ancient Gate of Benjamin used 
to do in the second wall, while in the third, the modern " Stephen's 
Gate" has replaced the old door leading out upon the road to the 
Mount of Olives and Jericho. 

But there was more than this to be seen. The kind sister drew our 
attention to a couple of stone cylinders of solid rock, which rise about 
half the height of a man above the pavement, and told us that during 
the excavation of the place, a Eabbi, or some other learned Jew who 
was passing by, had informed them that in olden times in Jerusalem 
addresses were delivered, proclamations made, and auctions conducted 
from the top of high stones such as these. The street by the old gate 
led to the square. After the building of the third town wall by 
Agrippa the First, the real market for small wares with its shops was 
situated on the side of Golgotha, as we read in Josephus, Bell, v, 8. 1: 
" After the taking of the first (outside) wall, CiEsar succeeded in 
gaining possession of the second also, and then advanced with a 
detachment of picked men into that part of the new town where the 



THE STONE HAT-TOIM. 197 

wool market, smithies, and clothes markets were to be found; narrow 
streets close to the wall led to the cross." 

I fortunately discovered in the Mischna Ta'anit, c. iii. 8, mention of 
the stone Hat-toim as being close by, on the Temple hill, with the notice : 
" All lost articles are proclaimed here." We find in the treatise Baba 
mesi'a, fol. 28, 2, and Ta'anit, fol. 19 and 23, that HonI ham-Me'aggel, the 
drawer of circles, a celebrated worker of miracles, into whose hand God 
had given power over rain, followed the example of the prophet Elijah, 
who once placed himself within a circular trench and did not leave it 
until his prayer was answered, by praying for a great deal of rain in. 
the time of drousht, when Eabbi Simon ben Schetach sat on the throne 
of judgment. This was more than the Israelites wanted, and they 
complained that the dew of Hermon fell too heavily on Mount Zion. 
But the worker of miracles answered, " Look and see whether the stone 
hat-To'^im has been softened by it." 

This is the busiest part of the town, for here it is that the street 
leads up to the Antouia, and the people pass by on their way to the 
Temple. Eben hat-To 'Im means "stone of the wanderers," i.e., the 
stone of those who wander about in search of what they have lost. 
Any articles that had been lost were here proclaimed, as also public 
announcements and notices. But two similar stones are before us ; if 
these cylinders of rock were only in the market-place, what tales would 
they tell us ! They also served the tribunes of the people as rostra. 
They were used as platforms near the Temple, from which the orators 
might influence the masses. From thence Simon, son of Giora, John 
of Giscala, and -Eleazar, son of Juda of Gamala, the first theocratic 
revivalist, may have harangued the emotional populace and have 
aroused the fanaticism of those who had come up for the Feast of the 
Passover, until foreign intrusion grew too much for the natives to bear, 
and every agreement with the Eomans became of no avail. It was 
by such harangues as these that the fire was kindled which reduced 
Jerusalem to ashes. 

But another meaning is also attached to these proclamation stones : 
it was from these stones that slaves were pu.blicly sold, and the book 
Sifra gives the scrupulous warning that Hebrew servants must not 
be offered for sale at these stones. As after the rebellion under Simon 
bar Cocheba, which Hadrian's general, Titus Annius Eufus (the Jews 
called him Eufus the Tyrant), put down by force, stamping it out in the 
blood of the nation, the prisoners were sold into slavery from this stone, 
as 135,000 Jews were sold under the Terebinth in the holy place before 
Hebron at the rate of four men for a peck of barley. The so-called 
Ecce-homo Arch, near the stone Hat-to 'im, was probably a triumphal 
arch of Hadrian in his newly-built JSlia Capitolina. The side door to 
the south is unfortunately destroyed, while the northern side arch pic- 
turesquely embraces the altar in the stately convent of the Sisters of 
Zion. 



198 

l^EW DISCOVERIES IX THE NOETH OF JERUSALEM. 
By C. Schick, Architect in Jerusalem. 

If we leave Jerusalem by its present North Gate, wliich is called by 
■tiie Arabs Bab el-'Amud, " Gate of the Pillars," and by Europeans, the 
Gate of Damascus, and journey a short distance in a northerly direc- 
tion, we shall come to a place where the road branches off into four 
different ways. One of these turns to the right, and the second 
to the left, running parallel with the town wall. The thii-d goes 
straight on towards the north through a depression of the ground past 
the burial-place of the kings ; it is the Sultani, or highway, leading to 
Nabulus and Damascus. The fourth road has a north-westerly direc- 
tion. To the east of the third, or Nabulus, road, is a broad rocky hill, 
containing the old quarry and the so-called cave of Jeremiah, known 
to the Arabs el-Edhamejeh. Opposite this, and to the west of the 
Nabulus road, is another rocky hill, resembling the first, but on a 
smaller scale. At the western foot of this second hill the fourth road, 
which we mentioned before, runs towards the north-west. Travellers 
in Palestine have of late years bestowed particular and repeated atten- 
tion on this hill, because it was believed to have been the site of Gol- 
gotha. Excavations were made there last year, and they have provoked 
a desire for further research. 

This rocky hill rests iipon an undulation of the ground, and is 190 
metres in circumference. It is of circular shape, and has upright walls 
of rock on every side. These show traces of having been once quarried 
and of having had graves hewn in them. They are, however, only 
raised a few metres above the sui-rounding ground. The hill has been 
artificially flattened on the top, and is now overgrown with olive trees. 
On its western side alone a bit of the original i-ock rises in a sort of hump 
"to the height of from three to four metres. It slopes gently down towards 
the west, but to the cast it is very precipitous, and in this part an open 
cave is to be found in which the remains of old sepulchres may be 
recognised. The entrance to this cave is on its western side. In the 
summer of last j'ear (1878) the owner of the cave determined to use 
it as a room or magazine. For this purpose he had a wall built in front 
of the cave, and then proceeded to lay out the lower ground to the 
east as a courtyard. When the trench to form the foundation of this 
wall was being dug, it was discovered that the ground was composed 
of rubbish containing many pieces of hewn and even of richly carved 
stone. The excavation was therefore made deeper than was neces- 
sary for the purpose for which it was begun. In doing this they 
eame upon a perpendicular wall composed of small cubes of 0.10 metres. 
These cubes were not placed horizontally, as is usually the case, but 
diagonally ; and thus they formed a pattern of which this is the first 
-example I have met with. Curiously enough this wall was built in a 
curve, whose radius consisted of about 12 metres. "When I first 
saw the wall I imagined it to be a winding stair leading to a sub- 



NEW UISCJVEniES IX THE XORTU OF JERUSALEM. 199 

terranean cave. But as no steps were to be seen at what was appa- 
rently its upper end, I came to the conclusion that it was the remains 
of an old circular wall inclosing a court, in which there had beeu some 
monument or building made of the carved stones which had been four-d 
before. I did my best to persuade the man to continue his excavations. 
At first my entreaties seemed to have some effect; but he soon discon- 
tinued the work. He did not dig deep enough to show the flooring, 
which probably was either made of flags or was a tesselated pavement. 
The owner of the ground pulled down the thin circular wall which had 
been excavated, and used the square stones composing it to pave the 
courtyard. The middle of this place is 2u6 metres distant from the 
Gate of Damascus. 

I made two drawings of stones that were dug up in this place. The 
architecture, and perhaps the age of the building of which they formed 
a part, may, to a certain extent, be determined by the testimony 
they afford. In my opinion the stones belonged to an old church. 
Still it is possible that they may have formed part of the building 
of a Jewish synagogue, for the rosettes, as they are given in the draw- 
ings, are to be found on ancient Jewish sepulchres in the rock. The 
so-called water-drops are arranged like steps and stairs. The carvings 
on the few remaining pilasters resemble triglyi^hs. Of the other pieces 
of sculpture, one reminds me of an incomplete form of the egg and 
dart; probably, however, it stands for something quite different. The 
upper row might be taken for palm-leaves twisted into a spiral 
pattern. The stone is very good ; the workmanship is somewhat rude, 
and is not always exact in detail. 

I am inclined to regard these stones, and the piece of wall also, as 
belonging to the church of St. Stephen, which, according to over- 
whelming testimony, was situated to the north of Jerusalem. The 
Empress Eudoxia, wife of Theodosius, built " a temple outside the 
North Gate, and not quite a stadium from the city, in honour of Stephen 
the First, deacon and martyr; it was remarkable for its beauty and 
splendour; however, it was not until the loth of January, 460, that the 
whole building was consecrated. The empress died four months before 
the consecration, and was buried in this temple." There was a cloister 
near the church. Both church and cloister were destroyed after the 
invasion of Chosroes I., or Omar. The Crusaders probably found nothing 
of the building but its memory and its ruins. In the later times of 
French rule another church was erected before the North Gate ; it lay 
to the right of the road as one came from without towards Stephen's 
Gate and close to the town wall, while to the left (opposite St. Stephen's 
Church) was a large building called Vasnerie, which served as stables 
for the asses used in the cloister, and later on, after the Saracen victory, 
for the pilgrims. The foundation walls of this building, as well as a 
number of crypts, were discovered in the jear 1875. Even then the 
idea was started, in consequence of this discovery, that the remains of 
St. Stephen's Church would be found under the rubbish on the western 



200 2fEW DISCOVERIES IN THE NORTn OF JERUSA-LEJI. 

side of the Nabulus road.* In the same year (1875) a hole was dug for 
making a cistern in the ground to the west of this road, 112 metres 
nearer to the town, or in other words, 144 metres distant from the Gate 
of Damascus. The workmen came upon several sepulchres in this place, 
and in one of them was a large stone chest. Dr. Chaplin, whom I took 
there to see it, has described it in the Quarterly Statement of the English 
Palestine Exploration Fimd. He was of opinion that the chest was 
intended as a protection for the wooden or leaden coffin placed inside. 
Its presence seemed to him to indicate the grave of some person of 
rank, perhaps of the Empress Eudoxia herself, and at the same time 
he pointed out that St. Stephen's Church must have been close to this 
spot.f 

The discoveries which I have just described are calculated to prove 
the truth of these suppositions. But in order to arrive at a decisive 
conclusion on the subject, it must be seen whether the wall indeed 
formed a circle, and what the space within it really was — whether other 
objects worthy of interest are to be found amongst the rubbish, and 
whether there is an as yet undiscovered cave hidden underneath. Ex- 
cavations on a large scale are necessary for this purpose. Perhaps the 
German Society for the Exploration of Palestine may find this a problem 
worthy of solution. 

* Compare Palestine Exploration Fund Statement for 1575, p. 190 ; 1876, 
p. 143 f. 
t See Palestine Exploration Fund Statement, for 1876, p. 9. 



PALESTINE 
EXPLORATION FUND 



Patron— THE QUEEN. 



Quarterly Statement 



FOR 1880. 



LONDON: 
SOCIETY'S OFFICE, i, ADAAI STREET, ADELPHI, 

AND BY 

i RICHARD BENTLEY & SON, 8, NEW BURLINGTON STREET. 



INDEX 



Ascalon, the ruins of, 182. 

Barclay's Gate, 17. 

Bethso, 108. 

Casius, Mouiil, 153. 

Coloni?atioii of Palestine, the, 110. 

Disputed points, notes on, 172, 228. 

Double Gate, 59. 

Eastern Palestine, 171. 

Epiphanius, on Golgotha, 109. 

Kxodus, topography of, 231. 

Gath, 170, 211. 

Gaza, Discovery of a statue near, 7. 

General Committee, 71. 

Golden Gate, 47- 

Goldeu Calf at Bethel, the, 103 

Grove, testimonial to Mr. George, 

197. 
Ilaram Wall, the masonry of the, 9. 
Notes on Col. Wilson's paper on 

the masonry of the, 91, 159. 
Ileliopolis, 135. 
lldin^-places in Canaan, 235. 
Hiram, King of Tyre, 174. 
Hittite Inscriptions, the, 206. 
Ilittites, the empire of the, 118. 
Identifications, 2.30. 
Jerusalem, a find of coins in, 181. 

notes on, 101. 

Kanah, the river, 221. 
Khita, 210. 

Length of the cubit, 98. 
Limits of error, 2 13. 



Lower Egypt, a journey to the Biblical 

sites in, 133. 
Maps, the reduced, 131. 
Meeting of Gener'al Committee, 71. 
Megiddo, 223. 
Moab, a journey to, 249. 
Nameless city, the, 104, 240. 
Notes and News, 3, 67, 127, 191. 
Phoenician Inscrijitions, 238. 
Progress in Palestine, 187, 241. 
Kachael's Sepulchre, 241. 
Eegister of rock levels, Jerusalem, 82. 
Robinson's arch, 11. 
Eock of Rimmon or the Pomegranate, 

the, 106. 
San, 140. 

San to El Arish, 144. 
Serbonis Lake, 150. 
Souterrains, 37. 
South wall, 63. 

Station of the Stone Age, a, 198. 
Survey of Western Palestine, 200, 
Tel-el-Yahoudeh, 136. 
Tel-Basta, 138. 
Tel-Fakus, 139- 
Triple Gate, 57. 
Tyropa?on Valley, the, 77. 
Tomb of David, Zion, and Joseplius, 

the, 167. 
Valley of the Jordan, 246. 
Wilson's Arcli, 24. 
Zekali, 239. 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND : 

A SOCIETY FOR THE ACCCTRzVTE AXD SYSTEMATIC INVESTIGATIOX OF 
THE ARCHEOLOGY, THE TOPOGRAPHY, THE GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL 
GEOGRAPHY, THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS, OF THE HOLY' LAND 
FOR BIBLICAL ILLUSTRATION. 



PATRON : 
HEE MAJESTY THE QUEEN. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE: 
ARCH-BISHOP OF YORK, Fresident. 



Dr. H. W. Acxand, F.R.S. 

Rev. W. Lindsay Alexander, D.D. 

Rev. Henry Allon, D.D. 

TiiePresident OF THE American Association 

W. Amhurst T. Amherst, Esq. 

Major Anderson, R.E., C.M.G, 

Rev. Joseph Angus, D.D. 

Duke of Argyll, K.T. 

James Bateman, Esq., F.R.S. , F.L.S. 

Rev. Canon Birch 

Samuel Birch, Esq., LL.D , D.C.L, 

Rev. W. F. Birch 

Rev. H. M. Butler, D.D. 

Marquis of Bute, K.T. 

.Archbishop of Canterbury 

Earl of Carnarvon 

T. Chaplin, Esq., M.D., Ron. Sec. for 

Jerusalem 
Bishop of Chester 
Dean of Chester 
Dean of Christchurch 
Lord Alfred Churchill 
Lord Clermont 
J. D. Crace, Esq. 
Lieut. Conder, R.E. 
Colonel Cooke, R.E. 
John Cunliffe, Esq. 
Duke of Devonshire, K.G., F.R.S. 
Earl of Ducie 
Professor Donaldson 
Earl of Dufferin, K.P., K.C.B. 
Bishop of Durham. 
F. A. Eaton, Esq. 
S. Jackson Eldridge, Esq., Beyrout 
Sir How.ard Elphinstone, K.C.B, 
Bishop of Exeter 
Rev. Canon Farrar, D.D. 
James Fergusson, Esq., F.R.S. 
A. Lloyd Fox 
H. W. Freeland, Esq. 
M. C. Clermont-Ganneau 



F. "Waymouth Gibbs, Esq., C.B. 

Rev. C. D. Ginsburg, LL.D. 

Cyril C. Graham, Esq. 

George Grove, Esq , D.C.L. {Ron. Sec.) 

James Glaisher, Esq., F.R.S. 

Samuel Gurney, Esq., F.R.G.S., F.L.S. 

Rev. H. Hall-Houghton. 

H. A. Harper, Esq. 

Rev. J. C. Harrison 

Rev. F. W. Holl>.nd (flbw. Sec.) 

A. J. Beresford Hope, Esq., M.F. 

Sir Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.I. 

HoLMAN Hunt, Esq. 

Bishop of Jerusalem. 

Lieut. H. H. Kitchener, R.E., F.R.G.S. 

E. H. Lawrence, Esq. 

Right Hon. Sir A. E[. Layard, K.C.B. 

Sir F. Leighton, P.R.A. 

General Lefroy 

Professor Hayter Lewis 

Bishop of Lichfield 

Dean of Lichfield 

Bishop of Llandaff 

Samuel Lloyd, Esq. 

Bishop op London 

John MacGregor, Esq. 

TV. McArthur, Esq., M.P. 

Duke of Marlborough, K.G. 

Rev. Samuel Manning, LL.D. 

Master of University College, OxFOaD 

R. B. Martin, Esq. 

Henry Maudslay, Esq. 

Edward Miall, Esq. 

Rev. Dr. Moffatt 

Sir Moses Montefiore, Bart. 

Noel Temple Moore, Esq., H.B.M. Con^ 

sul, Jerusalem 
Samuel Morley, Esq., M.P. 
W. Morrison, Esq. (Treasurer) 
John Murray, E.sq., F.R.G.S. 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart. 

b 



General Committee {continued) — 

Duke of Northumberland 

Dean of Norwich 

Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommanney 

FaoFESsoR Owen, C.B., F.R.S. 

Professor E. H. Palmer 

Sir S. Morton Peto, Bart. 

Rev. E. H. Plumptre 

Rev. Professor Porter, LL.D. 

Rev. C. Pritchard, F.R.S. 

Rev. Prof, Pusey, D.D. 

Rev. Professor Rawlinson 

Henry Reeve, Esq., C.B. 

JiIarquis of Ripon, K.G. 

Bishop of Ripon 

Bishop of Rochester 

De. Sandreczky 

Rt. Hon. Viscount Sandon, M,P. 

M. De Saulcy 

Lord Henry J. M. D. Scott, jM.P. 

Earl of Shaftesbury, K.G. 



William Simpson, Esa., F.R.G.S. 
William S.mith, Esq., LL.D. 
W. Spottisavoode, Esq., F.R.S. 
Major R. W. Stewart, R.E. 
Rev. John Stoughton, D.D. 
Viscount Stratford de RedclifIfe, 

K.G., G.C.B. 
Duke of Sutherland, K.G. 
Lord Talbot de Malahide 
William Tipping, Esq. 
Rev. Canon Tristram, LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. S. W. Vaux, Esq.. F.R.S. 
The Marquis de Vooue 
Lieut.-Col. Warren, R.E., C.M.G. 
Dean of Westminster, F.R.S. 
Duke of Westminster, K.G. 
Lieut. -Col Wilson, R.E., C.B., F.R.S. 
George Wood, Esq. 
Bishop of Winchester 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 



Major Anderson, R.E., C.M.G. 

Samuel Birch, Esq., LL.D. 

J. D. Grace, Esq. 

F. A. Eaton, Esq. 

Tames Glaisher, E.sq., F.R.S. 

George Grove, E.sq., D.C.L. 

Samuel Gurney, Esq., F.R.G.S., F.L.S. 

Rev. F. W. Holland 



Lieutenant H.H.Kitchener.R.E., F.R.G.S. 

Professor Hayter Lewis. 

John MacGkegor, Esq. 

Walter Morrison, Esq. 

William Simpson, Esq. 

Rev. Canon Tristram, F.R.S. 

W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., F.R.S. 

Lieut.-Col. Wilson, R.E., C.B., F.R.S. 



Bankers — Messrs. Coutts and Co., 59, Strand. The Union Bank of London, Charing 

Cross Branch, 66, Charing Cross. 

Treasurer — Walter Morrison, Esq. 

i?b?i. Secretaries — Rev. F. W. Holland, and George Grove, Esq., D.C.L, 

Acting Secretary — Walter Besant, Esq. Office, 11 and 12, Charing Cross, S.W. 



Cheques and P.O. Orders payable to order of Walter Besant, Esq. It is particularly/ 
requested that hoth cheques and orders may be crossed to Coutts and Co., or to the Union 
Bank of London, Charing Cross Branch. . Post Office Orders may be made payable at 
Charing Cross. 



NOTE.— The Price of the *' Quarterly Statement" is Half-a-Crown. 

Sent free to Subscribers. 



Quarterly Statement, JA\uA::y, L-'8;j.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



Died, on Saturday, Dee. 26th, William HErwoRTii Dixon, Chairman of 
the Executive Committee of this Society. It is now too late to do more than 
record this loss to the cause of Palestine reseach. "\Ve hope to set forth his 
services to the Fund since its foundation in the April Quorkrhj Statement. 



It has been resolved to begin the Special Edition with the issue of the great 
Map. This is now completed, and finally corrected proofs are in the hands of the 
committee. It is expected that the sheets will be delivered in London in March. 
They will then be sent out to the subscribers as rapidly as possible. Each 
Map will be placed in a strong and handsome portfolio, with title page and 
index sheet. The portfolios will be delivered to subscribers carriage paid. 



The first volume of the Memoirs will prolubly be read}' about the same time;- 
There has been unavoidable delay caused by sending the proofs to Asia Minor. 
Colonel Wilson has now, however, begun to retui-n them ; the illustrations are in 
the engraver's hands, and the work will now be forwarded as fast as possible. 
The plans, drawings, and sketches will be bound up with the Memoirs, instead of 
forming separate volumes as at first proposed. The first volume consists of the 
first six sheets, and includes, roughly, the whole of Galilee. Lieutenant Conder 
has contributed a paper to the volume on the topography of Galilee. The 
Memoirs of the fifth sheet are also written by him ; the rest of the Memoirs in 
this volume are the work of Lieutenant Kitihencr. 



Should any subscriber to the Special Edition be willing to give up his copies to 
public libraries or private persons, he is invited to inform the Secretary. A list has 
been made of names which arrived too late, to whom such copies may be ceded. 



4 NOTES Xyj) NET7S. 

It has been fuutiier kfsolvkd that the great Map, in twenty-six sheets, 
shall be issued to the general body of the subscribers to the Fund in the summer, 
after the issue of the Special Edition is completed. The sheets wiU be coloured, 
placed in a strong portfolio, and forwarded carriage free, with index map, title 
page, and a small descriptive pamphlet, calling attention to the boundaries, 
))rincipal features, ruins, &c., on each sheet. The price to subscribers will be 
two guineas, jiayable in advance to the secretary, to whom alone applications 
must be made. No trade discounts will be allowed on subscribers' copies. 



In the autumn the Map will be issued to the general public, to be obtained of 
all booksellers, at tlie price of three guineas, in portfolio, and with the pamphlet, 
kc., as in the form issued to subscribers. 



The Map of Eastern Pakstine, executed by the American party, partly by 
reconnoissance, and partly by triangulation, will be issued at the same time as our 
own Map, in similar form — viz., in a portfolio, and with a descriptive pamphlet. 
It will consist of thirteen sheets. The price to subscribers will be one guinea ; 
to the general public, n guinea and a half 



Tlie first two sheets of the reduced Map are now ready ; the American work 
will be incorporated with it, so that this Map will now represent the whole of 
Palestine. It will consist of nine sheets. The work is being pushed forward as 
rapidly as possible. 

Dr. Chaplin writes from Jerusalem (Dec. 4, 1879) : — "Some time ago the 
Tombs of the Kings were purchased by a French lady, and excavations of con- 
siderable interest have lately been carried on there. In tlie earth which filled a 
great portion of the rock hewn, sunken court in front of the entrance to the 
Tombs, have been found many capitals and other architectural remains, amongst 
them some stones, which show beyond question that they formed part of a 
pyramidal structure. There seems no reasonable doubt that these belong to the 
famous three pjTamids of the monuments of Helena, and have been thrown down 
irom above. A great marble statue, probably Konian, has been found a few 
minutes from the seashore, an hour and a half south of Gaza. It is a half figure, 
nose and right foreann broken off. I send you a tracing of a rough sketch 
receis'ed from a friend. lu the Shephelah, an hour or more north of the Jaffa 
Road, a tomb has been brought to light. One of its stone doors lias carving 
upon it in four panels, on- two of wliich are representations of lions' heads, in two 
af bulls' heads. Probably the tomb is of Crusading origin. It lias again been 
covered in. I had hoped to be able to visit it, as well as the statue below 
Gaza, but could not leave home. It is said that the statue is to be brought to 
JaflTa." 

Colonel Wilson write!, as to his paper on the walls of the Haram enclosure, 
as follows : — 

"Tlic notes on the Haram wall were written two or three years ago as part of 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

a revised edition of the notes to the Ordnance Survey ol' Jerubalem. I was 
obliged, from pressure of other work, to ky the notes on one side, and have never 
been .able to continne them. I have offered the notes as a contribution to tl«5 
Quarterly Sta'emcnt, hoping that they may be found useful in future discussions 
respecting the character of the masonry of the Haram wall. 

" The plan I adopted in the notes was to give, in the first place, a description 
of each section of the wall from the 'Recovery of Jerusalem,' the Quarterly StcUe- 
ments, and other sources, and then to add such remarks as occurred to me ; tlie 
facts are thus separated from the comments. 

" It was my intention to embody in the new edition of the Ordnance Survey 
Notes a description of the excavations made by Captain, now Lieut. -Colonel, 
"Warren at Jerusalem. The nature of those excavations, and the difficulties which 
Colonel Warren encountered and successfully overcame, have never been suf- 
ficiently appreciated by the public. Though I cannot always agree with tht 
conclusions which he has drawn from the results of the excavations, I am glad to 
take this opportunity of expressing my sense of the great value and importance 
of his work at Jerusalem." 



In order to puljlish Colonul Wilson's paper on the llaram masonry in full it 
has been found necessary to keep back several smaller papers, which will appear 
in the April Quarterly Statement. Among them is a re[ily by the Rev. W. F, 
Birch to the late criticisms on his recent papers. 



"We have received Part II., vol. ii. of the "Transactions of the Germ.iu 
Palestine Exploration Fund," some portions of which we propose to reproduce Ir 



English form. 



The income of the Fund from all sources, from September I7th to Decciabur 
12th, 1879, was £43i 16s. 3d. The general expenditure on rent, parcels, postage, 
salaries, and office, has been £160. All the "unpaid accounts" which have 
figured so formidably in the annual balance-sheets are now paid off. 



It is suggested to subscribers that the safest and the most conveuierrt 
manner of paj-ing a subscription is by means of the bank. Among ether advan- 
tages, this method removes the danger of loss or miscarriage, and saves the 
Society's office the labour and expense of acknowledgment by official receipt 
and letter. Money should never be sent by stamps, and when remitted by post- 
office orders or che(^ues, these should in all cases he payable to order of JValter 
Bcsant, Esq. and crossed to Coutts and Co. 



6 NOTES AND NEWS. 

The name of the author of the paper on the Tomb of St. Luke, published in 
the Quarterly Statement of October, 1878, was omitted. It was written by Mr. 
WUliam Simpson, F.It.G.S. 



The publications of the Society now in priut are : — 

1. The Eecovery of Jerusalem. Third Thousand. 16/- to Subscribers. 

2. Our Work iu Palestine. Ninth Thousand. 3/6. 

3. Tent Work iu Palestine. Second Thousand. 17/6 to Subscribers. 

The second of these contains a popular account of the excavations iu Jerusalem, 
witli the reasons and aims of the work. 

A few copies still remain of Lieutenant Kitchener's Guinea book of Biblical 
Photographs. It ccntains twelve vie.vs, with a short account of each. The 
views are mounted on tinted boards, and handsomely bound. 



Cases for Innding the Quarterly Sluteiiient can be obtained of the Society's 
publishers, Messrs. R. Bcntlcy and Son, at eighteenpence each. They are in 
green or brown cloth with the stamp of the Society. 



The following are at present Eepresentatives and Lecturers of the Society, in 
•addition to the local Hon. Sees. : — 

Archdeaconry of Hereford : Eev. J. S. Stooke-Vaughan, Wellington Heath 
Vicarage, Ledbury. 

City and neighbourhood of Jlanchester : Rev. W. F. Birch, St, Saviour's 
Eectory. 

■Lancashire : Eev. John Bone, St. Thomas's Vicarage, Lancaster. 

Loudon : Eev. Henry Geary, 16, Somerset Street, Portman Square. 

Norwich : Eev. W. F. Greeny. 

Suffolk : Eev. F. C. Long, Stow-upland, Stowmarket. 

Peterborough : Eev. A. J. Foster, Farndish Eectory, Wellingborough. 

Worcester : Eev. F. W. Holland, Evesham (i\Iember of General and Executive 
Committee, and one of the Hon. Secretaries to the Fund). 

Diocese of Eipon : Eev. T. C. Henley, Kirkby Malhani Vicarage. 

North Wales : Eev. John Jones, Pwllheli, North Wales. 

Yorkshire, Durham, and the North : Eev. James King, St. Mary's Vicarage 
Berwick. Mr. King has recently returned from the Holy Land ; communica- 
tions for lectures, &c., can be sent to the Office at Charing Cross. 

BcoTLAXD. — Eev. E. J. Craig, Dalgetty, Burntisland. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee beg it to be distinctly understood that they 



DISCOVERY OF A STATUE NEAR GAZA. 7 

leave such proposals to be discussed on their own aierits, and that by publishing 
them in the Quarterly Statement the Committee do not sanction or adopt them. 

Annual subscribers are earnestly requested to forward their subscriptions for 
the current year when due, at their earliest convenience, and without waiting for 
application. 

The Committee are always glad to receive old numbers of the Quarterly State- 
ment, especially those which have been advertised as out of print. 



Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly Statement regularly are asked to 
send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward the periodical to all 
who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes give rise 
to occasional omissions. 

It has been asked whether, since the Survey is finished, the Quarterly State- 
ment will be discontinued. The Survey, as stated above, will be actually com- 
pleted when it is entirely published, and not before. But its completion does 
not mean the completion of the work of the Society, as reference to the original 
prospectus will show. And there is, more than ever, need of a periodical devoted 
to the special line of research which is the raison d'etre of this Quarterly Statement. 
it will therefore be continued as long as the Society exists and there is work of 
the kind which it represents to be done and reported. 



DISCOVEEY OF A STATUE NEAE GAZA. 

The following appeared in the Pall Mall Gazette, November 11th, 

1879:— 

"An interesting archaeological discovery is reported from Palestine. 
An Arab who was quarrying stone the other day at a place about four 
miles and a half from Gaza unearthed a marble figure supposed to be a 
colossal god of the Philistines. The dimensions of the figure are as 
follows : 3 feet from the top of its head to the end of its beard, 27 inches 
irom ear to ear, 13^ inches from top of forehead to mouth, 54 inches 
from shoulder to shoulder, 81 inches from crown of head to waist, and 
54 inches the circumference of the neck. The total height of the figure 
is 15 feet. The hair hangs in long ringlets down upon the shoulders, 
and the beard is long, indicating a man of venerable age. The right 
arm is broken in half, while the left arm is crossed over the breast to the 
right shoulder, where the hand is hidden by the drapery of a cloth 
covering the shoulders. There is no inscription on the figure or the 
pedestal, which is a huge block carved in one piece with the figure. The 
statue was found in a recumbent position, buried in the sand, on the top 
of a hill near the sea. It had evidently been removed from its original 
site, which is unknown. Its estimated weight is 12,0001b. The Pasha 



DISCOVERY OF A STATUE NEAR GAZA. 

of Jerusalem has ordered a guard to watcli this relic of ancient art, and 
to prevent any injury to it by the fanatics of Gaza." 

See also Dr. Chaplin's letter on the same subject in Notes and 
News. 

Lieut. Conder communicates the following notes on this discovery : — 

" Gaza is mentioned in the Talmud as a place where Jews might live ia 
spite of the idolatry of its inhabitants. A place called Yerid (' market') 
or 'Atluzah ('meat market') existed outside the town, where an idol 
was worshipped (Abodah Zara i. 4, Jerusalem and Babylonian Talmuds). 

Although Christianity was early introduced at Gaza (a Bishop Silvanus 
of Gaza is mentioned by Eusebius as early as 285 a.d.) idolatry kept its 
hold on the city as late as the fifth century. Porphyrins, the Bishop of 
Gaza, was authorised by the Empress Eudoxia to destroy the pagan 
temples and to erect a church in 406 a.d. 

The temple outside the town was j)ossibly the place called Bethelia 
mentioned by Sozomen (Hist. Eccl. lib. v. cap. 15) as a flourishing 
village near Gaza, having temples venei-able both for age and beauty, 
especially a Pantheon standing on a hUl like a citadel above the town. 
The village in question is no doubt the present Beit Laliia, standing 
on the sandhills IJ miles north of Gaza, and the great statue now- 
discovered may have belonged to the Pantheon at this place. 

The principal deity worshipped at Gaza was Marnas, the Cretan 
Jupiter. Zeus was also worshipi^ed, and in the fourth century Gaza 
is said to have had eight temples (Life of St. Porphyrins, Bishop 
of Gaza, Acta Sanctorum, vol. v. j). 655). The Sun, Venus, Apollo, Pro- 
serpine, Hecate, and Juno were among these deities. The Temple of 
Marnas was round, and was considered one of the most magnificent in 
the world : it had a double cloister, apparently resembling the Dome of 
the Rock at Jerusalem. The church which Eudoxia built on its site was, 
however, cruciform, with thirty columns. Jerome speaks of the Temple 
of Marnas as overthrown in his OAvn time (Comm. on Isaiah xvii. 3), 
but the final destruction was not effected until the beginning of the fifth 
century. 

In the Pascal Chronicle (at 379 A.D.) a place called Tetramphodos, or 
' Cross roads,' is noticed at Gaza, where was a marble statue of Venus 
above an altar. This may be the same as the market noticed in the 
Talmud (see Reland, vol. ii. p. 793). 

The God Marnas is identified by Lcnormant with the Moabite Hobal, 
who was represented as an old man with a long board, holding a red 
stone in his right hand, and sometimes the seven arrows of fate (Ezekiel 
xxi. 21) Avithout points or feathers. Hobal is called the male Venus, 
the Arabs worshipping among the planets only Venus and Jupiter, the 
latter symbolised by a stone. Hobal and Marnas were both the Lords 
of Fate, and were prayed to for rain. They answered to the old Greek 
divinity Uranus, and 300 smaller statues, symbolising the degrees of tho 
celestial circle, are said sometimes to have accompanied their images 
(see Lenormant's Lettres Assyriologiques, No. 5). 



..: ; /". '.-...•'• '•' 



C c t c c 






PLAJ^Vofr.^M TOck LEVELS IN THE HARAM AREA 




Jtan/brcUs Stog^SatiUfi 



SCALE or ENGLISH FEET. 
_L. 



SCO 



Note. Irh the part shmifdi tw- rock- le/rela Tiaye/ 



THE MASONRY OF THE HARAil WALL. 3 

It appears, therefore, that pagan worship survived at Gaza side by 
side ynth. Christianity (supposing the bishops to have resided at their 
sees) as late as the fifth century A.D., and the resemblance between the 
description given of the new statue and the representation symbolic of 
Mamas, the god of Gaza, as an aged and long-bearded man, is so strong, 
that I would suggest to learned authorities that it is the statue which 
once stood in the principal temple of Gaza which has now been unearthed^ 
perhaps after having been purposely buried at the time of the destruction 
of the temple by Porphyrins. C. R Coxdek, Lieut. E.E. 

IGthNovcinher, 1879." 



THE MASONRY OF THE HAEAM AVALL. 

By Colonel C. W. Wilson, K.E., C.B. 

The ancient masonry at the south-west angle, and 
From the S. JF. ^^^^^ ^^^^, ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ .^^ -^ ^j^^ g^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

7 < r f ' preserved in the wall, above ground, and has every 
' appearance of being //( situ. One of the corner stones, 
about 62 feet above the true foot of the wall, is 38 feet 9 inches long, 
nearly 4 feet thick, and 10 feet deep, and others are of scarcely less size. 
The bonding of the stones has been carefully attended to and the work- 
manship is admirable, but unfortunately the accumulation of rubbish 
and the bushes of cactus do not allow of its being seen to the same 
advantage as the soiith-east angle. The south-west angle is a right- 
angle. 

Thirty-nine feet north of the comer is the fragment of an old arch, 
first brought to notice by Dr. Eobinson, and now known by his name ; 
portions of the three lower courses remain, and from the appearance and 
position of the stones they evidently formed part of the original wall ; 
the upper stones have slightly slipped, and the surfaces of those taken 
from the soft riudald bed are so much weather-worn that the curve is 
almost lost. The arch is exactly 50 feet long, and the line of its springing 
is on a level, or nearly so, with the present surface of the ground ; an 
offset of 1 foot 3 inches in the wall, which forms a sort of pier or buttress, 
is just visible. 

From the arch northwards to Abu Saud's house, and within his house, 
where it can be seen, the wall is made up of a mixture of plain dressed 
stones and those having a marginal draft, but immediately beyond the 
latter, in a small yard to the south of the Wailing Place, the older 
masonry is again found in the shape of an enormous lintel, which covers 
a closed doorway known as " Barclay's Gate." 

At the north end of Abu Saud's house, and partly 
BahalMa(jMriU. ^^^^ Barclay's Gate, is the Bab al Magharibe, or Gate 
of the Western Africans, so called from its proximity to the mosque of 



10 THE MASONRY OF THE HAEAM WALL. 

the same name. The sill of this gate is on a level with the Haram area, 

and the approach from the valley is by a steep ramp supported on 

arches, which bears no appearance of great age. 

„ „^ ,, Above the ancient masonry at the south-west angle 

Haram Wall. , s- -, . ^ ■ t n 

are several courses oi large stones, plain dressed 

without marginal drafts, similar to those in the south wall west of 
the Khatuniye, and in the west wall at the Wailing Place, but 
between the angle and Eobinson's Arch they are replaced by 
courses of small stones, also plain dressed, of only half the height. 
The upper portion of the wall is here built of small stones with mar- 
ginal drafts, and rough projecting faces, similar to those in a portion 
of the Citadel, with a proportion of plain dressed stones. Over Eobin- 
son's Arch there is a distinct change in the style of masonry, the stones 
■with rough projecting faces cease abruptly, and the wall is almost 
entirely composed of thin courses of very small stones, plain dressed ; 
north of the arch the larger stones without drafts again appear in the 
lower portions of the wall, and above them the masonry is of a mixed 
character. There is thus evidence of five periods of construction, which 
probably succeeded each other in the following order : the large stones 
with marginal drafts ; the large stones plain dressed ; the medium sized 
stones plain dressed; the small stones with marginal drafts and pro- 
jecting faces ; and the very small stones plain Jdressed, and mixed 
masonry. 

Captain "Warren was unable to excavate close to the Haram Wall at 
Eobinson's Ai'ch, but the lower portion of the masonry at that point 
was examined by a gallery driven into it from the west, and a shaft was 
sunk to a depth of about -16 feet at the south side of the south-west angle. 
It would appear that there are eighteen courses of drafted stones, from 
3 feet 4 inches to -1 feet high, between the rock and the spring of the arch, 
giving a total height of about 62 feet 6 inches. The stones in the six 
lowest cotu'ses, below the level of a pavement described below, have their 
faces "rough picked," or " carelessly dressed," whilst those in the higher 
courses have their faces dressed like the stones in the Wailing Place ; the 
drafts, beds, and joints being in either case of a similar character. The 
luundation stones were also seen at a point about 5.5 feet north of the 
aroh, and in a passage a little south of the arch ; and the upper masonry 
was traced almost as far north as Barclay's Gate, in a drain which rims 
along the Haram Wall, at a height of about 25 feet above the rock. The 
stones seen in the draiii are said to be "similar to those above" — i.e., 
like those at the Wailing Place. The pier or buttress alluded to above 
as projecting 1 foot 3 inches from the face of the wall, was probably 
formed by allowing the courses of stone to rim up perpendicularly, or 
nearlv so, from the rock, whilst each course in the wall itself is set back 
about one inch.* This feature is wanting at Wilson's Arch. It seems 

* This view has been followed in the Section Plan 2 ; the offset appears to 
have escaped Captain Warren's notice. 



THE MABONllY OF THE HAnAM WALL. 



11 



quite clear that the wall from the south-west angle to Barclay's Gate is 
of one date, though the stones Avith rough picked faces die out at some 
intermediate point not yet known.* 

The arch has already been stated to be 50 feet wide, 
Rohmsoii'sArch ^^^^ .^ probably had a span of 42 feet, the same as 
■ ^'^'^^'"'- that of Wilson's Arch. Captain Warren gives the 
span as "a trifle over 41 feet 6 inches," but this appears to have 
been measvu-ed at the foot of the pier, and a slight batter in the wall 
would give the additional six inches. The pierf is 51 feet 6 inches 
long, and 12 feet 2 inches thick, and rests on the rock 42 feet below the 
springing of the arch. Three courses, from 3 feet G inches to 4 feet 
high, were found on the eastern side and two on the western, and the 
stones are of hard missce, dressed in a similar way to those at the Wail- 
ing Place. The construction of the pier is peculiar ; on the eastern si '- ; 
the two first courses, 7 feet 3 inches high, form five small piers, about 
5 feet long, with intermediate spaces of about 6 feet, over which the 
stones of the third course lie like so many great lintels, one stone being 
13 feet 9 inches long. In the inside of the pier there is a hollow space 
about 5 feet wide, left, apparently, with a view of economising material. 
The second course on the Avestern side is set back several inches, whilst 
the courses on the eastern side are flush with each other. The rock 
beneath the pier on the east is cut aWay perpendicularly, and on the 
west there is a rock-hewn channel along which Captain Warren drove 
his gallery. 

In a cistern, of no great age, built against the north 
Old Drain. ^^^^ ^£ the pier, an entrance was found to a di-ain 
which led directly to the Haram Wall and then branched north and 
south along it. The dram, which reaches nearly as far north as 
Barclay's Gate, is 165 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 2 feet high, and is 
buUt "of rubble with flagging on the top." The Haram Wall, 
as seen from the dram, "extends iu one unbroken line" from the 
arch to Barclay's Gate. The drain is said to be a few feet above a 
pavement which stretches from the base of the pier of 
Pavement. Eobinson's Arch to the Haram Wall, and falls slightly 
to the east. The pavement is formed of slabs of very hard missce, 
of considerable size, with polished sm-faces, and upon it rest just a3 
they fell, in lines north and south, the vovissoirs of Eobinson's 
Arch, which are from the ntcdahi bed. Captain Warren thinks the 
pavement is probably the same as that at the south-west angle, and that 
it extends to Barclay's Gate ; this may be the case, but it was only seen 
at a few points. The pavement rests on a mass of debris and old masonry, 
about 20 feet deep, and beneath this is the rock, its siu-face cut smooth and 
hoi-izontal. At a distance of 12 feet from the Haram Wall there is a 

* The questions .connected with these stones are discussed below. 
+ In 1865 an excavation was made in search of this pier, and dropped directly 
down upon it, but there were no means available for following up the discovery. 



12 THE :\rASONRY 01' THE HARAM WALL. 

rock-he wii cliannel, 12 feet deep and 4 feet wide, 
' . , covered by an arcli Avhich, opposite the centre of the 

pier, has been broken by two large stones, apparently 
the voussoirs of an old arch that have fallen from above. One of 
the stones is much decayed, the other is 7 feet long, 5 feet thick 
at the extrados, 4 feet 4 inches at the intrados, and 4 feet high; 
in the middle of one side there is a joggle hole. No search appears 
to have been made for other voussoirs. The channel lies on the right 
bank of the ravine, and its general direction is north and south, 
but it is not parallel to the Ilaram "Wall. Proceeding southv/ards 
from the two voussoirs there is, at 24 feet, a square rock-heA\ai cistern, 
covered by a segmental arch, whence a i5ass;.ge runs east to the Haram 
Wall, which, having apparently been buUt at a later period, cuts it in 
two ; a second ^passage to the west, 3 feet wide, is closed by a fallen 
stone, and a third leads southwards to a circular rock-heAvn cistern. 
16 feet in diameter and 14 feet 4 inches high, with a flat roof of rock 
from 2 feet to 3 feet thick, Avhich is pierced in the centre by a man-hole 
passing down from the pavement. Three feet above the floor of the 
cistern a rock-hcAvn passage, 8 feet high, 3 feet 9 niches wide, and 
covered by a " slightly pointed semicircular arch," runs off to the south- 
cast and passes close to the angle of the Haram Wall, where it leaves 
the rock and is replaced by a smaller channel of masonry, 3 feet wide, 
which falls rapidly towards the bed of the ravine. After about 40 feet 
the channel turns suddenly to the south, and is continued as " a modern- 
looking drain " for a further distance of 59 feet, when it becomes silted up. 
North of the voussoirs the channel, 3 feet 9 inches A\ide, and covered with 
a " skew pointed arch,"* runs slightly away from the Haram Wall, and 
at 22 feet from the north end of the pier of Robinson's Aich, opens into 
a circular rock-hewn cistern, 12 feet 9 inches in diameter, and 14 feet 
high, which has its floor 3 feet below that of the channel. The roof is 
of rock, and is pierced by a man- hole leading down from the pavement. f 
This cistern is connected by a channel cut out of the rock, 4 feet wide 
and 14 feet long, with a similar one to the north-east, " of which only 
half is to be seen, as it is cut through by the foundations " of the Harani 
Wall. The channel now tuins to the Avcst, but almost immediately 
bending to the north again, it connects with a masonry passage,f 3 feet 
wide, 8 feet high, and covered by a semicircular arch, Avhich extends 
northwards for 123 feet to a point nearly opposite Barclay's Gate, and 

* The arch is made up of five stones ; the chord to the cast is ahout 22 inches, 
to the TV est 33 inches. 

t North of the cistern, and partially overlying it, are two rock-liewn I'cctan- 
galar chambers, 16 feet long, 6 feet wide, and covered by semicircular arches ; 
in one there is a flight of steps cut in the rock, and here was found the base of a 
column, figured on page 107 " Eccovery of Jerusalem. " 

I In Captain Warren's drawings several man-holes are shown to lead upwards, 
from thi.s passage to the pavement, but they are not mentioned in the text. 



THE MASOXRY OF THE HAEAM WALL. 13 

al)Out 14 feet from the Haram Wall. Here the passage is replaced by a 

narrow channel, 18 inches "wide and roofed with flat stones, which runs 

off from the Haram Wall, and at a distance of 160 feet is cut in two by 

the wall of a house. 

Lamps, weights, jars, an iron bar, and a stone roller, similar to those 

still used in some parts of the country for rolling the flat roofs of houses, 

were found in the channel, but none of these give any indication of its 

age. 

„ ^ T- 77 The section of rock exposed by the excavations 

Form of fauey. . ,-, ^ ■, ■ . » i j ^ . ,, . 

beneath liobmson s Arch does not represent the true 

bed of the ravine, which lies more to the east, beneath the Haram 

Wall and at a much lower level, from 25 feet to 30 feet. The 

direction of the wall is not parallel to the course of the ravine, 

but crosses it at some point unknown, possibly near Barclay's Gate, 

where the level of the rock is 4 feet 6 inches lower than beneath 

Robinson's Arch ; this may explain the absence of stones with rough 

faces north of Barclay's Gate, as the wall being then on the left 

bank of the ravine, they Avonld be fully exposed to view. The rock 

appears to have been ciit away below the east face of the pier, but the 

level surface at the bottom is probably natural, the top of one of the 

limestone strata in which the channel has been cut. 

^ , ,. . The following remarks are offered as a possible 

Deductions from , ,. <; i . /• j • .■>• t i-, 

j^. _. explanation ot what was found in this locality. At 

a very early period the channel, with its circular 

cisterns, Avhich acted as so many collectors to store surplus water, 

was cut in the rock; the numerous man-holes show conclusively 

that the channel, which follows the right bank of the ravine, and at 

Robinson's Arch is 20 feet to 25 feet above its bed, carried sweet water, 

but the source of supply is unkno^^^l ; it was possibly within the city, 

higher up the ravine.* At a much later period a covering arch 

-was thro^vn over those parts of the channel left open to the air, and 

•about the same time a viaduct was carried across the ravine at a low 

level, about that of the foot of the pier of Robinson's Arch, to facilitate 

communication between the low ground on the right bank and the 

eastern hill, up which there must have been a steep ascent. On Herod's 

reconstruction of the Temple the existing Haram Wall and Robinson's 

Arch were buUt, the hollows filled up -with rubbish, and the pavement 

aid down on a level -with the toj) of the highest course of stones with 

rough faces, which is also that of the rock beneath the jiier. Before 

building the wall it would be necessary to remove the low-level viaduct 

and in doing this two of the stones may have slipped and fallen on the 

covering arch of the channel. Captain Warren supposesf that rubbish 

* The conduit may perhaps be connected with the great works of Hezekiah 
when he "stopped the upper watercourse of Gihon and brought it straight down 
to the west side of the City of DaviJ " (-2 Chron. xxxii. 30). 

t " Recovery of JerusaleiP," p. 110. 



14 THE MASONRY OV THE IIARAM WALX,. 

had accumulated to the height of the pavement, 20 feet 6 inches, before 
the Haram "Wall was built by Herod, but this view necessitates the fall 
of the lower arch at a very remote date, then the accumulation of rubbish 
not only immediately below Eobinson's Arch, but right across the bed 
of the ravine, where it would be 40 feet to 45 feet deep, and lastly, if 
the Haram Wall be not a mere shell, the removal of most of this rubbish 
when the solid substructure of the Temple was built. It seems u^ore 
probable that Herod's architect, who conceived the bold idea of carrying 
the massive masonry across the ravine, intended, as part of his scheme, 
to fill up void spaces on the right bank, and finish off with a pavement.* 
If the approach to Barclay's Gate were by a ramp, as there seems some 
reason to believe, this ramp would form a natural termination for the 
stones with rough faces and the pavement on the north. The arrange- 
ment to the south is not quite so clear ; the pavement went round the 
south-west angle, and at the side of the south wall it was 56 feet above 
the bed of the ravine, but whether the rubbish it covered was allowed to 
stand at its natm-al slope or was neatly finished off with a retaining wall 
is uncertain. Captain Warren's view that the non-existence of stones 
■vvith rough faces north of Barclay's Gate points to two different periods 
of construction is hardly supported by the appearance of the masonry at 
a slightly higher level, Avhich, as far as is yet known, is of exactly the 
same character from the south-west angle to Wilson's Arch. The fact 
that the voussoirs of Robinson's Arch lie directly on the pavement seems 
to show that the arch was destroyed during or immediately after the 
siege and capture of the City by Titus, and the rubbish probably began 
to accumulate at the same time. There is little to indicate the level of 
the rubbish at different periods, but it has been suggestedf that during 
the Frank kingdom the level was that of the sill of Barclay's Gate. 

The ground between the eastern and western hills 

^''^Vaiu'''''' ^^""^ examined by a series of shafts sunk on a Une 
'^^' drawn perpendicular to the Haram Wall from the 

centre of Robinson's Arch, and the following is a brief summary J of the 
results : — 

Bhaft I., 72 feet from the wall, was used for the examination of the 
fallen voussoirs of Eobinson's Arch, a gallery being driven to the west 
at about 8 feet above the rock. 

Shaft II., 82 feet from the wall. At a depth of 2 feet a small arch 
was found with sandstone debris beneath it ; at 14 feet a passage or 
drain, and at 24 feet 6 inches the shaft was abandoned. 

* Josephus appears to allude to such a filling in when he says (B. J. v. r>. 1) 
that "they brought earth and filled up the valleys, as being desirous to make 
them on a level with the narrow streets of the city." The pavement may pos- 
sibly be the work of Agi-ippa (see Josejihus, Antiq. xx. 9. 7). 

t "Ilecovery of .Jerusalem," p. 110, 111. 

J For fuller details .see "Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 95, 99, and Captain 
Warren's Letters in tlie Quarterly Statements of the Palestine Exploration^Fund. 



THE Mj^SONRY ok THE IIARAJI AVALL. 15 

Shaft III., 92 foet from wall and 10 feet north of the general line of 
shafts ; rock 40 feet 6 inches from the surface ; passed through sand- 
stone debris, and at 9 feet reached the mouth of a shaft 8 foet deep, 
opening into a vaulted cistern, 18 feet by 11 feet 6 inches, of modern 
construction. On breaking through the western side of the cistern the 
rock was found to be scarped for some feet north and south, and this 
may perhaps have been the position of the second pier of the viaduct, 
though no drafted stones or fallen voussoirs were found. From this 
cistern a staircase gallery was driven along the face of the rock to the 
pier of Eobinson's Arch, the last 16 feet being in a curious cutting in 
the rock. 

Shaft IV. y 132 feet from waU ; rock oO feet from surface.* At 13 feet 
6 inches the walls of a plastered chamber, which rest, at 21 feet 6 inches 
on a wall running north and south, and this again rests, at 26 feet 
10 inches, on a wall 15 feet thick, which runs east and west. The 
masonry of the last wall, though very ancient, has nothing in keepino- 
with the Haram Wall. The rock beneath is scarped for four feet and 
then cut away as if for steps, possibly to receive the foundation stones 
of another pier. 

Shaft v., 182 feet from wall; rock 22 feet from surface. At 12 feet 
the debris of a stone building, perhaps a continuation of that found in 
Shafts 6 and 7 ; at 22 feet the mouth of a rock-hewn cistern, 10 feet 
square, with a flat ceiling. 

Shaft VI., 216 feet from wall; rock 32 feet from surface. At 12 feet 
the stones of a fallen arch, at 18 feet a limestone pavement, and beneath 
it debris of cut stone and the remains of a wall of well-dressed stone 
running north and south. 

Shaft VII., 250 feet from wall; rock 18 feet from surface. At no 
great depth piers 3 feet by 4 feetf were found, built of " Avell-dressed 
ashlar of soft sandstone," and restuig on the rock. ^^The piers are 12 feet 
6 inches apart, and supported arches, now fallen, and their height is 
about 12 feet from the floor to the springing. The ground to the north 
was not examined, but other piers were found to the east, as shown in 
the Section 3. The flooring is of well-dressed limestone flaggino-, and 
was found to be much disturbed. In one of the piers is aVsumlTdoor 
leading to a cylindrical rock-hcAvn cistern. 

Shaft VIII., 285 feet from wall; rock 21 feot;6 inches from surface. 
The rubbish is described as being "common garden soil;" the shaft 
bared the slab covering the main drain of the city, which is 6 feet hio-h 
3 feet wide, and cut out of the rock. The dram runs"out by the Dmig 

* There are certain discrepancies between the rock levels in the "Recovery of 
Jerusalem " and the Lithographs and Letters published by the Palestine Exi-loia- 
tion Fund. That given in Capt. Warren's Progress Report, No. Y., September 
12th, 1867, has been adopted above and in the section. 

t Letter I., August 22nd, 1867, to Palestine Exploration Fund. The "Kecoverv 
of Jerusalem " gives 2 feet bv 3 feet. 



16 THE MASONRY OF TUE HARAM WALL. 

Gate,* wliere it is uncovered, and is probably that by wliicb the fella hi n 
entered the city during its occupation by the Egyptians under Ibrahim 
Pacha. 

The rock features as disclosed by the excavations 
EemarJcs on ^^^ shown on the Section 3. They present the ap- 

*" . -^ pearance of gently shelving ground from the foot of 

Excavations. f, vxi? \^■ui.^^£i^\ i. t ' 

the cliff on which the houses oi the j)resent Jews 

quarter are built to the pier of Eobinson's Arch. There are, however, 
two marked depressions, but how far these are natural or artificial is 
uncertain, the rock surface being much cut away in places. The sand- 
stone piers, built of material which must have been brought from the 
Jordan Valley,t are rather puzzling. Captain Warren \ thinks that they 
formed part of the Xystus, but against this view may be urged the 
o-reat height of the piers, 12 feet, and the traces of piers found, ap- 
parently, in Shafts II., III., and V., resting on from 10 feet to 30 feet 
of rubbish, and directly in the line of approach to Eobinson's Arch. It 
is not known whether there are any piers to the north of the line of 
shafts, and untU this question is settled it Avould perhaps be safer to 
look upon the remains as those of a bazaar or other building erected 
duriiio" the period of the Frank kingdom. The excavations unfortu- 
nately throw no light on the character of the roadv.-ay over Eobinson's 
Arch. The brow of the cliff beneath the Jews' quarter being 26 feet 
higher than the level of the Haram, it is quite certain that there was 
never a continuous viaduct across the valley ; but a broad flight of steps, 
carried on arches, from the valley would form a grand approach to the 
Eoyal Cloisters which ran along the south wall, and be a very probable 
arrangement. This may possibly be the fourth gate of Josephus which 
" led to the other city, where the road descended do\n\ into the valley 
by a great number of steps, and thence up again by the ascent." § 
When it is remembered that the great pier of Eobinson's Arch has only 

* The sewage, after passing the Dung Gate, is now used for manuring tlie 
«ardens. Captain Warren supposes (" Itecovery of Jerusalem, " p. 95) that the 
sewer runs on "until it opens out on the side of the liill above the Kedron, 
only a few feet south of the Fountain of the Virgin ; " but if tliis is the case 
now it could not have been so formerly, as the great central ravine intervenes. 
There seems every reason to believe that this was the main drain of that portion 
of the ancient city situate on tlie western hill, and its natural course would be to 
follow the rif'ht bank of the ravine to the bed of the valley, where the sewage 
was probably utilised in the king's gardens. The drain which opens out near 
the Fountain of the Virgin was possibly the main sewer of the eastern hill. 
Unfortunately there is no i)lan of it. 

t The Jericho of Herod appears to have been built of this soft, friable sand- 
stone and it was also extensively used by the Crusaders in certain places. The 
oM (juarries in the Jordan Valley may still be seen. 

I " Underground Jcnisalem," p. 70. 

§ Antiq. xv. 31. 5. 



■• e •> ' 1 1, > 



( , < '1 * a I £ 



PAPClAVb GATE. MOSQUE CF AL BURAK. 
AND CISTERN 19. 



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StanArdlt Otog'r EstaK LonJcnu 



THE MASOXllY OF THE IIARAM "WALL. 17 

two complete courses left, the disappearance of the remaming piers, 
which stood on higher ground, need not create surprise.* 

The great lintel covering the closed entrance to 

Barclay's Gate. ^^^ Haram, commonly known as " Barclay's Gate," f 
is visible in a small courtyard immediately south of the Wailing 
Place, and in one of the chambers which support the ramp leading 
to the Bab al Maghatibe. The entire lintel cannot be seen, but 
it is 6 feet 10 inches high, and its measured length is 20 feet 
1 inch. The total length must be about 24 feet 8 inches. The 
entrance is closed with coarse rubble, and above the lintel the Haram 
Wall is built with small stones plain dressed. Adjoining the lintel on 
the north there are four courses of large stones with marginal drafts, 
and at the WaUiiig Place two additional courses X can be seen. Above the 
latter there are four courses of stones with plain dressed faces, and then 
the wall is finished off with small stones plain dressed. There are 
several holes in the wall, which seem to indicate the existence, at some 
period, of a row of vaulted chambers similar to those south of the Pool 
al Burak. 

The Wailing Place has always been considered 

Wailing Place. ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ original retaining wall of the Temple 

enclosure, but the carelessness of the building and the frequent 
occurrence of coarse open joints makes it almost certain that the 
stones are not really in situ, and that this section of the wall is 
a reconstruction with old material. Many of the blocks are much 
worn by the weather owing to their softness or to their not having 
been set on their quarry beds. The material, too, is of very un- 
equal quality; some is from the best missce beds, as that used in the 
second course from the bottom, which is admirably finished and well 
preserved, but above and below this course there are many stones from 
the soft malaJii beds and from the upper missce, which contains a 
number of small nodules and disintegrates rapidly. The photograph, 
'Detail of Masonry at Wailing Place," shows the different kinds of 
stone used and some of the blocks set on edge. 

* The following are the principal levels : — 

Brow of cliff under Jews' quarter ... ... about 2, 446 feet 

General level of Haram area ... ... ... ,, 2,420 ,, 

Spring of Robinson's Arch ... ... ... ,, 2,387'5 ,, 

Level of ground at Robinson's Arch ... ,, [2,.386'5 ,, 

Level of rock at Robinson's Arch ... ,, 2,325"0 ,, 

t From its discoverer, Dr. Barclay, an American missionarj'. 
I The chiselled drafts are here from two to four inches broad and one quarter 
to three-eigliths of an inch deep, and the faces of the stones are all finely 
worked. The Wailing Place is so well known that it has been found con- 
venient to adopt its highly-finished masonry as a^tmdard of comxiarison for 
ther sections of the Haram Wall. 



18 THE MASONRY OF THE HAEAM WAXL. 

The wall beneath the present euiface of the- 
Masonry below, ^^^^^^ ^^^^ examined by a shaft which was sunk 

^^^G'^"^n<f ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^°^^^ °^ *^^ ^^™^ °* Barclay's Gate. The 
bottom of the lintel proved to be 78 feet 6 inches above 
the rock, and this height is made up of twenty-two courses of stone, from 
3 feet 3 inches to 3 feet 11 inches high. The bottom course is let into 
the rock, and each course is set back about half an inch as the wall rises. 
The stones are similar to, but in a much better state of preservation 
than, those of the Wailing Place, and with one exception the upper 
drafts are slightly broader than the lower. The sill of the gate is about 
28 feet 9 inches below the bottom of the lintel. The exact height could 
not be ascertained, as the sill course was broken. 

For about 23 feet the shaft passed through "hard 
TheFMhUsh. ^^^^-^ mixed with large stones," and about nine 
inches below the sill course of the gate came upon the flat roof of 
the same drain which was met with above the pavement at Eobin- 
son's Arch : 2 feet 4 inches wide, and 5 feet G inches high. Below 
the drain 'i,there is a wall of heavy masonry, faced with well-dressed 
stones without drafts, which is perpendicular to, and abuts on, the 
Haram Wall. A gallery driven through the wall showed that it 
was a retaining wall six feet thick, apparently built of squared 
stones throughout, but with no southern face. The wall is not con- 
tinued downwards to the rock, but rests on seven feet of rubbish. For 
the last thirty feet the shaft was sunk through " hard earth and broken 
cut stories, many of them 1 foot 6 inches by 3 inches by 2 inches," and 
the rock at the bottom, cut horizontally, appears to fall to the west.* 

It is just at this point that the position of the 
ppioati ^^^ ^£ ^-^Q ravine becomes of some interest, but 

unfortunately the excavations do not throw much 
light on the subject, and it is uncertain whether the ^^bed is to 
the east or to the west of the Haram Wall. The latter, however, seems 
most probable. The original approach to Barclay's Gate would appear 
to have been by a solid ramp across tlie ravine, but the information is 
not full enough to render this certain. 

_ The entire gate or entrance cannot bo seen, but 

it was evidently about 18 feet 10 inches wide, and 
28 feet 9 inches high, the sill being about 49 feet 9 inches above 
the rock. Immediately behind the closed entrance is the Mosque 
of Burak, which is reached by a fliglit of steps leading down to it 
from the western cloisters of the Haram area. This mosque marks 
the line of the passage which gave access to the Temple j^latfonn, and 
part of the original covering arch can be seen. The western'; portion 
of the chamber is covered by a solid segmental arch, ofjfine workman- 
ship, with a simple moulding on its eastern face; the eastern jjortion by 
an elliptical arch built witli smaller stones, but of greater height and 

* This is stilted iu a note on one of Ciiptain Warren's original drawings. 



THE MASONKY OF THE HARAM WALL. 19 

span than the segmental one. The inner face of the lintel is almost con- 
cealed by a flat arch, apparently intended to take off the unpleasant effect 
which a massive stone would have on the eye at the end of a vaulted 
passage. The steps leading to the Haram area are comparatively 
modem, and a portion of the segmental arch has been cut away to form 
the upper ones. In the mosque is shown the ring to which Muhammed 
is said to have fastened his steed, Al Burak, on the occasion of bis famous 
night journey. The entrance is called by some writers the " Gate of 
Muhammed," but this name was not known to the Sheikh of the Haram. 

At the end of the mosque there is a space of about 1 1 feet filled in solidly 
with rubbish, and then the original passage is again found in Cistern 
No. 19, east of the Bab al Magharibe. The passage runs east, in con- 
tinuation of the line of the Mosque of Burak, to a sort of vestibule, and 
then turns south at right-angles to its former course, and parallel to the 
Haram Wall. The passages are covered by segmental arches of similar 
construction to that noticed in the mosque, and with the saule sort of 
moulding on their faces ; the vestibule has a well-built domed roof, in 
the centre of which is a cu'cular opening, originally intended to admit 
light, but now forming part of the shaft of the cistcj-n ; in the north 
wall of the vestibule there is a recess, which may possibly be the closed 
entrance to a passage. The stones of the dome and of the segmental 
arches are finely dressed and set without mortar. The springing line of 
the arches covering that portion of the passage running east and west is 
horizontal, but that of the arch covering the portion running north and 
south rises to the south at about 1 in 20. The sides of the cistern are 
thickly coated with cement, and the rubbish at the bottom has been 
levelled in steps or benches and then covered mth cement. 

A little to the south of the southern branch of the passage is Cistern 
No. 20, 40 feet wide, and 54 feet long, -with a vaulted roof supported by 
piers. The Avails are so thickly coated with cement that the character 
of the masonry cannot be seen ; the jjiers and the greater portion of the 
vaulting are comparatively modern, but along the western side are the 
remains of an old coveiing arch of no great span. The west wall of the 
cistern is parallel to the Haram Wall, and in prolongation of the west 
wall of the passage, so that it evidently formed part of the approach to 
the Temple platform.* 

* In 1864-5 the depth of water in these cisterns was so great that I was 
unalile to visit them, but on my return to the city in 1866, being much im- 
pressed with the importance of examining the south-west corner of the Haram, I 
determined to descend both. At that time there were two feet of water in the 
cisterns, and the entrances being rather difficult, I could not induce any one to 
accompany me and assist in making the measurements. The horizontal measure- 
ments and the bearings of the several sections of the passage are sufficiently 
accurate, but the vertical distances were estimated, and are therefore liable to 
correction. 



20 THE MASONKY OF THE HARAM "WALL. 

It would seem that originally the passage from 
Original Form Barclay's Gate, nearly 19 feet wide, ran in on a level 
for about 67 feet, when it entered a vestibule about 
19 feet square; and that from the south side of this vestibule another 
passage of the same width, and rising at a slope of about 1 in 20, led off 
to the south at right-angles to the former one. It is uncertain whether 
the ascent to the south was by a ramp or by steps, and there is nothing 
to show how the passage was finished off. The latter may have continued 
in a straight line, and terminated in a well with a flight of steps, which 
would in this case have reached the surface near the Eoyal Cloisters, or 
it may have run into a large vaulted chamber whence there was an ascent 
eastward, by a flight of steps, to the Temple Court.* 

A few words on the peculiar form of the passage will not be out of 
place here. It is obvious that the architect must have had some reason 
for changing the direction to the south, as the most natural arrangement 
would have been a straight passage rising by a gentle slope to the level 
(jf the area, similar to that which runs up from the Double Gate in the 
south wall. The most probable cause of the change of direction would 
seem to be the presence on the east of the thick bed of maldld, in which 
the cisterns of the Haram are excavated. This stratum lies at about the 
level of the passage, and would form, as it does elsewhere, a steep escarp- 
ment of rock. It is also possible that the change was due to the exist- 
once of the original retaining waU of Solomon's Temple, which it 
was not thought necessary to remove when the area was enlarged by 
Herod. 

In a small garden + immediately north of the Wail- 
Vaults north of .^^ p^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^j^ ^j masonry as that described 

' on p. 18 is found, and it can be traced, at inter- 
vals, in the vaults beneath the Mahkama, or Court House, to the 
edge of the Pool "Al Burak," which extends northwards along 
the Haram Wall for a distance of about ninety feet. These vaults 
are reached from the garden by an arched opening in the south wall of 
the Mahkama. They have pointed ragwork arches, and the seats of the 
groins have, where necessary, been cut out of the Haram Wall. From 

* The following are the levels of the principal points : — 

General level of Haram area 

B-ittom of lintel 

Level of present surface of ground 

Floor of passage (top of sill course) 

Top of retaining wall .. . 

r>ottom of retaining wall 

Level of rock 

t Fro'.ii this ganlen there is a good view of tlie south wall of the Mahkama, which 
is faced with drafted stones, and abuts on the Ilaram Wall with a straight joint. 
The ma-sonry is interesting from its fine character and the illustration which it 
aUbrds of the better class of medieval work. 





2,420 feet. 




2,398-5 






2,393-0 




(nbout) 


2,369-7 






2,362-0 






2,327-6 






2,320-0 





THE MASOMHY OF THE HARAM WALL. 21 

the second chamber a low doorway leads off to a series of vaults to the 

west, and a narrow opening in the 'north wall gives 

PoolAlBurak. ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ p^^j « ^^ Burak." The southern end 

of this pool is covered by a segmental arch of good masonry, 
on which the north wall of the Mahkama rests. The east skew- 
back is cut out of the Haram Wall, and on the haunches of the 
north side of the arch are corbels, which may have supported a con- 
tinuation of the "secret passage" described below (p. 24). Beyond 
is a trimmer arch, of inferior masonry, and then Wilson's Arch, 
which is semicircular, and has a span of 42 feet and a width of 43 
feet. The remaining portion of the pool is covered by an arch of 
smaller span, which is apparently slightly pointed. The masonry in 
the latter case is inferior ragwork, and the east side of the arch rests 
on an abutment of rubble masonry five feet thick, which entirely 
conceals the large stones of the Haram Wall. At the north end of the 
pool a flight of steps leads up to a door closed with loose masonry, 
which was broken through in 1865 in an unsuccessful attempt to reach 
and examine the Haram Wall to the north. On passing through the 
doorway the workmen came upon a wall of solid, well-set masonry of 
comparatively modem date, into which they penetrated twelve inches. 
The noise made during the excavation had, however, alarmed the family 
of a Moslem effendi living in a house opposite the Mahkama, and as this 
gentleman stated that the workmen were breaking into the cistern 
which supplied his house with water, the work was stopped and the 
hole closed up. 

A considerable porfon of the Haram Wall is ex- 
Masonryfrom ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^f the pool Al Burak, 

tJieWaihno ^^^ beneath the floor it was examined by a shaft sunk 
Wilso"^sArch immediately under the south end of Wilson's Arch. 
There are twenty-one courses of drafted stones, from 



2 feet 10 inches to 4 feet 1 inch high, which give the crown of the arch a 
height of 72 feet 9 inches above the rock, or of 75 feet 6 inches above the 
bed of the first course, which is let 2 feet 9 inches into the rock, and 
rests on hard missie. The second course is set back six inches, and 
the others from 1 inch to 2J inches. The fourteenth course has been 
cut away to a depth of 1 foot 6 inches, possibly to receive the skewback 
of an arch. 

The face of the Haram Wall, where concealed by rubbish, between the 
Wailing Place and Wilson's Arch, was partially examined by a gallery 
driven to the south, from the shaft mentioned above, at a height of 
27 feet above the rock, and by a shaft sunk to a depth of 1 7 feet at a 
point 18 feet south of the southern end of the Pool. In neither gallery 
nor shaft was any trace found of a break in the continuity of the wall, 
and it may be inferred that no such opening as that at Barclay's Gate- 
way exists in this section of the wall. 

The wall exposed in these excavations is evidently in situ, and the 
stones are " similar to, but in a much better state of preservation than> 



THE MASONKY OT THE HAEAM WALL. 

those in the Wailing Place." Captain Warren thinks it "is probably 
one of the oldest portions of the sanctuary now existing." * 

Wilson's Arch lies immediately in front of the 

Wilson's Arch. ^^^^^ ^^^ Salam and as SilsUe, and the roadway pass- 
ing over it is about 80 feet 6 inches above the rock. To the south 
is the Mahkama, a large building about 90 feet from north to south 
and 80 feet from east to west, separated from Wilson's Arch by the 
trimmer arch mentioned above (p. 21). The great arch, 42 feet span, 
is made up of twenty- three courses of stones of equal thickness, 
which cause an almost painful appearance of regularity. The stones, 
from 7 feet to 12 feet in length, are not as large as those in Robin- 
son's Arch, but from their perfect state of preservation they form 
one of the most remarkable remains in Jerusalem. t Here, as at 
Eobinson's Arch, the stones of the first three courses form part of the 
Haram Wall, and must be ascribed to the same date as the section of 
wall extending southwards to the Wailing Place. Captain Warren 
believes from the shape of the voussoirs that the arch is of a date "not 
earlier than the fifth or sixth century," but the form of the voussoirs 
alone seems hardly sufficient to determine the date. J 

The western pier was examined by a shaft 7 feet from the south end 
of the arch, and was found to consist of two walls, 10 feet and 4 feet 
thick, of different kinds of masonry, separated from each other by a 
space of G iaches, so that the total thickness of the pier at this point is 
14 feet 6 inches. It would appear that the pier is 4 feet wider at the 
northern end, but the exact amount of divergency is not certain, nor 
whether it occurs in the 10 feet or 4 feet wall. The former is built of 
dressed stone, the latter of rubble. The east face of the pier for 25 feet 
below the springing of the arch is built of large stones with plain 

* Captain Warren thinks the Greek or Roman foot was used in building 
the Haram Wall, "as the stones generally are in measure multiples of our 
English foot nearl\-." — Letter XVII., Kovember 22, 1867, Quarterly Statement, 
Palestine Exploration Fund. 

+ At some distance from the ground on each side is a i"ow of square holes left 
opaa when tlic centering was removed, and there is a hole in one of the voussoirs 
through which water was formerly drawn. 

i The Pool of al Barak was discovered by Dr. Toblcr, but he does not appear 
to have descended into the pool on the occasion of his first visit, or to have 
noticed the great causewaj arch. The existence of the pool was sufficient 
evidence that there must be a covering arch, and one is shown by De Vogiie 
("Temple de Jerusalem," PI. I.), but the character of the arch and its im- 
portance were, I believe, unknown until my visit in 1864. 

The arch is twice mentioned in "La Citez de Iherusalem '' : in oh. ii., ''A 
main senestre sor le pont a un mostier de Saint Gille," and again in ch. xvi., " La 
rue a main senestre si va droit a une posternc, c'on apelc la posterne de la tanerie, 
e va droit par desos le pont" (Descriptiones Terrse Sanctaj ex Siscculo viii., 
ix., xii. et xv., by Titus Tobler). The last passage sliow.s that the street 
from the Damascus Gate to the Dung Gate at that time passed under the arch. 



THE MASONRY 01' THE IIARAM WALL. 



23 



•chiselled faces similar to those above the drafted stones in the "Wailing 

Place, and thence to the rock, a depth of 19 feet 3 inches, of large rough 

boulders in courses, the stones projecting here and there in such a 

manner as to lead to the belief that they were not intended to be seen 

above srround. There are seven courses of dressed stone from 3 feet to 

4 feet 2 inches in height, and in the three lowest there is a recess, 6 feet 

•wide, 9 feet 5 inches high, and 5 feet deep, somewhat similar to those in 

Eobmson's Arch. Some grooves cut in the stone would seem to indicate 

the existence, at one period, of a gate. A partial examination of the 

west face of the pier was made in the causeway vaults, where it was 

found to be of common rubble masonry, and to have a recess 5 feet 

'6 inches wide and 2 feet 9 inches deep above and a little to the north of 

the recess in the eastern face. The excavations were unfortunately not 

•carried far enough to determine the nature of that portion of the pier 

faced with rough boulders. It may be a solid mass of masonry 14 feet 

"6 inches thick, or be formed by two walls together making up that 

thickness, and it is uncertain whether the boulders are set in mortar or 

not. It is also possible that part of the pier, towards the north, may be 

buUt of dressed stone from the rock upwards.* 

mi T> II.- 7 The floor of the pool beneath the arch consists of 

The Euhbish. ,,p .^r-j^--. .i_-ij; ■> t 

a bed of concrete 3 feet 6 mches thick, tormea oi 

stones about 3 inches cube, set in a hard, dark cement made up 

with tow; below this there is black sod to a depth of 17 feet, and 

then a stratum large of stones, about 8 feet thick, " apparently 

the voussoirs and drafted stones of a fallen arch and wall," which 

dips eastward, at a slope of 1 in 14, from the pier to the Haram 

Wall. The drafted stones are said to be similar to those in the wall. 

The large stones rest upon black sod, which extends down to a thin bed 

of red mud and rough stones overljdng the rock. At a distance of 23 feet 

from the south end of Wilson's Arch, and 27 feet above the rock, a wall 

of well-dressed stones, lying east and west, abuts on the Haram Wall, 

and immediately south of this is a fragment of pavement extending to a 

wall nearly under the south wall of the pool '• Al-Burak," a distance of 

11 feet. The peculiar angle at v>^hich the fallen arch stones lie seems to 

indicate that at the time thoy fell the gromid was rough and unlevelled, 

but no data exist for comparing them with the voussoirs of Eobinson's 

Arch or with the stones in the Haram Wall. The fragment of pavement 

may have been a continuation of that seen at Barclay's Gateway, but if 

so its entire disappearance towards the north is remarkable. 

T^ 77 T> 7 The rock mider the western pier is 7 feet 6 inches 

Valley Jocd 4_. 

higher than under the Haram Wall, and the lowest 

point of the valley appears to be about 6 feet west of the latter. 

During the excavations the presence of water at the bottom of 

the shafts caused considerable inconvenience, and periodical obser- 

* The pier may perhaps be merely the end of the masonry of the old first 
waU. 



24 THE MASONRY OF THE HARAM T^ALL. 

vations, extending over two years, showed tliat there was always 
a gentle flow of water southwards down the valley, sometimes 
rising "3 feet or 4 feet above the rock" and then again subsiding. 
The water has the pecuUar sewage flavour of Siloam, and the soil for 
8 feet or 10 feet above the rock " is full of limestone crystals." 

The vaults alluded to above (p. 23) as lying to the west 
"^ "of those which lead to Wilson's Arch form part of the 

substructure of the Mahkama ; they are arranged in two rows of three 
each, and their sides are nearly parallel to the Haram Wall ; the arches 
are pointed, and on some of the stones in the wall modern Hebrew 
characters have been scratched. In January, 1868, Captain Warren 
broke through a closed opening in the second chamber of the northern 
row and made his important discovery of the Causeway Vaults, with 
semicircular and segmental arches, which form a continuation of 
Wilson's Arch. 

The complicated nature of these vaults renders any accurate descrip- 
tion of them somewhat difficult. There would appear to be two viaducts, 
making up a total width of 44 feet 6 inches, rather more than that 
of Wilson's Arch, 43 feet, but the continuity of the southern viaduct is 
almost immediately broken by a remarkable chamber, called by Captain 
Warren the " Masonic Hall," and west of this it is replaced by a long 
vaulted passage, the so-called " Secret Passage," and a series of small 
vaults with thick piers. The first chamber of the northern viaduct 
measures 21 feet from north to south, and 13 feet from east to west; the 
covering arch is semicircular, but it is not certain whether it springs 
from the 4-foot or 10-foot wall of the pier of Wilson's Arch. The next 
two chambers have been filled up with small passages having pointed 
arches, which were apparently connected with some system of water- 
supply, as draw-well openings were noticed overhead, and the buckets 
used have left marks on the sides. Traces of the original arches can, 
however, be seen above the later work. Beneath these three chambers 
are others of a similar character at a lower level, and in the first are two 
aqueducts which lead down through the floor to an aqueduct running 
north and south. The remaining chambers of the northern viaduct, five 
in number, measure each about 18 feet from north to south, and 14 feet 
fiom east to west, and they have piers of an average thickness of 
7 feet 6 inches. The general direction of this viaduct is considerably 
removed from that of a line perpendicular to the Haram Wall, and bears 
away to the south. A somewhat similar series of vaults is said to lie to 
the north, but no examination of them has yet been made. The first 
chamber of the southern viaduct measures 23 feet 6 inches from north to 
south, and 22 feet from east to west, and immediately south of it is a 
continuation of the trimmer arch, observed above the pool Al-Burak, 
which covers the void betwwen the north wall of the Mahkama and the 
Causeway. Beneath the chamber is another of similar character, in 
which is the recess mentioned as being in the west face of the pier of 
Wilson's Arch. Separated from this lower chamber by a pier 12 feet 



THE MASONKY OF THE HAEAM WALL. 25 

thick, though not quite on the same level, is the " Masonic Hall," which is 
entered by a sloping passage from the third vault of the northern 
viaduct. The "Hull," at one time used as a cistern, was originally 
23 feet from east to west, and 20 feet 4 inches from north to south, but 
10 feet 4 inches has been added on the south, making a total length of 
30 feet 8 inches. The south wall of the original structui-e is broken 
away, but the remaining walls are 4 feet thick, and apparently built 
without mortar. On the exterior of the building the stones have mar- 
ginal drafts, and are similar to those in the Wailing Place, whilst in the 
interior the faces of the stones are plain dressed, and at each comer 
there are pilasters projecting about 2 inches. These pilasters have capitals, 
which are said to be verj^ similar to one found at Arak el Emir by Mons. 
de Saulcy, i.nd a sketch of one of them is given in the " Eecovery of 
Jerusalem," p. 89. At the south-east angle is a double entrance, with 
lintels, on which, as well as upon the jambs, there are traces of 
ornament. The covering arch of the chamber is semicii'cvilar, but not 
so old as the walls. The later portion, on the south, 10 feet 4 inches, 
corresponds to the space occupied by the trimmer arch on the east and 
the secret passage on the west ; it is covered by a later arch than that 
to the north, '' and to conceal this a column was raised in the centre 
under the break, and two pointed arches thrown over from the column 
to the sides, the span of each being about 10 feet." The column has 
since partly fallen, and much of the ribbed arch. Beyond the east wall a 
lot of rough masonry was fiiund, and a shaft sunk in the centre of the 
chamber, after reaching the original paved floor, 15 feet 6 inches below 
the present level of the rubbish, passed through solid masonry of large 
rough stones to a further depth of 11 feet 6 inches without reaching the 
rock. 

West of the " Masonic Hall " the southern viaduct is continued by a row 
of small chambers 14 feet G inches from north to south, and 1 1 feet from east 
to west, with piers about 12 feet thick, the arches oj)enuig on one side 
into the northern viaduct and on the other into the " Secret Passage." 
Beneath the first two chambers there is a vault at a lower level, lying 
east and west, in which there is a shaft running down 14 feet, and then 
an aqueduct leading towards the south-west angle of the pier of 
Wilson's Arch. The " Secret Passage" which makes up, with the small 
chambers, the width of the southern viaduct is 12 feet -wide, and covered 
with a semicircular arch, the crown of which is about 7 feet below the 
level of the street above. At a distance of 205 feet* from the Haram 
Wall there is a thin wall, and beyond it a drop of 6 feet into a con- 
tinuation of the passage, which is terminated by a wall on the west. An 
opening, with a door to the south, leads into a vaidt now used as a 

* Captain "Warren gives this distance as 220 feet in the "Recovery of Jerusalem," 
and as 230 feet in Letter XXIV. to the Palestine Exploration Fund ; it should pro- 
bably have been to the wall west of the drop, which is 221 feet from the Haram 
Wall. The distances given above are partly from measurement on the plan audi 
partly from data supplied by Captain Warren. 



26 THE MASONRY OF THE HARAM WALL. 

donkey stable. A portion of the same passage was found in a cistern 
about 235 feet from the Haram Wall, its western end being 253 feet 
from tbe same point. From the cistern there is an opening to a vault 
south of the causeway and a little east of the prolongation of the street 
el Wad. The floor of this vault is on a level with the springing of the 
arch of the "Secret Passage," and from it a narrow shaft, 25 feet 
G inches deep, runs do^^^l to the cro^vn of an arch covering a chamber 
Ipng east and west and 4 feet to the south of the " Secret Passage ; " 
the crown of the arch is 36 feet 6 inches below the street level. The 
chamber is 14 feet 6 inches long, 8 feet broad at the western end, and 
10 feet 6 inches at the eastern end, covered with plaster and roofed with 
a " straight-sided pointed arch." An excavation on the west showed no 
trace of a continuation, but on the east another chamber was found, 
18 feet long, lying east and west, and being, like the first, wider at the 
east end than at the west ; here there is no plaster, and the covering 
arch of 19 stones of nearly equal size is almost semicircular. The volute 
of an Ionic capital was found in this chamber. At the east end there 
is a 5-foot doorway -ndth lintel and semicircular relieving arch, and 
beyond this a passage 2 feet 6 inches wide, " covered with blocks of 
stone laid horizontally," which is closed by debris at a distance of 
10 feet 6 inches.* 

Owing to one of those unfortunate contretemps which 

. ^^cMZta?vto g^ frequently interfere with the best arrangements of 

tn Construction of , ■ ,-, -r^ ^ ,t ^ j <.•„„* 

^ an explorer m the East, the plans and sections or 

Causeway. ,, -^ ,, f • n j. 

the causeway vaults are not in ail respects as 

satisfactory' as they might be, and there is still some uncertainty as to 
the position the vaults occupy with reference to the street above, and as 
regards their relative position to each other.f On the plan (Plate 8), 
the street leading to the Haram, laid down with as much accuracy as the 
data will admit of, appears to lie irregularly over the " Secret Passage " 
and trimmer arch, though it wotild seem more natural to suppose that the 
two last lay throughout their com-se immediately beneath the street. At 
one point in the direction of the "Secret Passage " there is a decided elbow, 
and the passage itself, if prolonged, would run partly to the north of the 
trimmer arch in the ' ' Masonic Hall. ' ' Some of the peculiarities which may 
be noticed are: the thickening of the pier of Wilson's Arch by the 
4 -foot wall ; the uncertainty as to the nature of the original pier, and 
as to whether the splay northwards is in the 4-foot or the 10-foot wall ; 
the position which the "Masonic Hall" occupies with reference to the 
general line of the viaduct, and the difference of character between the 
vaults east and those west of that chamber. It it also worthy of 
remark that the low leveljof the Hall would allow the " Secret Passage " 

* For details of doorway, &c., see "Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 93. 

t The measurements were made under circumstances of considerable difficulty, 
and before they could be fully tested the entrance to the vaults was walled up by 
order of the Pacha. 



THE MASONRY OF THE HARAM WALL. 27 

to pass over it, and that tlic springing of the covering arch of the latter 
is at a higher level than that of the trimmer arch to the east. 

The numerous reconstructions, extending over several hundred years, 
and the doubt as to the accuracy of the plans, render any conjecture as 
to the relative dates of the several portions of the causeway, and the 
purposes they were intended to seiwe, extremely hazardous; excava- 
tions alone can solve the many questions connected with the history of 
the vaults, and it is much to be regretted that circumstances did not 
allow of theii- being made in a place of so much interest and im- 
portance. Captain Warren fully recognised the necessity of excavating 
in the vaults of the causeway, and had commenced opening shafts, but 
on his return from Jericho, where he had been excavating in the 
mounds, he found the entrance blocked up ^vith solid masonry, and 
orders from the Pacha that it was not to be reopened; the shafts 
within the vaults have never been closed, but it may be many years 
before any one is able to resume the excavations. 

Captaiu "Warren's opinion that Wilson's Arch is 
Captmn Warren's ^^^ ^-^^^^ ^^^^ ^-^^ ^^^^ o^. g^^^h century has already 
Viexos. ^gg^ alluded to, and it may be convenient to state 

here his views on the age of the causeway vaults, which he believes 
to be the result of at least four reconstructions. The vaults are said 
to be "apparently of similar age and construction"* to Wilson's 
Arch, but Captain Warren considers the southern viaduct older than 
the northern, and that "if so, the original viaduct arch over the 
Pool al Burak was only 23 feet 6 inches wide ; this must at some time or 
other have been broken down; then a restoration took place, the 
causeway was widened by a fresh set of arches to the north, and the void 
space over the Pool al Burak was spanned by the present Wilson's Arch, 
and made the width of the double causeway. It does not appear 
probable that these arches were ever exposed to view (except Wilson's 
Arch) ; they appear to have been used as secret chambers for stores and 
for water."! "The Masonic Hall has every appearance of being the 
oldest piece of masonry visible in Jerusalem with the exception of the 
Sanctuary walls, and perhaps as old as they."t The " Secret Passage " 
does not appear to be " of so ancient a date as the time of David or 
even of Herod. "§ The vaults at a lower level are supposed to have been 
" the vestibule to a postern leading from the Upper City into the 
Tyropoeon Valley. "|| 

* Letter XXIIL, January 22ad, 1868, Quarterly Statement, Palestine Explora- 
tion Fund. 

t " Recovery of Jerusalem, " p. 85 ct seq. 

X P. 89. 

§ " Recovery of Jerusalem, " p. 91. This passage is alluded to by Mejred Din 
as existing in his time, and as running from the Citadel to the Gate of the Chain ; 
the western entrance is probably that noticed in the ditch of the citadel. 

II "Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 94. 



28 TUS MAEOXliY OF THE IIAKAM VALL. 

If the natural features of the ground beneath 
Possible nature of ,■, , -j. i j r u 

'' the causeway were known it would perhaps be 

possible to form some opinion on the nature of the 
great viaduct, but at present the point at which the valleys running 
down from the Jaffa and Damascus Gates join each other is un- 
known, and it is uncertain how far the structure of the causeway may 
have been influenced by this feature. The following view is put forward 
as a suggestion. " Josephus states (B. J. v. 4. 2) that the first or old 
wall "began on the north at the tower called Hippicus, and extended as 
far as the Xystus, a place so called, and then joining to the council house 
ended at the west cloister of the Temple," and it is almost certain that 
this wall crossed the deep ravine running down from the Damascus Gate 
at "Wilson's Arch. The old wall may have been either a massive wall 
forming in itself the defence of the city, as Captain Warren's excavation 
beneath the floor of the "Masonic Hall" would seem to indicate, or a great 
embankment with a wall on the top ; at any rate, this first construction 
would give the line for all succeeding ones. "When the second wall was 
built the causeway may have been pierced for convenience of communica- 
tion towards Siloam, and the narrow opening spanned by a wooden 
bridge, such as that which was broken down by Aristobulus during 
Pompey's siege ; during Herod's great reconstruction of the Temple the 
opening may have been widened, an arch 42 foot span thrown across it, 
and the causeway completed to form a grand approach from his palace 
to the Temple ; the rough boulders of which the lower portion of the 
pier of "Wilson's Arch is built might in this case be the end of the old 
wall which it was not thought necessary to face with dressed stone. 
Herod's Arch may have been retained by the Romans after the siege, as 
a means of communication between the Citadel and Temple area, and 
when it fell, or was broken do^vn * during some later troubles, it may 
have been rebuilt in its present form by Constantine or Justinian. The 
object and age of the " Masonic Hall" are most puzzling questions ; the 
low level at which the chamber lies shows that it must have been buUt 
long before any such scheme as that of which "Wilson's Arch forms part 
was thought of, and its position seems to indicate that it was in some 
way connected with the Temple, possibly a guardhouse erected during 
the stormy period of the Maccabees. Captain "Warren's theory that the 
causeway was originally only 23 feet 6 inches wide appears to be based 
on the belief that the fallen voussoirs do not extend as far as the north 
end of "Wilson's Arch ; these voussoirs were only seen under the south 
end of the arch, and their existence or nonexistence to the north can 
only be ascertained by excavation. The narrow width of the southern 
viaduct west of the " Masonic Hall " would seem to indicate that there 
never was a causeway 2.'5 feet 6 inches wide, and the position of the hall 
itself supports this view. A more natural suggestion would appear to be 

* Unfortunately we have no means of comparing the form and size of the 
fallen voussoirs beneath Wilson's Arch, and those of Robinson's Arch, which are 
undoubtedly Herodian. 



THE MASONRY OF THE HARAM "WALL. 29 

that at the time of the Maccabees the top of the wall, no longer required 
as a principal line of defence, was on a level with the floor of the ' ' Masonic 
Hall," and that there was then a wooden bridge of narrow span over the 
ravine, and an ascent to gain the level of the Temple area ; and that 
Herod afterwards raised the causeway to the Temple level by vaults 
which have since undergone several modifications. The existence of the 
twin viaducts may be explained by the necessity of working the " Masonic 
Hall" into the general plan, and giving a southerly [direction to the cause- 
way. The age of the " Secret Passage" is doubtful; it was apparently 
constructed to allow soldiers to pass freely and unnoticed from the 
Citadel to the Temple, and there seems no reason why it should not be 
ascribed to Herod.* The eastern end of the passage may still exist 
within the Haram enclosure. The chambers discovered by Captain 
"Warren at a lower level may have formed portions of a similar passage of 
older date running along the south side of the fi.rst wall, or, as he suggests, 
have led to a postern opening on to the rocky slope of the valley. f 

The excavations seem to show that at the south- 

^'^^Z"'wTl7^^ "^^^^ ^^^^^ *^^^® ^^^ ^^^ courses of large stones, with 

°fh. ^ W A°T ^^^S^''^^^ drafts and rough picked faces, which extend 

^ irr-7 • ^7 northwards to the vicinity of Barclay's Gate, where 

to Wilson s Arch. ^. ■,-,■, .,, . , w^cic 

they are replaced by stones with smiuar marginal 

drafts, but having their faces finely dressed. Above these courses 

up to the present level of the ground, and in some places to 

three or four courses above it, the masonry is throughout of the 

same character, large stones with marginal drafts and finely-dressed 

faces. The courses run through without a break from WUson's 

Arch to the south-west angle, and no difference has yet been noticed 

in the dressing or marginal drafts of the stones. The upper portion 

of the wall is of various dates and of minor interest. It has already 

been explained that if the approach to Barclay's Gate was by a solid 

ramp, such ramp would be a fitting termination to the courses of 

stone with rough picked faces. 

The position of the bed of the ravine is not very clear. It is fairly 

well defined under Wilson's Arch, whence the rock falls 19 feet 9 inches 

to Barclay's Gate, but from this point to Robinson's Arch there is a rise 

of 5 feet, and at the south-west angle the bed of the ravine is 90 feet to 

the east. There seems no doubt that the wall stands partly on the right 

* Simon ia attempting to escape, B. J. vii. 2. 1, may have passed from the 
Ul>per Citj' to the Temple area by this passage, or the aqueduct which crosses 
"Wilson's Arch. 

+ The following are the principal levels : — 

Generallevel of Haram area ... ... ... 2,420 feet. 



Floor of Secret Passage 
Spring of Wilson's Arch 
Floor of Masonic Hall 
Top of pier of rough boulders 



2,4000 
2,391-5 
2,371-5 
2,366 5 



Level of rock beneath Haram Wall 2,33975 



30 THE MASONRY OF THE HARAM WALL. 

and partly on tlie left bank of the ravine, and the most probable sup- 
position seems to be that it crosses the bed somewhere near Barclay's 
Gate.* 

The principal approach to the Haram area is by a 

( as m . g^reet which passes over Wilson's Arch and enters 
Bab as Salam. ,, , ^ ^ .x. i. -u j j vi 

the enclosure, on a level, through a handsome double 

gate. The southern gate is called the Bab as Silsile (Gate of the 
Chain), the northern B-ib as Salam (Gate of Peace), and at the bottom 
of the left jamb of the latter there is a massive stone with marginal 
draft, the north end of which coi-responds with the end of the great 
causeway arch beneath. f 

From the Bab as Salam to the Bab al Mathara (Gate 
Warren's Gate. ^^ ^^^ Latrines) the Haram Wall is nowhere visible above 
ground, but about 26 feet south of the latter gate there is a remarkable 
cisteni,J No. 30, which pierces the wall, and is apparently an ancient 
entrance to the enclosure. The passage is at right angles to the Haram 
Wall, and is 18 feet wide. It runs in for 84 feet from the face of the 
wall, is covered by a semicircular arch of well-dressed stones of 
some size set without mortar, and its floor is about 30 feet below the 
level of the area. The sides and bottom of the cistern are thickly 
coated with cement, and cannot be examined. The western end is 
closed by a modem wall of small coarse rubble, and there is here a 
flight of steps leading up to a small door. The passage is in some 
respects similar to that runnmg in from Barclay's Gate, but it seems to 
be of more modern date, and it has no lintel, so that its external 
appearance would be that of an arched opening in the Haram Wall. 
Captain Warren was able to examine a cistern outside the wall in direct 
prolongation of No. 30, but not so wide.§ The cistern is 34 feet 6 inches 

* The following are the principal levels :— 

Level of Haram area 2,420 feet. 

Spring of Wilson's Arch ■• 2,391-5 ,, 

Sill of Barclay's Gate 2,3697 ,, 

Spring of Robinson's Arch 2,387'5 „ 

Rock under Wilson's Arch 2,339-75,, 

Rock under Barclay's Gate 2,320-0 ,, 

Rock under Robinson's Arch 2,325-0 „ 

Bed of Ravine 90 feet east of S.W. angle 2,289-6 ,, 

t Mejr ed Din states that the gate was built in A.H. 877 (1492-3 a.d.), and 
he calls the Bab as Salam the Gate of Tranquillity (Sekine). 

+ This passage was first discovered by myseK in 1866, and I propose dis- 
tiirguishing it by the name of "Warren's Gate," as a small tribute to Captain 
Wa°ren, R.E., whose excavations have thrown so much light on the topo- 
graphical features of ancient Jerusalem. 

§ The Haram AVall is exposed in a recess to the south. This cistern may be a 
portion of the pool, which is known to have existed at this place up to a com- 
paratively recent period. At 22 feet from the bottom of the cistern the springing 
of a modern arch can be seen. 



THE MASONllY OP THE HABAM WALL. 31 

deep, but as the level of the ground is hero 6 feet above that of the area 
only 28 feet of the Haram Wall is exposed. The stones are partially 
rendered with cement, but the character of the masonry, as far as it 
could be ascertained, was similar to that of the "Wailing Place.* 

There is no way of ascertaining the height of the Haram Wall at this 
point, except by excavation. In the conduit of the Hainmam ash Shafa 
Well, some 135 feet to the west, the rock is about 80 feet 6 inches below 
the level of the Haram area, but this seems lower than the level of the 
bed of the ravine, which is probably much nearer to the wall.f It will be 
noticed that there is no visible means of reaching the level of the area 
from the cistern. The most probable arrangement would be one some- 
what similar to that at Barclay's Gate, for in this case the eastern end of 
the passage must almost abut on the rock. The level of the floor of the 
passage is unknown, and there is nothing to throw any light on the 
character of the original approach. Captain Warren identifiesf this gate 
with that mentioned by Josephns, from which the road descended into 
the valley by a great number of steps, but it is quite possible that the 
approach may have been by a roadway supported by arches. 

The Bab al Mathara is comparatively modern, the 
mh al Mathara. ^^^^ leading up to it ascends slightly, and the area is 
reached by three steps. This gate is called by Mejr ed Din the " Gate 
of the Bath," from its leading to the bath of the Haram. 

A short distance north of the Bab al Mathara, at 

■^"^i'f ^^"'^/X *^® ®*^^ ^^^^ °^ ^^^ °^^ Cotton Bazaar, is the Bab al 
Kattanin (Gate of the Cotton Merchants), a hand- 
some Saracenic portal, said to have been repaired in 1336-7 a.d. A 
flight of steps leads up to the Haram area, which is 12 feet above the 
roadway of the Bazaar. The next gate northwards is the Biib al Hadid 
(Iron Gate), and beyond this is the Bab an Nazir or jSTadhir (Gate of the 
Inspector), also known as the Bab Ali ad din al Bosri, an old gate 

* The wall, free of plaster, could only be seen to a depth of 6 feet Ijelow the 
level of the Haram area. 

f The lie of the rock hero is very puzzling ; at the ash Shafii Well it is about 
2,339 '5 feet, the bottom of the conduit being about 2,334 feet, and at Wilson's 
Arch it is 2,337 feet (lowest point) ; this gives a fall of only 2 feet 6 inches from 
the well to the arch, and the ravine would hardly take such a sharp bend as this 
indicates. There seems every reason to believe that the ash Shafii conduit is a 
continuation of that under Robinson's Arch, and the bend which it makes to the 
west may possibly mark the junction of the valley from the Jaffa Gate with tlie 
central ravine. The bed of this latter ravine must to all appearance lie to the 
east of the well, and in this case the ash Shafa conduit possibly forms portion of 
a drift, or Kariz, driven into the rock at a very early date, and broken through 
at a later period. It is just the position in which a drift would be made to collect 
the water that finds its way down through the limestone beds of the hill upon 
which the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and the Russian Convent have been 
built. 

+ "Underground Jerusalem," 15. 63. 



32 THE MASONRY OF THE HAEAM WALL. 

repaired about 1203-4 A.D.* Between tlie Bab al Mathara and tbe Bab 
an Nazir the rubbisli rises neai'ly to the level of the Haram area, and 
entirely conceals the face of the wall, except at one point north of the 
Bab al Hadid, where there are a few courses of stones with, plain chiselled 
faces ; t the ground is occupied by Moslem houses, built so closely 
too"ether as to forbid excavation or exploration, and there are several 
tombs of Turkish efFendis held in great reverence by the present genera- 
tion. The depth of rubbish at the Biib al Kattanin is probably about 
70 feet, and in sinking for the foundations of a house near the Bab al 
Hadid no rock or solid bottom was found at about 35 feet. The streets 
leadino- to the Bab al Hadid and Bab an Ndzii- rise gently to the level of 
the Haram area. 

Between the Bab an Nazir and Bab as Sarai (Gate 
B'JhanNiHr ^^ ^-^^ SeragUo) a modtra doorway, 168 feet to the 
'^ "''. , north, which, in 1864, led from the Pacha's residence 
to the Haram, the wall is nowhere visible, but beneath 
the latter gate a portion of the masonry is exposed to view in the 
aqueduct which runs southwards from the souterrain beneath the Con- 
vent of the Sisters of Zion. The wall is 8 feet thick, and the masonry is 
similar in character to that at the "Wailing Place. One course is ex- 
posed to its full height, 4 feet 6^ inches, whilst two others are partially 
uncovered ; the faces of the stones are well finished, and each course 
is set back from 3 inches to 4 inches ; the marginal drafts at top and 
bottom are 7 inches wide, and at the sides 3 inches to 4 inches ; J they are 
sunk half an inch. From the south-west angle to the Bab an Nazir the 
Haram Wall runs in an unbroken straight line, but north of the latter 
point there must be an offset, as the face of the masonry described above, 
thouo-h parallel to the line of the wall, projects 8 feet or 9 feet 
beyond it ; the exact position of the offset is not kuown, it may be about 
88 feet north of the Bab an Nazir. The wall can be of no great height, 
as the rock rises to the surface in the adjoining portion of the Haram. 
Twenty-six feet north of the Bab as Sarai a fragment of the old wall of 
the Haram, § fijst noticed by Lieutenant Conder, R.E., is exposed in a 

* According to Mejr ed Din this is the gate to which Gabriel tied Burak, and 
it was formerly called the Gate of Mahomet. 

t One or two of the stones have the marginal draft, but the style of the work 
is that of the middle portion of the Wailing Place Wall, and it is apparently of 
the same date. The large stones are backed with coarse rubble. A small 
cistern examined here proved to be built in the rubbish, and gave no results. 

X Lieutenant Conder gives the height of the course as 4 feet 6 inches and 
4 feet 7 inches ; the upper and lower drafts as 6 inches, and the set back as 
" 3 inches or 4 inches," and as "about 6 inches " {Quarterly Statement, Palestine 
Exploration Fund, 1873, p. 92, and 1877, p. 135). I have followed Dr. Chaplin's 
measurements. 

§ This is the only place in which masonry apparently belonging to the original 
wall is visible above the present level of the Haram area. A sketch of it is 
given, Quart';rhj Statement, Palestine Exploration Fund, 1877, p. 136. 



THE MASONRY OF THE IIARAM WALL. 33 

small chamber, wliich can be reached from the aqueduct by means of a 
short branch' passage. The masonry below the level of the Haram area 
is similar to that beneath the Bab as Sarai, and, being in direct prolonga- 
tion of it, is evidently a continuation of the same wall. The chief 
interest, however, lies in the fact that the wall above the level of the 
enclosure is apparently in situ, and has projecting buttresses similar to 
those in the Haram Wall at Hebron, The first or northern buttress is 
1 foot 6 inches wide, and is partly of rock, partly of masonry. The 
second is 4 feet 9 inches wide, and at a distance of 8 feet 9 inches from 
the first, the intermediate space being occupied by'a window, 4 feet wide, 
which looks into the Harara area, and is apparently ancient. The 
buttresses are built flush with the lower part of the wall, whilst the 
spaces between them are recessed 1 foot 6 inches by means of a plinth 
course. The stones have 3J inches marginal drafts, and their faces are 
dressed smooth, but only two courses are visible above the plinth.* The 
north wall of the small chamber is partly formed by a rock escarpment, 
which rises to the level 2,434 feet, or 3 feet above the adjacent surface of 
the Haram, and marks the termination of the masonry of the west wall. 

,.r „,- J T From this chamber to the north-west angle, a distance 

N. \y, Anole, 

of about 110 feet, and from the angle eastward along 

the north side of the Haram for a distance of about 350 feet, the rock 

rises above the level of the enclosure, or rather the rock within the 

Haram has been cut away so as to leave escarpments from 3 feet to 23 

feet high, facing inwards, on the west and north. Above 
^, . . . the scarp on the west are modem houses, and beneath 

them is the Bab al Ghawanime, or Ghawarine, which 
leads to the Daraj as Sarai, and also to the Tarik as Sarai al Kadim 
{Via Dolorosa). The lower part of the gateway is cut out of the rock,, 
and a flight of steps leads up to it from the Haram. t 

At the north-west angle there is a minaret, built about 1207-S A.D., in, 
which has baen found a mutilated capital, representing the " Presenta- 
tion of Christ," bidlt into the wall a little above the level of the platform^ 
used by the muezzin. This fragment was possibly taken from the Chapel 

* The pilasters at Hebron are 3 feet 9 inches wide, project 11 inches, and ae 
6 feet 9 inches apart. Mr. Fergusson, in his restoration of Herod's Tenaple 
(frontispiece to " The Holy Sepulchre and the Temple at Jerusalem "), represents 
the outer walls of the cloisters as built with pilasters ; so also M. De Vogiie in 
"Le Temple de Jerusalem," pi. xvi., but he places the pilasters at much wider 
intervals. Lieutenant Conder gives the level of the window-sill of the chamber 
as 2,429 feet, that is 2 feet below the Haram level at this point, or 10 feet above 
its level at the south-west angle ; from this it seems probable that south of the 
offset in the wall near the Bab an Nazir, the pilasters, if there were any, stood at 
a lower level. 

t This gate is also called Bab al Dawidar, " Gate of the Secretary. ' The name- 
Bab al Ghawanime possibly has reference to the Beui Ghg,nem ; Bab al Ghawarine 
to the inhabitants of the Ghor, Jordan Valley. According to Mejr ed Din it was. 
formerly called the " Gate of Abraham. " 

D 



34 THE MA90NEY OF THE HAEAM WAXL. 

of tlie Presentation, which during the Latin kingdom was situated in 
the Dome of the Eock.* 

The escarpment, which forms part of the northern boundary of the 
Haram, rises to the level 2,462 feet and then falls eastward until, at a 
point 350 feet from the angle, it terminates in a scarp 14 feet high, 
which faces east. The level of the top of this scarp is 2,433 feet, that of 
the Haram being 2,419 feet; its continuation towards the north cannot 
be traced on account of the buildings above. About 110 feet from the 
north-west angle an irregular opening or ditch, about 9 feet wide, has 
been cut down through the rock to the level of the Haram ; f it is now 
closed with rough masonry. Farther to the east there is a shallower 
cutting filled up with a better class of masonry, and there are several 
holes in the face of the rock, as if to receive beams or the haunches of 
arches ; at the foot of the scarp are two rock-hewn cisterns. The strata 
exposed in section by the cutting at the noi-th-west angle are the upper 
thin beds of missce, and they have a dip of 10 degrees towards the east. 
Above the escarpment are the Infantry Barracks, which occupy a com- 
manding site, once separated from the higher ground on the north by a 
rock-he^vn ditch, visible in the souterrains beneath the Convent of the 
Sisters of Zion, and also in a chamber entered from the Tarik Bab Sittl 
Maryam, where the scarp ri-:es to a height of 8 feet above the street. 

The souterrains, which lie a little to the north of 
oic cr rains ^-^^ north-west angle, and are inclined at an angle of 
beneath the Convent „i j j. j.i_ j. n i? ii. tt 

. , 21 degrees to the west wall of the Haram, were 

„. , /. „. discovered during excavations made for the foimda- 

at^tCTS oj £i%on. . n ■\ r^ 1 K 1 r~i- 1 i» ra- 

tions of the Convent of the Sisters of Zion ; they 

consist of two parallel tunnels or vaulted passages, separated from 

each other by a wall 5 feet 9 inches thick, and abutting at either 

end on a rock escarpment; J they are reiched from a narrow side 

street north of the Via Dolorosa by passing through the kitchen 

of the convent and then descending a flight of steps. Souterrain 

No. I. is 165 feet 2 inches long and 20 feet 1 inch wide ; at the 

north end the rock escarpment is 39 feet high, and its summit 

level is 2,458 feet, whilst at the south end it is 57 feet high, and 

attains a level of 2,456 feet ; § the floor has thus a fall of about 

20 feet from north to south. The sides of the souterrain are not quite 

* Ganneau, " Revue Archeologique," Mai, 1877. 

t It may be well to notice that this cutting is exactly the same^distance from 
the north-west angle as the scarp in the little chamber outside the west wall. 

X It has been suggested that these souterrains are only two of a series, but no 
others have yet been found. 

$ The description of the souterrains and the ground at the north-west angle, 
and also the plan and section, PI. 9, have been compiled from my own notes 
on Souterrain I. ; Captain "Warren's notes and plan of Souterrain II. and the 
Aqueduct ; Lieutenant Condor's notes on a visit to the Souterrains and 
Aqueduct, and plans, sections, and notes kindly sent to me by Mf. Schick, At 
the time of my visit to Souterrain I. in 1865 there was much rubbish and sewage, 



THE MASONRY OF THE HAKAM WALL. 35 

straight, and the work looks as if it had been built from both ends and 
had not met quite fair ; the west side is partly formed by a rock escarp- 
ment from 13 feet to 24 feet high, the east side is pierced by four openings 
communicatiug with Souterrain IE. The souterrain is divided into two 
unequal portions by a 5-foot wall, through which there is a low opening 
of modern construction ; the north chamber communicates with the 
Convent by a flight of steps, and contains the so-called spring;* the 
south chamber is covered by a well-built semicircular arch of plain 
chiselled stones, except in one place where the arch has been broken 
and repaired with a pointed arch.f At the north end of this latter 
chamber an old flight of steps leads up to a well-built doorway in 
the cross wall, which appears to have been part of the original structure, 
and beneath this is an arched opening apparently for the passage of 
water ; at the so ath end a flight of steps, partly cut out of the rock, leads 
up to the street above, through a doorway and passage in the west wall, 
which are of the same date as the covering arch of the souterrain. From 
the south-west corner of the chamber a rock-hewn passage or aqueduct, 
about 4 feet wide, runs southward to the Haram Wall beneath the Bab 
as Sarai;! at about 10 feet from the entrance it bends to the west for 
6 feet, and then resumes its southerly direction for about 40 feet to a 
dam 9 feet high, which is provided with a hole for regulating the flow 
of the water ; about 150 feet beyond the dam a small passage§ leads due 
east, and gives access to the chamber in which Lieutenant Conder found 



and I was unable to examine the place thoroughl}' ; the same causes prevented a 
complete examination by Captain "Warren, who was, however, able to follow the 
aqueduct for a considerable distance and make a plan of Souterrain II. The 
souterraius and aqueduct were afterwards cleared out, and in this state were 
visited by Lieutenant Conder and Sir. Schick ; there are unfortunately many 
discrepancies between Lieutenant Conder's notes and Mr. Schick's plans which I 
have not been able to reconcile; I have generally followed the latter as being 
more detailed, but there are several doubtful points, and the section on PI. 9, 
as well as the rock levels given in the notes on the north-west angle, can only hi 
considered as approximately accurate. 

* The water is impregnated with sewage and unsuitable for drinking purposes. 

t A great many holes have been broken through the crown of the covering 
arch, and, as the rubbish accumulated above, rough shafts were carried up from 
them ; they are now all closed and appear to have been so for some time, but 
they show that there must once have been a good supply of water here. Above 
the covering arch there are a number of large flat slabs which are probably the 
paving stones of the old street. 

t This aqueduct was first explored by Captain Warren, R.E., in 1867, who 
was stopped by a masonry wall ; in 1870 the rubbish was cleared away and the 
remaining portion of the aqueduct examined by Dr. Chaplin and Mr, Schick 
("Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 199-201). 

§ Quart'vhj Statement, Palestine Exploration Fund, 1873, p. 91-93, and 1877 
p. 135-137. 



36 THE MASONRY OF THE IIAEAM WALL. 

the masonry described on page 33 ; and a few feet farther the aqueduct 
itself turns sharp to the east and meets the masonry of the Haram. 
Wall under the Bab as Sarai (p. 3o). The aqueduct, as far as the small 
passage, is entirely rock-hewn and covered ynth. flat slabs laid across 
horizontally ; it is at first about 40 feet high,* but beyond the dam it 
slopes down to 22 feet, and eventually t3 8 feet; south of the passage 
the lower portion only is of rock, the upper is of masonry, and the slabs 
are replaced by an arch of small stones. The bottom of the aqueduct 
is plastered throughout, and there is a small water channel;! in the 
east side two rude recesses have been cut back into the rock above the 
level of the water, and there are also weepers to facilitate the collection 
of water. In the small passage running east the north wall is rock ; the 
south wall, except 2 feet at the bottom, masonry ; the chamber lies at 
a higher level, and is reached through a hole in its floor. Lieutenant 
Conder describes the passage as leading " due east beside the south face 
of the great corner scarp ; "| the face of the scarp appears to be about 
20 feet high, and to mark the southern termination of the elevated 
mass of rock at the north-west angle of the Haram, but unfortunately 
the plans which have been received do not show whether it extends 
beyond the aqueduct to the west. The original direction of the aqueduct 
beyond the small passage is not very apparent ; the channel was 
evidently cut through when the rock was scarped at this place, and 
there are some reasons for supposing that its floor was once at a higher 
level. The present abrupt termination of the aqueduct at the Haram. 
wall seems to show that it was again cut through when the wall was 
built, but whether it ran down the crest of the hill or kept along its side 
is uncertain. § 

Souterrain II. is 127 feet long and 24 feet to 26 feet wide. At its south 
end it is terminated by a continuation of the rock escarpment seen in 
Souterrain I. The north end is blocked up with masonry of late datp, 
but as a prolongation of the northern rock escarpment in I. is said to 
have been found, the souterrain may have extended up to it at one time. 
At the north end the vault is 20 feet wide, but after 45 feet the span of 
the covering arch is 24 feet, and the springing slopes to the south at 
1 in 6, the crown remaining horizontal. This continues for 36^ feet, 
and is succeeded by another arch, the crown of which is 4 feet 6 inches 

* Captain Warren gives the height as 30 feet, ' ' Recovery," p. 199, and as 36 feet 
above tlie sewage, p. 201 ; Lieutenant Conder as 20 feet, Quarterly Statement, 
Palestine Exploration Fund, 1873, p. 92. I have followed Mr. Schick's section, 
•which gives 40 feet. 

t I have adopted 2,412 feet as the level of the floor of the aqueduct from Mr. 
Schick ; Lieutenant Conder gives it as 2,409 feet. Quarterly Statement, Palestine 
Exploration Fund, 1877, p. 136. 

X Quarterly Statement, Palestine Exploration Fund, 1877, p. 135, 

§ There seems every reason to believe that the remaining portion of the 
Aqueduct is still in existence, and its discovery will throw considerable light 
on the topography of this portion of the city. 



THE MASONRY OF THE HARAM WALL. 37 

lower, and whose length is 46 feet. The two latter arches "appear to 
be very slightly pointed." * The covering arch is said to spring from 
the rock throughout its length on the eastern side.f 

An old aqueduct which brought water from the north enters the north 
chamber of Souterrain I. This aqueduct will be described more fully 
hereafter; at present it is only necessary to notice its high level, 2,462 
feet,f compared with that, 2,412 feet, of the aqueduct south of the 
souterrain, and the fact that on entering the Tarik Bab az Zahire it 
leaves the rock and is built of masonry, which would seem to indicate 
the presence of a scarp facing east at that point. 

There is then to the north of the north-west angle a rock-he^vn ditch 
165 feet wide and from 26 feet to 33 feet deep, the floor of which over 
the area covered by the souterrains, 165 feet by 46 feet to 50 feet, has 
been sunk to a further depth of from 13 feet to 24 feet. This ditch is not 
parallel to the northern boundary of the Haram, but has been cut per- 
pendicular to a Hne representing the general direction of the ridge, the 
reason apparently being that the quantity of rock to be excavated was 
less on this Ime than on any other. The sides of the ditch cannot be 
traced beyond the limits of the souterrains. The north side is probably 
connected towards the west with the remarkable rock escarpment, page 
33, which runs parallel to the Via Dolorosa, and towards the east there 
are some indications of a scarp running north ; the limits of the south 
end on the east and west are unknown. An old aqueduct enters the 
ditch on the north, and leaves it at a much lower level on the south. 
About 100 feet south of the ditch is the scarp which has already been 
described as forming the northern boundary of the Haram. There is 
thus between the ditch and the Haram a mass of rock, 100 feet thick, 
which, at its highest point, is 63 feet above the floor of the souterrains, 
^nd 23 feet above the level of the Haram area. The western termination 
of this mass of rock is unknown ; the eastern is possibly the unexplored 
scarp running north and south at a distance of 350 feet from the north- 
west angle. The rock runs southward along the western boundary of 
the Haram for a distance of 110 feet, where it ends in a scarp about 
20 feet high, the course of which towards the west has only been traced 
for a short distance. 

Our knowledge of the ground at the north-west angle is at present so 
imperfect, and the data which have been collected are so uncertain, 
that any attempt at reconstruction or to define the nature and 
object of the various excavations would be premature. There is, 

* A xjlan of this souterrain is given on Litho. 26 of the Palestine Exploration 
Fund series. 

t "Recovery," p. 202. M. Ganneau says that he has ascertained " by sight 
and touch the existence of the rock cut vertically along nearly the whole perimeter 
of the parallelogram" — that is, of the ground covered by the Souterrains I. and 
II. (Quarterly Statement, Palestine Exploration Fund, 1871, p. 106.) 

X These levels can only be considered as approximate. They are taken from a 
sketch sent to me by Mr. Schick. 



98 'lUE MASONKY OF THE HARAM WALL. 

however, no doubt of the existence of a rock-hewn ditch, possibly that 
between Antonia and Bczetha, which runs generally in an east and west 
direction, and separates the mass of rock on which the barracks stand 
from the higher ground to the north. In excavating this ditch an old 
aqueduct bringing water from the north was cut through, and possibly 
a reservoir was then excavated in the bed of the ditch and vaulted to 
prevent evaporation, the aqueduct south of the ditch being deepened at 
the same time to allow the water to run off at a lower level. It seems 
also probable that the rock at the north-Avest angle was cut into its 
present form when the masonry with pilasters south of the Bab al 
Ghawanime was built.* 

From the east end of the rock scarp beneath the 
TT I- t T^ ." Barracks to the Birket Israil the wall is nowhere 
visible, as the ground rises to the level of the Haram 
and is covered with houses. In this space there are two gateways lead- 
ing out by short streets to the Tarik Bab Sitti Maryam, the Bab al 'Atm 
and the Bab Hytta. The Bab al 'Atm f (Gate of Obscurity) is also 
called by Mejr cd Din the Bab al Devvatar, and the Bab Hytta (Gate 
of Pardon) is said by the same writer to derive its name from the com- 
mand given by God to the Israelites to say "Pardon" as they entered it. 

* Captain Warren, " Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 196-8, is of opinion that the 
souterrains are the twin pools, identified by Eusebius and the Bordeaux Pilgrim, 
with Bethesda. M. Ganneau, on the other hand, believes that they cover the 
pool "Strouthion" mentioned by Josephus (B. J. v. 11. 4) in his description of 
the attack on Anlonia during the siege of Jerusalem by Titus. M. Ganneau's 
view is that the pool was transformed into a closed reservoir at the period of 
jElia Capitolina, that the stone pavement above the souterrains, extending to 
the.Ecce Homo Arch, is of contemporary date, and that the Ecce Homo Arch is 
probably a triumphal arch for the victory over Bar Cochefts (Quarterly State- 
vient, Palestine Exploration Fund, 1871, p. 6). 

The following are the principal levels in this section : — 

Street, Tarik ash Sheikh Pdhan 2,482 feet 

Aqueduct north of the souterrains ... ... ... 2,462(?) ,, 

Top of north scarp in souterrains ... ... ... 2,458 ,, 

Bottom of „ „ 2,419 ,, 

Top of south scarp in ,, 2,456 ,, 

Bottom of- ■,, ,, 2,399 „ 

Scarp on we.st side of Souterrain I 2,428(?),, 

Floor of aqueduct south of souterrains ... ... 2,412 ,, 

Top of scarp under Barracks north .side of Haram ... 2,462 ,, 
Bottom of scarp ,, ,, ,, ... 2,432 ,, 

East end of scarp , , ,, ,, ... 2,4.33 ,, 

Level of Haram at east end 2,419 ,, 

South end of scarp on west side of Haram ... ... 2,434 ,, 

Level of Haram at south end .. ... ... ... 2,431 ,, 

Vii Dolorosa over the souterrains ... ... ... 2,448 ,, 

t According to Mejr cd Din, Omar entered by this gate on the day of conquest. 



THE MASONKY OF THE HARAM WALL. 39 

The Birket Israil is situated in a valley which takes 
BirJcct Israil. .^^ ^j^^ ^^ ^j^^ ^^^^.^.j^ ^^f ^-^^ ^-^.y ^^^^^ ^^^j^ passing 

between the ruin Al Mamuniye and the Church of St. Anne, runs 
out into the Kedron Valley about 143 feet south of the north-east 
angle of the Haram. The valley at present is little more than a 
shallow depression, but Captain Warren's excavations have shown 
that in the lower portions of its course it assumes the character 
of a deep ravine, and that its bed lies no less than 139 feet or 140 
feet beneath the surface of the Haram. It would appear then that 
the north- east corner of the Haram is made ground, and the south wall 
of the pool must consequently be almost entirely of masonry. The 
Birket Israil is about 3G0 feet long, 126 feet wide, and 80 feet deep, but 
its great size can hardly be appreciated on account of the rubbish, which 
rises to a height of 35 feet above the floor. The rock at the bottom of 
the pool is covered by a bed of very hard concrete, 1 foot 4^ inches 
thick, made of "alternate layers of small stones and mortar," and this 
is finished off with 2i inches of a "very hard and compact" plaster of 
cement and broken pottery. The surface of the plaster is at the level 
2,325 feet. The south wall of the pool, which is also the north wall 
of the Haram, differs but little from the walls of other pools at 
Jerusalem, ai^d has nothing in common with the fine mural masonry of 
the Haram. It is built of medium-sized stones set with wide joints, 
which are packed with small angular stones to give the cement a better 
hold. The masonry is irregular, and apparently of no very great age.* 
The north wall is of similar character, and here also there appears to be no 
rock. At the west end of the pool there are two parallel passages 
running westward along the Haram Wall, but unfortunately the vaults 
are cemented to the toij of the arches, and the wall cannot be examined. 
The south passage, 134 feet long, is closed by a wall, the northern, at 
118 feet, opens into a small modern passage running north and south 
which is now used as a sewer. The arches are slightly pointed, and 
their crowns are level with the top of the pool. The north passage has a 
concrete floor, which slopes towards the entrance, where there are four 
stone steps. The bottom step is nearly flush with the west wall of the 
pool, and beyond it is a landing 8 feet wide, and a series of iiTegular 
steps similar to those in Solomon's Pools at Urtas. Eock, falling to the 
east, was found 9 feet within the passage, at a depth of 40 feet below 
the crown of the arch, or at the level 2,365 feet, and it seems probable 
that the greater portion of the west end of the pool is rock. The east 
end of the pool is closed by a dam 45 feet thick, formed partly of rock f 

* Captain Warren examined the lower portion of the masonry and found 
it to be precisely similar to that above. It is possible that this masonry may 
only be a facing to the Haram Wall proper, though not probable. The removal 
of a few stones would settle the question. 

t The level of the bed of the pool is 2,325 feet, or from 18 feet to 50 feet 
below the level of the rock outside the wall on the east. 



40 THE MASONEY OF THE HAEAM WALL. 

and partly of masonry. The character of this masonry will be dis- 
cussed below. It is sufficient to mention here that it appears to be of 
more than one date, and is in part a continuation of the east wall of the 
Haram. Near the south end of the pool an old overflow aqueduct 
passing through the masonry of the dam was discovered by Captain 
Warren. The passage runs east and west, and is 46 feet long, 3 feet 
9 inches high, and 2 feet wide. The west end is closed by a perforated 
stone having three round holes each Oj inches diameter,* and under this 
there appears to have been a basin to collect water. At the east end the 
passage opens out through the Haram Wall. On the south side is a 
staircase, apparently cut out of the solid after the wall was buUt, which 
rises to the surface in great steps 4 feet high, and about 12 feet from the 
east end there is a light shaft leading up to a small opening in the 
Haram Wall. Some of the stones in the sides of the passage are as 
much as from 14 feet to 18 feet long, and from 3 feet 10 inches to 4 feet 
6 inches high. The roof is stepped down 4 feet about 11 feet from the 
west end. In the floor of the passage there is a neatly-cut channel 
5 inches square which passes out through the Haram Wall, but in the next 
course below " a great irregular hole has been knocked out of the wall " 
to allow the water to run off at a slightly lower level, and so supply an 
aqueduct, 9 inches wide and 2 feet high, which runs east from the 
Haram Wall. The workmen in breaking through the masonry left a 
cross on the wall of a Byzantine type. The passage, which is said to be 
similar to that at the Single Gate in the South Wall, was evidently 
built at the same time as the wall or dam, and, if the perforated stone 
be taken as the level of the overflow, the water at this period could not 
have stood at a higher level than 2,347 feet, that of the floor of the pool 
being 2,325 feet. This gives an original depth of 22 feet to the Birket 
Israil. During the Christian period it became necessary, for some 
reason, to break a hole through the wall to allow the water to run off 
through an aqueduct at a lower level, but at a much later date, if the 
aqueduct found outride the city wall near the north end of the pool 
may be taken as evidence, the water must have been at least 65 feet 

deep.f 

A roadway passes over the dam at the east end of the pool and enters 
the Haram at the north-east angle by the Bab al Asbat (Gate of the 
Tribes). 

* A sketch of this stone is given in "Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 165. 
t The principal levels are : — 

Bed of pool 

Floor of overflow passage 

Level of perforated stone 

Rock east of pool outside city wall 

Rock at west end of pool 

Haram area, near north-east angle 

Roadway over dam 



2,325 feet 




2,345- 


5,, 




2,347 






2,343 




to 2,375 feet 


2,365 






2,417 






2,407 







THE MASOXRY OF THE IIARAM WALL. 41 

The nature of the north-east angle cannot well be 

a. E. Angle and ^gcugged without an examination of city wall imme- 
East Wall ^iately to the north, and it will therefore be con- 
venient to consider in this place the whole wall, from 
St. Stephen's Gate to the north-east angle of the Haram, and thence 
onwards to the Golden Gate. 

From St. Stephen's Gate to the so-called "Castle 

Above Ground. ^^ Antonia," at the north-east angle, the wall is 
built of small-sized stones having no marginal draft, and between 
this masonry and that of the north-east angle there is a straight 
joint. In the "Castle of Antonia," which measures about 87 feet 
along the wall from the north-east angle, there are five courses of 
large stones, with oi-inch marginal drafts, and above these, at the 
north end, there are portions of six other com-ses of similar character. 
The courses are from 3 feet to 4 feet high, and some of the blocks 
are of great size, one being 23 feet 8 inches long. The faces of 
the stones are better worked than nearer the south-east angle. The 
straight joint between this massive masonry and the city wall to the 
north shows that the two walls must have been built at different periods, 
but at the south end of the " Castle" there is no such break in the old 
masonry. The stones of the four lowest courses are properly bonded, 
and the marginal drafts are carried round the corner in such a way as to 
lead to the belief that the stones are in situ, though the joints are some- 
what worn and irregular. The masonry of the upper portion of the 
" Castle" is of small stones, and bears traces of having been repaired 
more than once. Between the " Castle of Antonia " and the Golden Gate 
one, two, three, and occasionally four courses of large stones with marginal 
drafts and rough faces are visible; the lowest course projects about 
1 foot 4 inches beyond the others, and seems never to have had the 
<lressing of its face completed.* At the building called Solomon's Throne, 
about 110 feet north of the Golden Gate, the wall bends slightly to the east. 

A narrow strip of almost level ground, thickly covered with Moslem 
iombs, runs along the wall from St. Stephen's Gate to the Golden Gate, 
but beyond this the ground falls steeply to the Kedron, except to the east 
of the Birket Israil, where a projecting mamelon has been formed by the 
rubbish which for many years has been thrown out of St. Stephen's Gate- 

The excavations made by Captain Warren with a view of examining 

the wall beneath the surface at the north-east angle are \vithout a parallel 

in the history of excavation ; the deepest shaft reached the rock at 

125 feet from the surface, and in one shaft alone no 
Beneath the ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^.^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ gaUery were 

excavated, t At a small offset in the wall, 34 feet 
south of St. Stephen's Gate, a shaft was sunk to the rock, which was 

* Several of the stones in this part of the wall are fragments of old door jamb, 
and linteh ; the upper masonry is of small stones. 

t Fall details of these excavations will be foind in the " Recovery of Jeru- 
salem," r- 159-188. 



42 THE MASONRY OF THE HARAM WALL. 

found 20 feet below the surface, at tlie level 2,390 feet. The wall is 
here built on a bed of concrete, 9 feet thick, which lies on the rock, and 
is composed of " stones about 6 inches cube and hard lime." A sloping 
gallery was next driven southwards along the wall from the top of the 
concrete for a distance of 44 feet 6 inches, when a shaft was sunk to the 
rock at the level 2,377 feet. There is no definite description of those 
portions of the wall seen in this shaft and gallery, but Captain Warren 
states that the wall is "of no very ancient date," * and that " there is no 
appearance of an older wall,"t than the present one, which is of later 
date than the " Castle of Antonia." At 19 feet from the shaft the 
gallery passed a 3-foot wall of rough masonry lying east and west, and 
to the south of it a pavement of rude tesserce, at the level 2,391 feet. At 
38 feet the top of a barrel drain was crossed, and at 40 feet another wall. 
An examination of the di'ain led to the discovery of an aqueduct which 
apparently led from the Birket Israil at the level 2,390 feet. The 
aqueduct was followed for 39 feet. Its south side is built with large 
well-dressed stones, but it does not seem to be very old, and must have 
been built after the destruction of the old wall. 

Another shaft was siuik atapotnt 97 feet due east of the north-cast angle, 
and a gallery driven in from it towards the wall at the level 2,3G3 feet 
3 inches. This gallery struck the wall at a point, P, 18 feet south of the 
angle, and was continued northwards along the wall for a distance of 
75 feet. For 65 feet the stones in the wall are similar to those at the 
Wailing Place, but for the remaining 10 feet the stones are rough, with 
faces projecting from 6 inches to 10 inches, and well-cut marginal 
drafts. ;f No straight joint such as that visible above ground between 
the " Castle of Antcnia" and the City WaU was noticed in the gallery. 
The wall runs on beyond the north-east angle without a break of any 
kind, and there is no projection. At a distance of 26 fett from the point 
P, an opening or slit 18 inches wide and 4 inches high was found, which 
proved to be a light shaft to the old overflow duct from the Birket Israil. 
At 64 feet there is a concrete floor ascending to the north. It may be 
observed that there is a distance of about 58 feet between the end of this 
gallery and that of the gallery from the shaft south of St. Stephen's 
Gate, and that the latter lies 14 feet above the former. This ground has 
never been explored, and it is therefore uncertain where, or in what 
manner, the change from the old to the modern masonry takes place. 

At the point P, 18 feet south of the north-east angle, a shaft was 
sunk to the rock, level 2,327 feet 3 inches. For aheight of 18 feet 1^ inches 
above the rock the wall is made up of six courses of stone with marginal 
drafts, and faces projecting in some instances as much as 25 inches ; and 
above these seven courses of stones, like those in the Wailing Place, were 

* "Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 161. t Ibid., i\ 170. 

t The stones are said to be similar to those at the bottom of the Castle of 
Antonia. 



THE MASONRY OF THE HARAM WALL. 43 

examined. The shaft passed through layers of black earth and stone 
chippings. The rock at the bottom falls sharply to the south, and is cut 
into to receive the stones of the Haram Wall. 

From the point P the gallery was also continued at the same level, 
2,363 feet 3 inches, to the south corner of the " Castle," and here a shaft 
was sunk to the rock, which was foimd, at the level 2,293 feet 1 inch, to 
fall at a slope of 2 in 1 to the south. The fifteen lowest courses of the 
wall, making up a total height of 48 feet, are of stones with well- cut 
marginal drafts, and faces that project, on an average, 10 inches. Thus 
far each course is set back 4i inches, but with the sixteenth course the 
development of the "Castle of Antonia" commences. This is effected 
by setting back the courses of the wall from 4 inches to 7 inches, whilst 
those of the " Castle " are set back only about IJ inches. At the level of 
the gallery, 70 feet above the rock, the "Castle" projects nearly 2 feet 
beyond the wall, and a similar rate of development continued to the 
surface would give the existing projection of 7 feet. There is no straight 
joint between the "Castle" and the wall to the south. As far as the 
masonry was examined the stones were cut out to the requii-ed depth, 
2 feet ; but above this they are, no doubt, properly bonded, like the four 
courses visible above the surface. The stones which form the face of the 
" Castle," commencing with the seventeenth coiu-se above the rock, are 
sioiUar to those at the WaUing Place, while those in the wall to the 
south have rough projecting faces, and this style of masonry probably 
continues to the Golden Gate. It may be remarked, however, that the 
faces of these stones ' ' are quite inilike the roughly-faced stones at the 
south-west angle." * On the third course from the rock, level 2,300 feet 
9 inches, some red-painted characters were found. " The face of the 
stone was not dressed, but in the working of it a large piece had split 
off, leaving a smooth face, and on this the characters were painted. In 
one case the letter appeared to have been put on before the stone was 
laid, as the trickling from the pain-t was on the upper side." f In the 
eighth course one of the stones is patched up "with small stones and 
mortar, rendered on outside to look like stone." J The shaft passed 
chiefly through layers of earth and large stones, but at 52 feet 5 inches 
it came upon a small drain, and at 58 feet a layer of dry shingle. The 
gallery, level 2,363 feet 3 inches, was continued along the Haram Wall 
to a point 75 feet south of the " Castle of Antonia," where loose shingle 
prevented further progress. The masonry consists of stones with 
marginal drafts and rough projecting faces. At a point 63 feet south 
of the "Castle" a shaft was sunk to a depth of 60 feet 6 inches, and 
galleries were then driven north and south along the Haram Wall for 
18 feet and 41 feet 6 inches respectively. From these galleries three 
shafts were sunk, to determine the form of the bed of the ravine. The 

* "Recovery of Jerusalem, " p. 167. t Ibid., p. 183. 

X Hid., p. 183, called fourteenth course. 



44 THE MASONRY OF THE HARAM WALL. 

result showed that the bottom of the ravine is 61 feet south of the 
" Castle," at the level 2,278 feet 3 inches, or 125 feet 9 inches below the 
surface of the ground outside the wall, and 138 feet 9 inches below the 
level of the Haram at the north-east angle. The rock rises about 
11 feet in 43 feet to the south, and about 10 feet 6 inches in 16 feet to 
the north. The courses in the Haram Wall are from 2 feet 10 inches to 
4 feet high, and the rock is ever5^where cut away in steps to receive the 
lowest stones. The masonry is all of one style, the stones having well- 
cut marginal drafts and rough projecting faces. On one stone, at the 
level 2,326 feet, a maik was found, but " it is difficult to say whether it 
is natural or not " The shaft at first passed through black earth, but at 
the level 2,344 feet 6 inches it came upon a bed of broken cut stone with 
marginal drafts, 13 feet 6 inches thick, resting on 5 feet of earth and 
gravel in alternate beds. This was succeeded by 13 feet of loose shingle 
and stone chippings, and beds of black or red clay and small stones. At 
the level 2,310 feet is the small drain met with to the north, and below 
it are tesserce supposed to be Roman. At the level 2,301 feet broken 
pieces of pottery were found. 

Several shafts were sunk to the east of the waU between St. Stephen's 
Gate and the " Castle of Antonia," with a view of ascertaining the 
natural features of the ground. The results obtained will be readily 
a^)ire3iated by reference to the plan, which shows approximately the 
contours. The rubbish found in the shafts was of similar character to 
that already described ; two or three feet of red earth resting on the 
rock, and then successive layers of black earth and shingle. 'At one 
point an aqueduct,* apparently a continuation of that mentioned as 
running from the Birket Israil at the^level 2,390 feet, was found, and a 
very massive wall of drafted stones lying north and south at a distance 
of 65 feet from the city wall. Towards the north the massive masonry 
gave place to weU-dressed stones without drafts, and these again to a 
wall of small stones ; southwards, after 19 feet, the wall turns to the west, 
and the stones here "have a curious cracked appearance as if they had 
lieen subjected to great heat." The stones in this wall differ in height 
and are not in situ. 

It would appear, then, that the masonry of the 
Gaieral remarks jj^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^j^^ "Castle of Antonia" to the 

^"' J^ Golden Gate has certain characteristics not found in any 

ng e. q^j^^j. ggc^ion of the wall; that at the Throne of Solomon 
there is a slight bend in the wall, which may or may not exist in the 
lower and older masonry beneath the surface; that the "Castle of 
Antonia" is of the same date as the wall to the south, and at its base in 
the same straight line, but that from the manner in which it is bmlt it 
projects 7 feet at the present surface level ; that the stones forming the 
face of the " Castle " from the point at which it commences its develop- 

* "Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 178. t Ihi'l.,^. 179. 



THE MASONTvY OF TITE IIA-RAM -WALL. 45 

ment, are similar in all respects to those at the "Wailing Place ; that the 
north end of the " Castle," which is also the north-east angle of the 
Haram, is marked by no projection, the wall to the north being in line 
Avith the face of the " Castle ; " that above the surface there is a straight 
joint between the old masonry of the " Castle" and the more modern 
masonry of the city wall to the north, whilst 44 feet below the surface 
the masonry of the " Castle " is carried on without a break for 57 feet, 
the stones for 47 feet being like those at the Wailing Place, and for 
10 feet with projecting faces; that 114 feet G inches north of the 
"Castle" the city wall, of comparatively recent date, stands on a bed 
of concrete 10 feet thick, which rests upon the rock; and that 8 feet 
north of the " Castle " there is in the older masonry an overflow duct from 
the Birket Israil at the level 2,345 feet 6 inches, that of the bottom of 
the pool being 2,325 feet. Unfortunately the line of junction between 
the older and later masonry north of the " Castle of Antonia " was not 
examined, and it is stUl uncertain hov/ the old wall was finished off in 
this direction. It seems on the whole not unlikely that, when the 
" Castle" was built, the present north wall of the Haram at the Birket 
Israil was the northern limit of the city, and that up to a certain height the 
masonry of the " Castle" was carried northwards to form a dam for the 
pool, then without the walls. At a later date, when the spur on which 
the Church of St. Anne stands was included in the city limits, the dam 
was raised to its present height, and the wall continued to the north. It 
is not easy to see why the builders of the east and north walls of the 
Haram should have carried the former across a deep ravine, and then 
almost immediately have turned westward and recrossed the same ravine 
to form the north wall. Possibly the rock scarp at the north-west angle 
was in existence at the time, and gave the direction of the north wall. 
The stone used at the north-east angle is " not so compact and hard as 
that used at the south-east angle, and the chisel- working is not so care- 
fully done." The characters in red paint do not appear to have any 
significance. 

The level of the rock beneath St. Stephen's Gate is 2,390 feet, and 
from this point it falls 112 feet in about 341 feet to the bed of the ravine 
(2,278 feet 3 inches) ; the rock then commences to rise, and at the Golden 
Gate, about 317 feet to the south, it has probably attained an altitude of 
2,360 feet. The rock was eveiywhere fovmd to be cut away or levelled 
to receive the stones of the lowest course of the wall. 

The character of the rubbish throws no light on the history of the wait ; 
from the fact, however, that the rubbish at St. Stephen's Gate, and for 
some distance to the south, is only 20 feet deep, it may be inferred that 
there has been no extensive destruction of buildings in this locality, and 
that the massive masonry of the Haram "Wall never extended so far to 
the north.* 

* The following are the principal levels : — 

Surface of Harain at north-east angle 2,417 feet. 



46 THE MASOKPvY OF THE HAKAM WALL, 

It is also evident that in order to raise the surface of the Haram area 
at the north-east angle to its present level the ravine has been filled up 
to a height of more than 120 feet, either by the gradual accumulation of 
rubbish, or by a system of vaults similar to that at the south-east angle. 
The piers of the Golden Gate are built of stones 
Golden Gate. ^^-^^-^ i^ave plain chiseUed faces; the northern 
pier is not so well built as the southern, and stones taken from 
other buildings appear to have been used in its construction.* 
The piers are flanked by buttresses of more modern date, which were 
built to sustain the mass of masonry placed above the gateway 
when it was turned into one of the flanking towers of the wall, and 
the entrance was probably closed at the same period ; to obtain the 
necessary slope or batter the buttresses were pushed forward four inches, 
and to take away the unsightliness of the projection the inner edges 
were chamfered. 

The ground in front of the Golden Gate is so fully occupied by tombs 
that no excavations are possible, but Captain Warren attempted to 
reach the wall by sinking a shaft 143 feet from the south end of the 
gate, in a line perpendicular to its front, and then driving a gallery 
westward. The shaft was . sunk to a depth of 26 feet 6 inches through 
loam with shingle, stone packing, and dark brown loam, and the gallery 
was then commenced. At 125 feet from the Haram Wall the mouth of 
a tank or rock-hewn tomb was passed at the level 2,311 feet ; at 
108 feet 9 inches a rock scarp with a rough masonry wall at the top ;t at 
79 feet 7 inches a portion of the shaft of a column, 3 feet in diameter, 
erect in the debris, 3 feet above the rock ; and at 50 feet 9 inches a massive 
wall running north and south which stopped further progress. J The 
wall was traced 14 feet to the south without any break, but to the north 
it gradually tm-ns to the west, apparently following the contour of the 
ground. The masonry is composed of " largo quarry-dressed blocks of 
missce," like those in the Haram Wall near the Golden Gate; the 
"roughly-dressed faces of the stones project about 6 inches beyond the 
marginal drafts, which are very rough." The stones appear to be in 
courses 2 feet 6 inches high, and the horizontal joints, about 12 inches 
wide, are packed with stones 6 inches cube, set in a cvu-ious cement said 
to be made of lime, oil, and the virgin red earth. The rubbish passed 
through in this excavation was of a most dangerous character, "loose 



Surface of (ground outside Castle of Antonia ... 2,404 feet 



2,390 

2,278-25 „ 

2,325 „ 

2,345-5 „ 



Rock at 34 feet south of St. Stephen's Gate 

Bed of ravine 61 feet south of Castle of Antonia 

Bed of Birket Israil 

Floor of overflow passage 

* Some of the stones have reveals cut in them. 

t On the scarp, about 2 feet 10 inches from the bottom, is a hole cut for a 
rope, similar to those in "Solomon's Stables." 
t The rock level under the massive wall is 2,336 fee*-. 



THE MASOMIY OF THE HARAM "WALL. • 47 

boulders alternating with layers of shingle," and it was not found 

possible to continue the galleries to the north and south, or break 

through the wall, which was penetrated, however, to a depth of 5 feet 

inches. Another shaft was sunk 100 feet east of the Golden Gate in 

search of a tower said to have been seen by a fellah, but after reaching 

a depth of 27 feet it had to be abandoned on account of the loose and 

dangerous character of the rubbish. 

The excavations show that, at the Golden Gate, the Haram WaU 

probably extends between thii-ty and forty feet beneath the present 

surface, and it is a question whether it does not stand on the foundations 

of a tower buUt, like that at the north-east angle, to project in front of 

the line of the wall. There seem, too, some grounds for supposing* 

that the massive wall reaches to the surface, and in this case there may 

have been at one time a terraced walk fifty feet broad in front of the 

Haram Wall. 

n 1^ n , . From the Golden Gate to the so-caUed postern, 

Golden Gate to ,. , e n^ £ j. 1.1. ,-, \. 

S E Anale ^ distance of 51 feet, there arc three courses of 

large stones with marginal drafts 3 inches to 
6 inches wide, and extremely rough faces, projecting in many cases as 
much as 9 inches. Over the doorway of the postern there is a sort of 
lintel, but there are no regular jambs, and the whole has more the 
appearance of a hole broken through the masonry and afterwards 
roughly filled up than that of a postern in a city wall ; still it probably 
marks the site of Mejr-ed-Din's Gate of Burak. To the south of this 
there is a curious stone, hollowed into the shape of a basin, which on 
three sides is perforated by a round hole, and attached to one at the 
back is a portion of an earthenware pipe, which was probably at one 
time connected with the water-supply system of the Haram, and sup- 
plied a fountain at this place. Scaith wards from the postern the stones 
all have plain cliiselled faces, and portions of several broken marble 
columns have been buUt transversely into the wall with their ends left 
projecting several inches ; but shortly after passing " Mahomet's PiUar " 
the lowest courses are again built of stones -wdth rough projecting faces 
and marginal drafts simQar to those between the Golden Gate and the 
postern, and these stones extend to a break in the waU 105 feet 6 inches 
from the south-east angle. 

An excavation was commenced 300 feet south of the Golden Gate, 
east of the cemetery, but when within 60 feiet of the Haram Wall the 
shingle became too loose to work in. From one of the shafts at the 
south-east angle Captain Warren drove a gallery northwards along the 
tenth course of the Haram Wall, andj at 108 feet from the angle he 
came upon a break in the ]waU corresponding to that above groimd, 
and beyond this found an entire change in the masonry, the stones 
having marginal drafts and projecting faces similar to those already 
described as being visible above the surface. The gallery was continued 

* " Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 159, 



48 THE MASONRY OF THE HARAM WALL. 

nortliward for 25 feet, when the bed of the course was found to rise 
4 inches, and at a further distance of 28 feet 3 inches, or 161 feet 
3 inches from the angle, the rock was met with, at the level 2,312 feet, 
" rising to the north and cut out for the reception of the stones." All 
the stones, from the break in the wall to the rock, a distance of 53 feet 
3 inches, had projecting faces and marginal drafts. Between the point 
where the rock was struck and the Golden Gate the wall has nowhere 
been seen beneath the surface of the ground.* 

At the south-east angle fourteen courses of stone, 
S. E. Angle, ^^^^ 3 ^^^^ g inches to 6 feet 1 inch high, with 
Masonry a ove jj^g^j,gjj^a,l drafts, are exposed, giving a height of about 
54 feet 2 inches above the surface. The stone in the 
seventh course from the ground, 6 feet 1 inch high, forms part of the " great 
course " which occurs at intervals in the south wall, and is the heaviest 
stone yet found in the Haram WaU. The bed of this course is on a level 
with the floor of the vaults known as "Solomon's Stables," which 
occupy the south-eastern comer of the enclosure. The courses as they 
rise are set back from J inch to J inch. Many of the stones in the wall, 
taken from the malaki beds, are much weather-worn, whilst others from 
the missce beds retain their sharpness and are beautifully finished. On 
some of the stones are projecting bosses or tenons, the object of which 
is not clear. Similar projections may be seen in the wall of the Haram 
at Hebron, and also in the masonry of " David's Tower." Above the 
drafted stones there is about 23 feet 4 inches of modem masonry sadly 
out of repair, and looking as if the least touch would bring it down. 
The wall is thus 77 feet 6 inches above the present surface of the 

ground. 

About 74 feet northward of the south-east angle there is an offset in 
the east wall, formed by notching out the stones, which marks the north 
end of the comer tower, and, as the marginal draft appears on both 
tower and wall, it would appear that the stones are in the position in 
which they were originally placed by the builders. A few feet to the 
north of the offset there are two stones which form the springing of an 
arch, and extend over a length of 18 feet. Those stones do not appear 
to be in situ, and there is nothing in their appearance to justify the 
belief that they formed part of the arch of a bridge over the Kedron 
Valley.t They probably come from the ruins of the corner tower, as 
they are somewhat similar to some large stones in the building known as 
the "Cradle of Jesus," which formed part of the covering arch of a chamber 
in the tower. Immediately above the arch stones there is a chamber in 
the thickness of the wall which seems to have been a window, but one 

* Captain "Warren thinks that the old Temple wall of Solomon still exists in 
this section of the Haram Wall (" Recovery of Jerusalem," 153). 

t Captain Warren searched for the pier of the supposed arch, but could find 
no trace of it a few feet above the rock. He believes that the " Red Heifer 
Bridge " commenced at a point 600 feet north of the south-east angle. 



THE HASONKY OF TlIK UAKAM AVALL. 49 

made at some period of reconstruction ; both ends are now closed with 
masonry. At tlic north end of the arch stones, IOj feet 6 inches from 
the corner, there is a break in the wall, and then follows the roughly- 
finished masonry described above.* On the south face of the south-east 
angle the fourteen courses of drafted stones break down rax)idly, and 
the ground at the same time rises sharply, so that within 100 feet of the 
comer only one course can be seen. There is no offset in the masonry 
corresponding to that on the east face. The inner faces of the stones in 
the east wall, exposed in the vaults of "Solomon's Stables," are left 
rough as they came from the quarry. In the angle itself there is a 
mass of very coarse rubble masonry, large blocks of stone thrown 
irregularly together, and the interstices packed with small stones and 
mortar, to which the finer masonry of the south-east angle is the facing. 
The inner faces were possibly finished off in the same manner. Above 
the rubble masonry is the mosque containmg the " Ci'adle of Jesue," 
and here there is the springing of a heavy arch, which is apparently of 
the same age as the drafted work outside, and possibly formed part of 
the covering arch of a chamber in the tower. 

The masonry of the south-east angle beneath the 
Masonry beneatii „ --i-i ^ ■> Jl jn- 

, „ . ^ surface was examnied by several shafts and gailories. 

There are 21 courses of drafted stones, maldng up 

a height of about 80 feet 5 inches, or of 79 feet 3 inches above the 

rock, the lowest course being let into the rock. The five lowest courses 

are "in the most excellent preservation, as perfect as if they had 

been cut yesterday."t They are very well dressed, and, with a few 

exceptions, " differ in nowise from the perfect specimens above grounds 

The marginal drafts and about two inches round the projecting surface 

have been picked over with an eight-toothed chisel, about eight teeth to 

the inch ; within this a ' point,' or single-pointed chisel, has been used."J 

For twenty feet beneath the surface the stones on the south face are 

" comparatively small with those visible above, and similar in everyway 

to those at the Jews' Wailing Place." § On the cast face the c-ourses are 

set back, as they rise, from 3 inches to 6 inches, || whilst, on the south 

face, they are only set back 1 inch. As the masonry of the south-east 

angle is somewhat peculiar, it will be necessary to examine each course 

uncovered more closely. 

The first or hase course is 3 feet 8 inches high ; it is partially sunk ii4 

the rock at the angle, but proceeding northward it was found " to be let 

entirely into the rock until at about 41 feet it ceased, the rock risinfj 



* Page 47. 

t "Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 139. % Ihid., p. 139. 

§ Letter I., p. 9, Qiuirterly Statement, Palestine Exploration Fund, 1867. 

II The set-off is said to be 3 inches to 4 inches in "Recovery of Jerusalem," 
p. 149, and to be 6 inches ia Letter VIII., p. 21, Quartcrlij Statc;.v:nt, Palestine 
Exploration Fund, 1867. 



50 THE MASONRY OF THE HAEAM WALL. 

abruptly, and the second course being let into it." * There are drafts on 
the upper margins of the stones ; the course rests on very hard rock, 
missce, but the ui^per portion through which it is sunk is very soft and 
much decayed. The second course is 4 feet 3^ inches high; the first 
stone, 10 feet 6 inches long, has a 1-inch draft at top and an ordinary 
one at bottom; it is " very roughly dressed -within the drafts." The 
second stone has an S^-inch draft at top and If-inch at bottom, and is 
well dressed ; the thii'd stone has no draft at top, and a 16j-inch draft 
at bottom ; f the fourth stone has a 12-inch draft at top ; the lower 
draft was not seen; the remaining stones have ordinary drafts of from 
3 inches to 4 inches. The third course is 4 feet 2^ inches high, and is 
set back 4i inches ; the first stone has no draft at top, and a 4i-inch 
draft at bottom ; the upper drafts of the remaining stones were not 
seen; the lower drafts are all 4^ inches; the second stone is "cut in a 
very superior style." The fourth course is 3 feet Ih inches high, and is 
set back 2| inches ; the first stone has a shallow 9-inch draft at top, but 
except for this is " like the stones above ground;" the remaining stones 
have 9-inch drafts at top ; the lower drafts were not seen. The fifth 
course is 3 feet 8 inches high, J and is set back 4 inches ; the first stone is 
" similar in every respect to the best specimens of stones found at the 
south-east angle above the surface;" the third and eighth stones are 
very roughly dressed ^vithin the drafts ; § the face of the eleventh stone 
"projects about ^ inch too much, and has been worked down over 
about half its surface." At 70 feet from the angle the rock crops up 
abruptly. The sixth course || is 3 feet 6 inches high ; the first stone is 
20 feet long from east to west, and its western end is let into the rock, 
which cuts its upper edge at 18 feet west of the angle. The seventh 
course is 4 feet high. One stone in the south face was exposed in the 
shaft sunk to the west of the Ophel wall ; it had a 6-inch draft at top 
and bottom, and " the centre bulged out and was not dressed."^ The 
tenth course, 3 feet 8 inches high, was found to consist of drafted stones 
similar to those at the surface, but at a point 64 feet 3 inches from the 
south-east angle, "the height of the course increased to 4 feet 2 J inches 
by being let down into the course below; this continues up to 108 feet 
from the south-east angle, where there appears to be a break in the wall ; 
that is to say, the coiu'se in continuation is only 3 feet 3g- inches in 

* " Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 147. 

f "Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 148. This draft is said to be 13 inches (" Re- 
covery," p. 144). 

+ " Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 138. At p. 333 it is given as 4 feet 2| inches. 

^ Captain Warren remarks on these rough stones that they do not appear ' ' to 
form any pattern on the wall, and one is almost led to suppose that the builders 
were imable to find suitable dressed stones for breaking joint, and had to take 
those that were unfinished" (" Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 143). 

II The south face only of this c utso was seen. 

H This projection is said to be 9 inches on one of the lithographs of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund. 



THE MASONRY OF THE HARAM WALL, 51 

height, and its bed is 1 foot 10 inches above the course we had been 
running along ; there appears to bo a straight joint here through three 
courses, but of this we could not be certain." * Captain Wari'on states 
that at the break in the wall ' ' a strong gush of wind issued during the 
«ast wind, but not duiing the west." This shows conclusively that the 
break runs up the wall to that noticed above the surface at a point 
105 feet 6 inches from the corner, f Beyond the straight joint the stones 
have projecting faces. No trace was seen in the tenth course of the 
■offset which marks the north face of the corner tower. 

The angle of the comer stone of the base course, 
„ . , as measured by Captain Warren, is 92 degrees 35 
mmutes, and of the comer stone at the surface, 92 
-degrees 5 minutes ; the general direction of the east wall, with 
reference to the south wall, as determined by the survey, is 92 
degrees 50 minutes, or nearly 3 degrees beyond a right-angle. The 
wall at the south-east angle would appear to be made up of twenty- 
one courses of drafted stones beneath the surface, and fourteen above, 
giving a height of 134 feet 7 inches drafted work, and this, with the 
more recent masonry above, makes a total height of 157 feet 11 inches, 
or of 156 feet 9 inches above the rock. There are a few points con- 
nected with the masonry to which attention may be drawn. The very 
unequal width of the marginal drafts, and the occasional presence of 
stones with rough faces in the five lower courses, would seem to indicate 
a reconstruction, for Captain Warren's explanation of the latter feature 
■can hardly be accepted ; in the tenth course there has almost certainly 
been a reconstruction at the point 64 feet 3 inches from the south-east 
angle, where there is a change in the height of the course. An examina- 
tion of the tenth course, the top of which is at the level 2,315 feet 
also showed that the offset of the corner tower, which forms such a marked 
•feature above the surface of the ground, is not continued to a depth of 
■40 feet beneath it. The straight joint 108 feet from the south-east 
angle, which appears to run a long way up the wall, and marks a 
distinct change in the style of the masonry, is exactly the same distance 
from the corner towards the north as the east face of the " Great 
Passage " beneath the Single Gate, which is built with drafted stones, is 
towards the west, and it is a question whether these two points may not 
possibly indicate the limits of the original structure, a corner tower 
unconnected ^vith the walls. J 

* " Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 150. 

t If, as there is some reason for supposing, there was once a tower at the south- 
east angle unconnected with the wall, the difference between the two dimensions 
105 feet 6 inches and 108 feet, would correspond exactly to the batter of the 
northern and southern faces, 1 foot 3 inches for each face. 

X The Haram Wall was not seen above or below the Great Passage, so that 
the existence of a straight joint in the masonry at tliat point is at present a 
matter of speculation. 



52 THE MASONKY Ol' THE 1IARA:M WALL. 

_, „ ,,., The rubbish at the south-east angle consists "of 

stone chippuigs, alternating with layers of fat earth, 

and in some places rough stones about a foot wide;"* immediately 

above the rock there is a layer of fat mould abounding in fragments 

of pottery, which "slopes to the east at an angle of about one in 

four; "f this mould " does not lie close up against the Haram Wall, 

but is at top, about 12 inches from it, and gradually closes in to 

it; between it and the wall is a wedge of stone chippings ; it is quite 

evident that Avhen the wall was built, this 10 feet of mould and pottery 

was in existence, that it was cut through, and the soft rock also, 

for the xDurpose of laying the stones on a solid foundation." J The 

layers of stone chippings above the mould slope to the oast at about 

one in three, but at one point " they slope in towards the Haram Wall, 

instead of away from it; "§ the chippings at the base of the wall '' are 

in many cases rounded and unlike what would result from stone 

dressing, having more the appearance of the backing used in the walls 

at the i^resent day in Palestine ; " || a black substance somewhat like 

charred wood was foimd amongst them. Four feet below the surface 

the " Ophel Wall " was found ; it abuts against the south face of the 

south-east angle with a straight joint and extends down to, and rests 

upon, a "hard layer of clay" which overlies the rock; west of the 

Ophel Wall there is a 4-foot wall of hard viissce, which runs parallel to 

the Haram Wall, and at a distance of lo feet from it. In driving a 

gallery from a shaft 20 feet south-east of the south-east angle, Captain 

Warren passed thi'ough " two rough masonry walls, running respectively 

north and south and east and west." ^ Between the south-east angle 

and the Kedron, all attempts to reach the rock by shafts or galleries 

from the surface were unsuccessful, owing to the quantity of "dry 

loose shingle lying at an angle of 30 degrees," which, " when it got a 

start, ran like water; " the shingle, stone chippings without a particle of 

earth, was, in character, almost a fluid. 

^, „ , The rock at the south-east angle is very soft and 

The Hock. , , 11. ^1 ■ •*. • 1 c. 

much decayed, but apparently missa:; it rises lf> 

feet 4 inches in 7(3 feet to the north, and about 21 feet in 18 

feet to the west ; on the east it is nearly level for 8 feet or 10 feet, 

iind then falls away at a slope of about one in nine to the Kedi-on.** 

* "Recovery of Jerusalem,'* p. 137. t IbUL, p. 112. 
; 7i(V7,,p.l41. i^ Ibid.,i>. 139. 
II nid.,-i).lU. 11 If^id-, V- 13S. 

• * The true bed of the Kedron is 63 feet west of the apparent one, and 082 feet 
below it. The rook rises gently to the west for 60 feet, then more abruptly at 
Jill angle of about 30°. From the south-east angle of the Haram Wall to the true 
bed of the Kedron, 240 feet due east, tlie roi;k has a total fall of 106 feet. There 
is no perennial stream in the Kedron, but after heavy rain water flows along its 
bed. In driving his gallery up the western bank, Captain Wancu found several 
walls, apparently built to support terraces. 



THE MASONRY 01' THE IIARAM WALL. o6 

Four foet north of the angle the rock near the wall is cut away " in the 

form of a semicircle or horseshoe, 2 feet wide and about 2 feet 8 inches 

deep." 

_, ^, Tlie characters found by Captain Warren on the 

The Characters. , , ,, , n ^ ,i .-, j. „i^ 

lower courses of the east wall at the south-east angle 

are either cut into or painted on the stones. The incised characters 
are cut to a depth of | inch ; the painted characters, some of which 
are 5 inches high, were pi'oLably put on with a brush ; they are in 
red jiaint, apparently vermUlion, and easily rubbed off with awetted 
finger. There are also " a few red splashes here and there, as if the 
paint had dropped from the brush." * The characters are irregularly 
distributed over the stones ; in the second course the second and 
third stones from the corner have characters ; in the third course the 
first stone has one character, the second none, the third, fourth, and fifth 
"a few faint red paint marks," the sixth an incised character ; in the 
fourth course no marks were seen ; in the fifth course nearly every stone, 
except the first, has one or more characters, and in seven instances there 
is a character at the left-hand top corner of the stone ; the first, or corner 
stone of this coiirse, has two characters on its south face. No characters 
were seen in the tenth course. 

These grapliiti were examined by the late Mr. Emanuel Deutsch, and 
the conclusions which he came to were as follows : — I. " The signs out or 
painted were on the stones when they were first laid in their present 
places. II. They do not represent any icscription. III. They are 
Phoenician. I consider them to be partly letters, partly numerals, and 
partly special masons' or quarry signs. Some of them were recognisable at 
once as well-known Phoenician characters ; others hitherto unknown in 
Phoenician epigraphy I had the rare satisfaction of being able to identify on 
absolutely undoubted Phoenician structures in Syria." Mr. Deutsch adds 
that he thinks " all attempts to determine the exact meaning of each and 
all of these technical {■igns Avould, at least at this stage, be premature." f 
The pottery obtained by Captain Warren during 
•^' the excavations at the south-east angle consists of : 
(f/) a small jar found in a hole cut out of the rock, " standing up- 
right, as though it had beea purposely placed there; "f \h) frag- 
ments, amongst which there was a "long rusty iron nail," from the 
bed of clay or rich mould, 10 feet thick, which overlies the soft 
rock ; and (c) fragments from a layer of broken pottery about 2 inches 
thick which rests on the mould. (</) It has been suggested that the 
small jar was placed in the hole when the wall was built, and that it 
might therefore give some indication of the age of the masonry at the 



* "Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 139. 

+ Quartcrhj Statement of Palestine Exploration Fund, No. 2, 1369, p. 35. 
X "Kecovcry of Jerusalem," p. 141. The hole is 1 foot wide, 1 foot deep, 
and situated 3 feet east of the south-east angle. 



54 THE MASONRY OF THE HAEAM VALL. 

angle. Dr. Birch, probably the highest li\'ing authority on such matters, 
states that it is just possible that the vase, which resembles Egyptian 
ware in shape, might be as old as the fourth or fifth c ^ntury B.C.* Mr. 
Greville Chester observes that the vase "is of palu red ware, and of a 
common Grseco-Phoenician type." t (^) Amongst the fragments from 
the mould are several broken lamps " of red or brownish ware," with one, 
two, or three lips," which " seem adapted for the burning of fat rather 
than oil." Lamps of the same design have been found in Cyprus and 
Malta, and Mr. A. W. Franks considers them "to be of late date — not 
earlier than the second century before the Christian era." J (c) From 
the layer of broken pottery six vase handles were brought home, each of 
which "bears impressed upon it a more or less well-defined figure, 
resembling in some degree a bird, but believed to represent a winged 
Sun or Disc, probably the emblem of the Sun God, and possibly of royal 
power.",§ There are Phoenician characters, similar in shape to those of the 
Moabite stone, on each handle, above and below the wings, and in two 
instances they have been read by Dr. Birch as follows : — 

LeMeLeK ZePHa . . . . To or of King Zepha. 
LeK SHaT King Shat. 

jM. Ganneau, on the other hand, transcribes the inscriptions as — 

MoLoCHZaPH 
LoCHSHaT 

and believes them to be the names of men composed partly, like 
Hannibal, of the name of a god, Moloch. In this case it xuight possibly 
be the potter's name. Another handle found in the same place bears as 
a potter's mark " a cross within a semicircular mark." CaiDtain Warren 
supposes "the jars to have been broken only a very short time after the 
building of the Avail," and says "it is obvious that these characters are 
likely, in a great measure, to throw Hght ujjon the age of the Sanctuary 
wall at this point." |1 The use of these characters, however, does not 
afford any positive evidence as to age, for, as in the inscriptions on 
coins, they may have been retained on potters' stamps and as masons' 
marks for many years after the Christian era. There is thus at the foot 
of the wall at the south-east angle masonry of a peculiar character, not 
apparently of the best building period, the stones of which bear painted 
or incised masons' marks and Phoenician letters. In a hole in the rock 
in front of the wall a jar was found, which may be as old as the fourth 
or fifth century B.C. Above the jar was a bed of mould abounding in 
fragments of lamps, not earlier in date than the second ceutiuy B.C.; 

* Qiuirkrhj Statement, Palestine Exploration Fund, 1877, p. 75. Dr. Birch 
describes the jar as being of "rather i-ude shape and coarse terra-cotta." 
t "Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 476. % Hid., p. 475-6. 

k Ibid., p. 473. li Hid., p. 152. 



THE MASO^^liY OF THE IIARAM WALL. 55 

and resting on the mould a layer of broken potteiy, from whicli jar- 
handles with Phoenician inscriptions were obtained. If the date assigned 
to the jar be any indication of the ago of the wall, the construction of 
the south-east angle may be due to Nehemiah, and perhaps a recon- 
struction of the " tower that lieth out." 

^, _ , , The fourteen courses of drafted stones visible at the 

tb.E. anqle to the ., . -n . •, ,-, . 

^ . ,^ ^ south-east angle break down rapidly towards the west, 

and near the Single Grate, about lOo feet from the 

comer,* only one course can be seen. Above this there are throe courses 

of large stones plain dressed, and then several coiu-ses of small stones 

similarly dressed. The masonry of the upper portion of the wall is of 

no great age. 

The Single Gate is a closed entrance with pointed arch 

The Single Gate. j. ,. -, ^ i. i.- ^ • -u s i 

•^ 01 comparatively modern construction, which lormerly 

led to the vaults called "Solomon's Stables." Its sill is about 3 feet 9 

inches below the level of the floor of the vaults. Between the Single 

and Triple Gates only one course of drafted stones is visible, and the 

masomy above it is similar to that already described. The chief feature 

^, „ ^ ^ of this section of the wall is the "Great Course," a 

Ifie Crreat Course. i • i /-. . ■ tt^ t • ^ ■. 

name which Captain Warren has given to a course of 

drafted stones from o feet 10 inches to 6 feet 1 inch high, that extends 

continuously for a distance of 70 feet west of the south-east angle, and 

can be traced thence, at intervals, to the Triple Gate-t Its bed is on a 

level with the sill of the Triple Gate and the floor of Solomon's Stables. 

The bed of the course is a straight line, but falls away towards the east, 

so that it is about 2 feet 6 inches lower at the south-east angle than at 

the Triple Gate. " On account of the peculiar nature of the ground " 

this arrangement would be requu-ed, according to Captain WaiTen, " to 

avoid off'ending the eye." 

The masonry at the south-east angle has been described above (p. <51). 

About 77 feet from the corner the wall was examined for several feet 

below the surface, J but there appears to be no record of the measurements 

made. At a distance of about 108 feet from the south-east angle, and 

fpj, fy f immediately beneath the Single Gate, is the "Great 

p Passage," discovered by Captain Warren in 1867. This 

j)assage, G9 feet long, 3 feet wide, and "probably from 

12 feet to 18 feet high," is perpendicular to the south wall of the 

Haram and lies under one of the aisles of Solomon's Stables. Its 

floor appears to be about 30 feet below that of the vaults, and about 

1 1 feet above the rock. The masonry contains stones of large size, and 



* This is exactly the same distance from tlie south-east angle as the straight 
joint in the east wall. 

f There is only one stone i/i situ between the Single and Triple Gates. 

X Letter XXI., Jan. 1st, 1868, Quarterly Statement, Palestine Exploration 
Fund. 



56 THE MASOXRY OF THE IIARAM Yt'ALL. 

nearly all have marginal drafts and are "beautifully worked, but some 
of them are only hammer-dressed." The passage is covered by large 
stones, ill many instances having marginal drafts, which are laid flat on 
the side walls. At a distance of 69 feet * from the entrance, however, 
these roof-stones disappear. There are two entrances, one above the 
other, separated by the thickness of a course of stone, and 7 feet from 
them are "indications of there having been a metal gate." The inner 
end of the passage is closed with broken stones and rubbish, and appears 
to have been " filled up before the piers of the stables were built." f Ou^ 
the east side a small passage was opened out to a depth of 6 feet 6 inches, 
when a shaft, filled with rubbish, was found leading upwards. This was 
cleared for 9 feet and then abandoned on account of excitement in the 
eity. At the bottom of the upper course on each side of the wall are 
"the remains of a small aqueduct jutting out from the wall, made of 
dark cement." 

The object and nature of this passage are exceedingly obscure. Captain 
Warren, in the "Eecovery of Jerusalem, "J states that he has no clue to 
its use; but in a more recent work — "Underground Jerusalem" — he 
identifies it with the passage which carried off the blood from the altar.§ 
It has already been pointed out that the east side of the passage 
may possibly be the west face of a corner tower unconnected with the 
city walls ; and the fact that the side walls and roof contain many stones 
with marginal drafts, beautifully worked, intermixed with others 
hammer-dressed, seems to point to a period of reconstruction. It can 
hardly be supposed that drafted stones dressed with so much care Avould 
be placed in a dark passage, 3 feet wide, where no one could see them, 
and it is a question whether the "Great Passage" does not OAve its 
origin to a modification, at some period, of the original form of the 
South Wall. The oiiestion would at once be set at rest by an examina- 
tion of the wall below the opening, where a straight joint must exist if 
the corner tower wore ever a detached building. Unfortunately Captain 
Warren was unable to examine the wall either above or below the 

* The distance is given as GO feet, "Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 133. 

t Captain Warren's address at annual meeting of the Palestine Exploration 
Fund, June 11th, 1868. Captain Warren says in Letter XVII., November 22nd, 
1807, "It is evident that the passage has been filled up intentionally, and as 
there are some very large stones jammed together at the end, I don't see how we 
are to get through them." 

I Page 134. 

^ Page 71. It would seem much more natural to identify one of the rock- 
hewn passages under the Triple Gate with the blood passage, which would hardly 
liave been built of masonry, and discharged its contents down the face of the 
great retaining wall at a lieight of 11 feet from the ground. Captain Warren, 
however, informs me that there was a drain leading from tlie Great Passage, 
which had become damaged. This drain must have been of much later date than 
ihe passage itself. 



THE IHASONEY OF THE IIAKA>[ WALL. 6' 

opening,* and tlie positions of tlio stones in tlic passage which have 
marginal drafts cannot be indicated on the plan. 

A shaft was sunk 37 feet south of the Single Gate, but it had soon to 
to be closed on account of the dangerous nature of the rubbish, and a 
second shaft commenced 14 feet south of the gate. This shaft, after 
passing through 20 feet of rough stones and rubbish, and 10 feet of firm 
soil having a dark -brown colour, reached the rock at 34 feet G inches 
from the surface. A gallerj- to the Haram Wall, at a height of 11 feet 
■above the rock, struck the entrance to the Great Passage. 

The rock was not seen between the south-east angle and the Triple 
Gate, but beneath the Single Gate it is probably about one foot higher 
than the level at the bottom of the shaft mentioned above ;t this would 
give a rise of 60 feet in 105 feet from the south-east angle to the Single 
Gate, and of 41 feet in ISO feet from the Single to the Triple Gate. 

The Triple Gate consists of three openings in the 
The THplc Gate. ^^^^^ ^^^^, ^^^^^^ ^^.^j^ ^^^^^ masonry, which formerly 

gave access to three vaulted passages running north, and per- 
pendicular to the Haram Wall. The gates are each 13 feet wide 
and covered by semicircular arches; the piers are 6 feet wide, and 
the stones of piers and arches have plain dressed faces. Behiiid the 
semicircular arches, which are 4 feet 8 inches deep, the openings 
widen, and are spanned by elliptical arches which have a rise of 3 
feet 11 inches, and are 8 feet deep; these again are succeeded by 
segmental arches, each of which has a different span. The piers or 
jambs of the gate as seen from the inside appear to have been built with 
old material; in those of the west opening the lowest courses have 
portions of engaged columns built into them. They have no bases, and 
that on the west, which seems to have been cut out of an older wall, is 
let into the rock about 6 or 8 inches. The Haram Wall forming the 
jamb of the eastern opening is entirely composed of small stones Avith 
plain dressed faces, and the jamb of the western opening is of similar 
<;haracter, Avith the exception of the lowest stone, which forms part of 
the "Great Course," and has a sort of architrave moulding, apparently 
Avorked Avhen the gateway was built. On the face of this stone some 
Hebrew characters can be traced. Immediately above the arches is a 
a plinth course, and above this the wall is of mixed character, contauiing 
small stones dressed plain, and others Avith marginal drafts and rough 
projecting faces. 

It seems doubtful AA-hether the Triple Gate is as old as the date 
generally ascribed to it, the reign of Justinian, but on this point some 

"• Captain Warren, "Recovery," p. 332, gives the heights of three courses of 
stone below the passage. These courses, however, were not seen, and the rock- 
leA-el is estimated from the results at a shaft 14 feet south of the Single Gate. 

t Captain Warren gives the level of the rock as 2,361 feet, "Recovery of 
Jerusalem," p. 333. This is evidently an error, as, making allowance for a 
slight rise from the bottom of the shaft to tlie foot of the wall, it cannot he 
more than 2,337 feet, which I have adopted. 



58 THE MASOXRY OP THE IIARAM V.'ALI. 

light may liereafter be thrown by a closer examination of the mode in 
which the stones are dressed than has yet been made. The gateway 
appears to have been built after the removal of a portion of the " Great 
Course," and to be of the same age as the arches over the recesses in the 
western wall of the passage, which are cut out of the solid masonry of 
an older building. It may be noted that the openings are only 13 feet 
wide, whilst those of the Double Gate, Barclay's Gate, and Warren's 
Gate, are from 18 to 19 feet wide. The only traces of an older gateway 
on this spot are the portions of engaged columns built in at several 
places in the vaults and the lintel forming part of one of the piers in 
" Solomon's Stables." 

p In front of the Triple Gate ai"e some large flat slabs 

rp,-, 1 p A of stone, whicli perhaps formed part of a flight of 
steps leading up to it, and beneath them are two 
interestmg rock-hewn passages, first brought to notice by Mons. de 
Saulcy, and afterwards more fully explored by Cajjtain Warren.* 
The western passage forks a few feet south of the Haram Wall ; the 
west branch, 3 feet 6 inches wide, has a channel sunk in its floor, as 
if it had been used as a drain or water channel ; f the east branch is 
4 feet 6 inches wide, and rises very rapidly about 16 feet in 52 feet. 
There are the remains of a doorway near the point of junction, which 
would seem to indicate that it was a secret passage. The eastern passage 
is entirely rock-hewn beneath and on the northern side of the Haram 
Wall, but to the south it is roofed with flat stones laid horizontally or at 
an angle ; on the left-hand side going towards Siloam there is a small 
cistern, and a little beyond the passage winds about, apparently following 
the foundations of some old building, the stones of which are well 
dressed, but have no marginal drafts. This portion is either of later 
date or has been cut through in sinking for the foundations of the build- 
ing; the masonry rests on the rock, and the end is closed Avith rubbish. 
These passages commmiicate with Cistern No. X. at diff'erent levels, as 
well as with the passage from the Triple Gate, and with a passage 
lunning northward which seems to be similar in character to a rock- 
hewn passage a little to the west of Cistern No. VII., and may possibly 
be a continuation of it. The passages are cut out of the malahi bed, 
and their floors are about 19 feet 4 inches below the level of the surface 
in front of the Triple Gate. 

West of the Triple Gate there are two courses of 

' -^ ' stones with marginal drafts visible above ground, and 

r-i p f one of these, the "Great Course," extends almost to 

the Double Gate ; the stones are flnely finished, with 

* The above description is partly from my own notes, made during a visit to 
the place in 1865, and partly from Captain Wancn's account. 

t A similar arrangement was noticed Ly Mr. Eaton at Khureitun, and by 
Captain Warren in the aqueduct near David's tomb. 



THE MASOI^KY OF TIIK IIAEAM WALL. 59 

plain picked faces, and they have a oj-inch draft chiselled round their 

margins. Above the " Great Course," near the Triple Gate, the stones 

are small, with plain dressed faces, but as the Double Gate is approached 

the courses increase in height. These two stylos of masonry correspond 

mth those previously described as overlying, in successive zones, the 

drafted work between the south-west angle and Robinson's Arch, and 

they apparently indicate two building periods. The upper portion of 

the wall is of small stones, some plain dressed, others with margmal 

drafts and rough projecting faces. 

At a point about 120 feet west of the Triple Gate three courses of stone 

were bared,* but the shaft was not carried to the rock. The stones are 

similar to those at the "Wailing Place. The rock was seen in a cistern 

about 190 feet west of the Triple Gate at a depth of 23 feet from the 

surface, so that the original form of the ground can be laid down 

approximately.f 

„, ^ ,T ^ . The Double Gate consists of two entrances, now 

The Double, Gate, ^ ^ i • i _,. ^ j • i. a-i, i 

closed, which formerly opened uito a vestibule, 

whence there was an ascent to the Haram area by a vaulted passage 
perpendicular to the line of the wall. The buildings of the Khatuniyeh 
almost conceal the gate ; part, however, 5 feet 8 inches of the 
eastern entrance, is exposed, and the pier which separates the two 
gates can be partially examined in the Khatuniyeh vaults, which 
can be entered from the vestibule. The total width of the Double Gate 
is 42 feet, that of the pier 6 feet, so that each entrance is IS feet 
wide, corresponding in this respect very nearly with "Barclay's" and 
"Warren's " gates in the west wall. The two openings are covered by 
lintels, the inner ends of which rest on the pier ; above the lintels are 
relieving arches, and over these a cornice ; each lintel is further sup- 
ported by two columns, with capitals and blocks of stone above to make 
up the required height. The masonry of the pier is in all respects 
similar to that of the Wailing Place, but the stones are much weather- 
worn ; the lintels have broad marginal drafts and finely dressed faces ; 
the wall, however, on which the outer ends of the lintels rest, is of a 
different character, the stones being plain di-essed without drafts, and 
on the eastern side the jamb is roughly built. The appearance of the 
inasomy on either side of the gateway is such as to lead to the belief 
that in its present state the Double Gate is a reconstruction with old 



* In Letter I., August 22iid, 1867, Quarterly Statement, P.E.F., the wall is 
said to have been bared for 16 feet ; there is no drawing, but in the table of 
courses, "Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 332, three courses are given, making a 
height of 11 feet. 

t The rock levels obtained from cisterns are not very satisfactoiy ; they show 
that the rock cannot be lower, but it may rise nearer to the surface than the 
point seen in the cistern. 



60 TKE MASONRY OF THE IIARAM WALL. 

material. Immediately under the lintels are two omamenteu arches, 
Avhich form no part of the wall, but are simply fastened on to it -with 
metal cramps ; it is a clumsy piece of Avork, and now almost falling ; 
the style of ornament is similar to that at the Golden Gate. Adjoining 
the eastern relieving arch is the Antonine inscription, built into the wall 
upside do-wn ; most of the letters still retain their sharpness, and can be 
read from the photograph with the aid of a magnifying-glass.* Captain 
Warren estimates the level of the rock at 30 feet below the sill of the 
gateway, and there must therefore have been an ascent by a ramp or 
steps. 

The wall immediately west of the "Double Gate," 
The DouUe Gate ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^g,^ in the vaults . of the Khatuniyeh, 
<y IV A shows a mixture of stones with marginal drafts and 

" ' large stones with plain dressed faces ; but from thence 
to a point about90feet from the south-west angle the latter only are found; 
the remaining portion of the wall is of drafted stones, similar to those 
in the Wailing Place, four courses being visible at the south-west angle. 
The plain dressed stones are irregularly jointed on ta those with mar- 
ginal drafts ; the courses vary in height, and the stones are not well 
laid, the joints having " a wavy appearance," and acting as weepers. 
The upper portion of the wall, in which are the -windows of the building 
ttl Baka'at al Ba'idha, is built of small stones with marginal drafts and 
rough projecting faces, intermixed with stones having plain dressed 
faces. 

The masonry beneath the surface was examined by four shafts sunk 
by the side of the Haram Wall. In Shaft No. I., 213 feet from the 
south-west angle, the rock was met with at 54 feet 10^ inches below 
the present leirel of the ground ; this height was found to be made up 
of fifteen courses of stone, from 3 feet 4^ inches to 4 feet in height. The 
stones in the first six courses above the rock have marginal di-afts and 
rough projecting faces like those described below in Shaft II. ; those of 
the next two courses have marginal drafts and roughly-dressed faces, 
whilst those of the remaining seven courses are similar to the stones in 
the Wailing Place, though much weather-worn. A rough wall abutting 
on the Haram Wall was met wdth in the excavations, and the rock at 
the bottom of the shaft was found to fall to the west, and to have been 
cut away to receive the lowest course. In Shaft II. , 90 feet t from the 



* The inscription is : TITO AELw IIADRIANO ANGusto PIO Vatri 
Tatrice PONTIFiV;i AVGVRe Dccrdo Decurimum. 

t In Captain Warren's early letters, published in the Quarterly Statements of 
the Palestine Exploration Fund, this shaft is always said to be 40 feet from the 
south-west angle, and the same distance is given on a drawing dated October 
2nd, 1867. On later drawings, and in the "Recovery of Jerusalem," the distance 
is given as 90 feet, and this has been adopted in the plans, &c. 



THE MASONRY OF THE HARAM WALL. 61 

south-west angle, the rock is 87 feet 6 inches beneath the surface, the 
height being made up of twenty- four courses from 3 feet 6 inches to 
3 feet 9 inches high ; the foundation stone has a marginal di'aft and is 
finely dressed ; the stones of the next fourteen courses from the rock 
have finely- worked marginal drafts, from 4 inches to 6 inches wide, and 
rough three-cornered faces projecting in some instances 18 inches beyond 
the drafts as if they had not been touched after leaving the quarries ; 
the stone of the sixteenth course has a face projecting 3 inches beyond 
the draft, that of the seventeenth course has a roughly- dressed face, 
whilst the stones of courses eighteen to twenty-one are similar to those 
in the WaiUng Place, but much worn, and those of the remaining three 
courses are plain dressed without drafts. The stones are well fitted 
the joints being "hardly discernible," and so close that "the blade of a 
knife can scarcely be thrust in between them; " the courses are set back 
1 inch to give the wall a batter. At 12 feet 6 inches from the surface 
the shaft came upon a pavement of well-polished missce stones, 
12 inches by 15 inches, and beneath this passed through 16 feet of 
"concrete of stones, bricks, and mortar, in which the seal of Haggai* 
was found; at 28 feet 6 inches the shaft entered a 5-foot stratum of 
loose stones and shingle, and at 33 feet 6 inches came upon larger 
stones, and the top of a rubble wall abutting on the Haram Wall ; at 
79 feet it reached the covering stone of a passage running south, at 
85 feet the bottom of the passage, and at 87 feet 6 inches the roek! 
The passage is of rubble masonry 4 feet and 2 feet wide, with flat 
covering stones. It was cleared out for 600 feet, and appeared to 
follow the bed of the central ravine, the rock rising on either side of 
it. At 350 feet from the wall a drain runs in from the east. The passage 
starts at once from the Haram Wall, and seems to have been cut through 
when that wall was built. At the foot of the shaft, galleries diiven to the 
right and left showed the rock rising to the east and west. In Shaft III., 
64 feet 6 inches from the south-west angle, eight courses of stone, from 
3 feet 4 inches to 3 feet 10 inches in height, were exposed, but the shaft 
was not carried down to the rock ; all the stones have marginal draft?, 
but those of the upper courses are much weather-worn : the stones with 
rough faces were found to commence at the same level as those in 
Shaft II. At 15 feet 6 inches from the surface there is a rough pave- 
ment of stones 12 inches cube, and beneath this the stones in the Haram 
Wall are better preserved. In Shaft IV., at the south-west angle, 
thirteen courses, from 3 feet 4 inches to 4 feet high, were bared ; the 
shaft was only continued to the upper coiu-se of stones with rough faces, 
which is at the same level as in the other shafts. At 23 feet from the 
surface there is a pavement, at 25 feet several Christian lamps were 
found, and at 38 feet there is a second pavement. 

* This seal is inscribed "Haggai, the son of Shebaniah," and is supposed to 
be at least as old as the Maccabcean period. 



62 THE MASONRY OF THE HARAM WALL. 

The excavations seem to show that the niasomy of 
EesuU of the ^^^ Haram Wall between the " Double Gate " and the 
'^ *" * south-west angle is composed, up to the level of 

2,344 feet, of stones with rough projecting faces ; that there are 
then two courses of stones with carelessly dressed faces, reaching to 
2,351 '6 feet, and above these four courses, similar to the Wailing Place 
masoniy, attaining a level of 2, 366 3 feet. At the south-west angle 
there are ten additional courses of drafted stones, but the plain dressed 
stones begin to show themselves in Shaft II. at 2,366-3 feet, and it is clear 
that at this point no less a height than 54 feet of the massive masonry- 
has been overtui-ned, and the wall reconstructed at different periods. As 
far as the drafted stones are concerned the wall, throughout this section , 
is evidently of one construction, and if the courses are compared with 
those in the west wall they will be found to run through to Wilson's 
Arch. 

The chief features in the rubbish are the two pave- 
TheEubhish. j^^^^^^ ^nd the zone of Christian pottery between 
them* the upper pavement extends from the south-west angle at 
least 90 feet along the wall ; * the lower pavement, 20 feet beneath, 
was only seen in Shaft IV. Among the fragments of pottery were 
several Greek lamps, one with " an inscription of Christian origin, 
similar to those on lamps which have been considered to be of the 
thii'd or fourth centuries." The pieces of pottery appeared to have been 
" Ij-ino- in the position in which they were found when this upper pave- 
ment was laid, and if so we must suppose it to have been made after the 
third or fourth century." t The relation of the rubbish to the stones 
with rouo-h projecting faces is here of much interest. Captain Warren 
considers that this portion of the wall was built "after the Tyropoeon 
had commenced to fill up," and that " the rough stones below the pave- 
ment were never exposed to view.| On the other hand, it is hardly 
possible to believe that rubbish had accumulated to a depth of over 
50 feet in the central ravine before the date of Herod's reconstruction, 
or that such a mass of debris could have been removed when the solid 
wall was built. The erection of one or more retaining walls to finish off 
the southern end of the rubbish would in itself have been a work of great 
labour. The effect produced by the highly finished masonry resting on 
a sub-base of bold rugged work would be at once grand and striking, 
and it would almost seem as if the two courses of stone with rough but 
not projecting faces were intended to soften the line of junction between 
the two styles of masonry. The passage at the bottom of Shaft II. seems 
to have been an old channel to carry off the drainage of the central 
ravine but it seems strange that no drain was found beneath the Haram 

* Captain Warren thinks this pavement extended to Wilson's Arch, and was 
the surface level during the Latin kingdom ; it does not, however, appear to 
have been seen in the shafts along the west wall. 

t "Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 124. t Ibid., p. 122. 



THE MASONRY OF THE IIARAM WALL. 63 

Wall, as there must alwcays have been a flow of water down the ravine 
after rain, unless the wator running under "Wilson's Arch was conveyed by 
some means into the rock-hewn cisterns north of Eobinson's Arch. 

The natural bed of the ravine is at the bottom of Shaft II., thence the 
rock rises about 30 feet in 90 feet to the west, and 32 feet in 123 feet to 
the east. 

The south wall of the Haram is 921 feet long, 
General Viev: of ^^^ broken into three sections by the Double and 
the South Wall. ^^..^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^-^^^^ ^^^ 33^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^.^_ 

spectively from the south-west angle. The j)resent surface of the 
ground from the south-west angle to the Triple Gate is nearly level, but 
thence it falls about 23 feet to the south-east angle. This is due to the 
enormous accumulation of rubbish, which entirely conceals the natural 
features. These are very different. The highest point of the rock is 
under the Triple Gate, about 2 feet below the sill, at an altitude of 
2,378 feet, thence it falls eastward 101 feet in about 310 feet to the 
south-east angle, where the level is 2,277 feet, and there is a further 
fall of 1C6 feet in 240 feet to the true bed of the Kedron (2,17rfeet). West 
of the Triple Gate the rock falls 88 feet in about 520 feet to the bed of 
the Tyropoeon (2,290 feet), which is 90 feet east of the south-west angle, 
and thence there is a rise of about 31 feet in 90 feet to the south-Avest 
angle. 

The masonry of the south wall has some special featm-es which deserve 
notice. At the south-east angle the stones are as a rule well dressed, 
-with marginal drafts of very unequal width, but in some cases they are 
roughly dressed or have projecting faces, and occasionally the drafts are 
not carried right round the stones. At the Single Gate and " Gi'eat 
Passage " there is some reason for supposing the existence of a straight 
joint, whilst in the Tyropceon Valley the masonry for a height of 54 feet 

is of stones with rough projecting faces. One of 
The "Great ^-^^ ^^^^^^ marked features is the "Great Course," 

which, owing to the form of the gi'ound, is the first 
that could have been carried through from end to end. There is, 
however, no trace of it west of the Doiible Gate, or at the south- 
west angle, where the stones are cei tainly in situ. It is hardly possible 
to believe that the builders of the wall west of the Double Gate 
would have neglected to carry the '■ Great Course" on to the south- 
west angle had it been in existence at the time, as, being on a level with 
the sill of the Double Gato, it Avould, if not carried on, have been 
an eyesore to every one entering the Temple by that approach ; and 
if Herod were the builder of the south-west angle it is quite certain 
he would not ■ have allowed his masonry to fall short of any pre- 
viously in the wall. The "Great Course" may thus be of com- 
paratively recent date. Another point for consideration is that from 
Wilson's Arch to the Triple Gate the courses of stone are, through- 



64 THE MASO^'RY OF THE UARAM "WALL. 

out, nearly on tlae same level,* and that the masoniy appears to be of 
one construction, but when the south-east angle is reached there seems 
to be a distinct change in every respect. Unfortunately there was no 
complete examination of the wall between the south-east angle and the 
Double Gate, and its character must still to a great extent be matter o£ 
speculation. 

Captain Warren believes the wall east of the Double Gate to be older 
than that to the west, and ascribes the former to Solomon, the latter 
to Herod ; he appears to base his opinion on the position of the 
" Great Course" to the east, and not to the west of the Double Gate> 
and on the fact that " at the south-eas't angle, and at the Single Gate, 
we find the wall springing from the rock, Avith the faces nicely worked, 
while at the south-west angle, and for at least 213 feet to east of 
it, we find the stones up to a certain level with beautiful marginal 
drafts, but with rough picked faces. "f There is no doubt that the older 
masonry of the south wall is of two if not three different periods, but 
the excavations do not enable us to say where one style of masonry ends 
and another commences. The " Great Course," as explained above, is 
possibly of late date ; the shaft between the Double and Triple Gates 
did not reach the level of the rough-faced stones, and, in fact, the height 
of the rock at this point would not allow of their continuation so far to 
the east ; the three courses which were uncovered correspond more 
nearly with those west of the Double Gate than with those at the south- 
east angle. At the Single Gate the wall was not seen, and the next 
shaft at the south-east angle shows a mixed style of masonry not found 
elsewhere. 

The following view is put forward as a suggestion. The older 
masonry of the wall from Wilson's Arch to the Triple Gate belongs to 
one period of construction, and when it was built the south-east angle 
was standing as a separate tower, perhaps "the tower that lieth out," 
with sides about 105 feet long. At a later date, after the wall had been 
partially destroyed, there was a reconstruction, during which the 



* For instance, the level of the bottom of course E, which corresponds with the 
bottom of the " Great Course," and the level of course H. 

S. W. Angle. 
ft. in. 
2,380 3i 
2,369 5-i 

Shaft between Double 

and Triple Gates. 

ft. in. 

2,380 

2,369 

t " Recovery of Jerusalem," p. 122. 





Wilson's Arcli 


1. Barclay's Gate. 




ft. in. 


ft. in. 


E. . 


..2,381 3^ 


2,380 lOf 


H. 


...2,370 li 


2,369 9 

Shaft I. ^'^ 
ft. in. 




E. ... 


2,380 Of 




H. ... 


2,369 82 



Shaft III. 




.Shaft IT. 


ft. in. 




ft. in. 


2,380 71 




2,380 


2,369 Hi 




2,369 7 


s. E. An 


gle. 




ft. 


in. 




2,378 


H 




2,307 


5i 





THE MASONRY OF THE HARAM WALL. 65 

interval between the Triple Gate and the outlying tower was filled up, 
the "Great Passage" being left as a sort of drain, and the "Great 
Course " laid* to mark at the same time the top of the hUl and the floor 
of the vaults at the south-east angle. f 

* Procopius, in describing the Mary Church of Justinian, says that the fourth 
part of the ground required for the building was wanting towards the south and 
east ; the builders therefore laid out their foundations at the extremity of the 
sloping ground, and raised up a wall until tliey reached the pitch of the hill ; 
above this they constructed a series of arched vaults, by means of which they 
raised the ground to the level of the rest of the enclosure. Procopius also speaks 
of the immense size of the stones and of the skill with which they were dressed. 
This describes exactly what is found at the south-east angle : solid masonry to 
the level of the top of the hill under the Triple Gate, then vaults to raise the 
level to that of the area, and the " Great Course " to mark the end of the solid 
masonry, 
t The following are the principal levels along and near the south wall : — 
General level of Haram area ... ... ... ... 2,420 feet. 

Spring of Robinson's Arch 2, 387' 5 ,, 

SiU of Double and Triple Gates 2,380 ,, 

Bottom of "Great Course " and floor of Solomon's 

Stables 2,380 

Bottom of Great Course at south-east angle... ... 2,378'8 ,, 

Sill of Single Gate 2,376.5 ,, 

Top of rough masonry in Tyropceon .. . 2,344 ,, 

Eock 90 feet east of south-west angle ... ... 2,290 ,, 

Rock 213 feet east of south-west angle ... ... 2,322'3 ,, 

Rock under Triple Gate ... ... ... ... 2,378 ,, 

Eock at south-east angle ... ... .. ... 2,277 ,, 

Eock 18 feet west of the south-cast angle 2,298-8 ,, 

Rock in true bed of Kedron ... ... ... ... 2,171 ,, 



THE 



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Bishop of Eochester 

De. Sandreczky 

Ex. Hon. Viscount Sanhon, M.P. 

M. De Saulcy 

Lord Henry J. M. D. Scott, M.P, 



Earl of Shaftesbury, K.G. 
William Simpson, Esq., F.R.G.S. 
"William Smith, Esq., LL.D. 
W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.E.S. 
Major E. W. Stew.vrt, E.E. 
Eev. John Stoughton, D.D. 
Viscount Stratfokd de Eedcliffe, 

K.G., G.C.B. 
Duke of Sutherland, K.G. 
Lord Talbot de Malahide 
William Tipping, Esq. 
Eev. Canon Tristram, LL.D., F.E.S. 
W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., F.E.S. 
The Marquis de Vogue 
Lieut. -Col. Warren, C.M.G., E.E. 
Dean of Westminster, F.E.S. 
Duke of Westminster, K.G. 
Lieut. -Col Wilson, C.B., E.E., F.E.S- 
George AVood, Esq. 
Bishop of Winchester 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 
a«traw«— JAMES GLAISHEE, Esq. 



Major Anderson. 
Samuel Birch, Esq. 
J. D. Crace, Esq. 
F. A. Eaton, Esq. 
George Grove, Esq., 
Samuel Gurney, Esq. 
Eev. F. W. Holland 



Professor Hayter Lewis. 
John ilAcGKEcoR, Esq. 
Walter 3Iorrison, Esq. 
AVilliam Simpson, Esq. 
Eev. Canon Tristram. 
W. S. W. Vaux, Esq. 
Lieut. -Col. Warren. 



BaHZ;er5— 3IESSRS. Coutts and Co., 59, Strand. The Union Bank of London, Charing 

Cross Branch, 66, Charing Cross. 

Treasurer — AV alter ]\Iorrison, Esq. 

Hon. Secretaries— Hex. F. AV. Holland, and George Grove, Esq. 

Acting Secretary— Waj^ter Besant, Esq. Office, 11 and 12, Charing Cross S.AV. 



Checjues and P.O. Orders payable to order of AA^'alter Besant, Esq. It is particularly 
requested that both cheques and orders may be crossed to Coutts and Co., or to the Union 
Bank of London, Charing Cross Branch. Post Office Orders may be made payable at 



Charing Cross. 



NOTE. -Tlie Price of tlie " Quarterly' Statement" is Half-a- Crown, 

Sent free to Subscribers. 



Quarterly Statement, April, 1880.] 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



At a Meeting of the Committee held on December SOtli, 1879, the following 
resolution was unanimously passed : — 

" That a letter of condolence be written to Mrs. Hepworth Dbcon, expressing 
the deep regret of the Committee at the distressingly sudden death of 
their late chairman, and their appreciation of the constant and perse- 
vering attention, the tact and ability which he devoted to the service of 
the Fund." 



At the same meeting of the Committee a letter was read from Colonel AVilson 
stating that he found it impossible to carry on tlie editorship of the Memoirs at 
such a distance from England, and with the cares and duties of his ofl&ce as 
Consul- General in Anatolia. The Committee accepted his resignation, and 
invited Mr. E. H. Palmer, Lord Almoner's Professor of Arable and Fellow of 
St. John's College, Cambridge, the explorer of the Desert of the Exodus, to take 
his jplace. Professor Palmer has accepted the invitation, and the Memoirs will 
be now edited by him and Major Anderson, C.M.G., R.E. 



At a meeting of the Committee, held on Jan. 6, 1880, Mr, James Glaisher, 
F.R.S., was elected Chairman. 



The Great Map of Western Palestine, in twenty- six sheets, is now being 
coloured, nearly the whole having been delivered by the Director-General of the 
Ordnance Survey. The first issue to subscribers will probably be made about 
the middle of April. 



The first volume of the Memoirs may be looked for in June. The following 



68 NOTES AND NEWS. 

volumes will be issued at intervals of about three montlis. Among the Memoirs 
will be included a report written specially for this work by Colonel "Warren, of 
his excavations in Jerusalem, with illustrations, to which will be added a paper 
by Lieut. Couder, on the discoveries made in the city since his shafts were sunk. 



Another edition, unnumbered, will be issued of the Memoirs on smaller paper. 
This will be published, with the map, when the special edition is in the hands of 
subscribers, at the price of twenty guineas. 



A list of suhscribers to the Great Map (without the Memoirs) has been com- 
menced. Names may be sent to the Secretary. The maps will be sent out in 
order of entry. The subscription price is two guineas, carriage free. The sheets 
will be issued in a strong portfolio. 



The prospectus of future work will be found in the report of the meeting of 
the General Committee. It is recommended that expeditions be sent out to 
excavate on the supposed sites of Capernaum, Chorazin, Bethsaida, &c.; and to 
examine tlie eastern shores of the Sea of Galilee ; to make a geological report on 
the Dead Sea and the Jordan Valley ; to survey the whole of Eastern Palestine ; 
to excavate in search of special points in Jerusalem, and at various places in 
"Western Palestine ; to explore the cities of the Negeb or southern country ; to 
explore the Lebanon and North Syria as far as the " entrance of Hamath ;" and 
to explore Midian, 



The Committee propose to carry out this programme by yearly expeditions 
which will cost from £1,000 to £1,500 each. The results will be published in 
their Quarterly Statement. 



In the July number of the Quoj-terhj Statement we shall give Professor 
Palmer's transcriptions of all the Arabic inscriptions in the Cubbet es Sakhrah, 
Masjed el Aksa, and Temple Area, with translations. These include the 
mosaics, inscriptions on the coloured glass windows, on tlie copper tablets over 
the doors, tablets, &c., recording the different restorations. 

The collection contains also a number of graffiti in Hebrew and Kufic charac- 
ters from " Solomon's Stables" and other places in the Haram Area. 



The papers on the "Colonisation of Palestine" in this number arc published 
by kind permission of the proprietors of the Jewish Chronicle, in which they 
have appeared from time to time during the last quarter. The subject is one in 
whicli many subscribers to the Fundare dee^tly interested. 



A clieap edition of "Tent Work in Palestine" will be published in the 



NOTES AND NEWS. 69 

autumn. Its price will probably be seven shillings and sixpence. About fifty 
copies of the library edition still remain. 



Lieut. H. H. Kitchener, E.E., formerly one of the officers in charge of the 
Survey, Vice-Consul in Asia Minor under Colonel Wilson, has been appointed 
Surveyor- General of Cyprus. 



The income of the Fund from all sources, from December 22nd, 1879, to 
March 20tli, 1880, was £648 4s. lid. The general expenditure on rent, parcels, 
postage, printing, &c., during the same period has been £452 15s. 6d. The 
amount in hand at the Committee meeting of March 16th was £1,114 6s. 7d. 



It will be seen by the Report of the Executive Committee that a visit of ex- 
ploration among the Biblical sites of the Delta was proposed in the autumn by 
the Rev. Greville Chester. A letter has been received from him dated Feb. 19tli, 
in which he states that he was about to commence his journey. 



It is suggested to subscribers that the safest and the most conveuient 
manner of paying subscriptions is through a bank. Many subscribers have 
adopted this suggestion. This method removes the danger of loss or miscarriage, 
and renders unnecessary the acknowledgment by official receipt and letter. 



Si;bscribers who do not receive the Quarterly Stafcmcni regularly, are asked to 
send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward the periodical to all 
who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and other causes give rise 
occasionally to omissions. 



The publications of the Society now in print are : — 

1. The Recovery of Jerusalem. Third Thousand. 16/- to Subscribers. 

2. Our Work in Palestine. Ninth Thousand. 3/6. 

3. Tent Work in Palestine. Second Thousand. 17/6 to Subscribers. 

4. The Quarter bj Statement. 

The second of these contains a popular account of the excavations in Jerusalem, 
with the reasons and aims of the work. 

A few copies still remain of Lieutenant Kitchener's Guinea book of Biblical 
Photographs. It ccntains twelve views, with a short account of each. The 
views are mounted on tinted boards, and handsomely bound. 



Cases for binding the Qiiartcrhj Statement can be obtained of the Society's 
publishers, Messrs. R. Bentley and Son, at eighteenpence each. They are in 
green or brown cloth with the stamp of the Society, 



70 MEETING OF GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The followiug are at present Eei)resentatives and Lecturers of the Society, in 
addition to the local Honorary Secretaries : — 

Ai'chdeaconry of Hereford : Eev. J. S. Stooke-Yanghan, Wellington Heath 
Vicarage, Ledbmy. 

City and neighbourhood of Manchester : Eev. W. F. Birch, St. Saviour's 
Eectory. 

Lancashire : Eev. John Bone, St. Thomas's Vicarage, Lancaster. 

Loudon : Eev. Henry Geary, 16, Somerset Street, Portman St^uare. 

Norwich : Eev. W. F. Greeny. 

Sufiblk : Eev. F. C. Long, Stow-upland, Sto^vmarket. 

Peterborough : Eev. A. J. Foster, Farndish Eectory, Wellingborough. 

"Worcester : Eev. F. W. Holland, Evesham (Member of General and Executive 
Committee, and one of the Hon. Secretaries to the Fund). 

Diocese of Eipon : Eev. T. C. Henlej', Kirkby Malham Vicarage. 

North Wales : Eev. John Jones, Pwllheli, North Wales. 

Yorkshire, Durham, and the North : Eev. James King, St. Clary's Vicarage 
Berwick. Mr. King has recently returned from the Holj'' Land ; communica- 
tions for lectures, &c., can be sent to the Office at Charing Cross. 

Scotland. — Eev. E. J. Craig, Dalgetty, Burntisland. 



While desiring to give every publicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee beg it to be distinctly understood that these 
rest solely upon the credit of the respective authors, and that hj publishing them 
in the Quarterly StcUcment tire Committee neither sanction nor adopt them. 



Annual subscribers are earnestly requested to forward their subscriptions for 
the current year when due, at their earliest convenience, and withoiit waiting for 
applieation. 



The Committee are always glad to receive old numbers of the Quarterly State- 
ment, especially those which have been advertised as out of print. 



MEETING OF GENEEA.L COMMITTEE. 

A MEETING of the General Committee was held at the Of&ces of the 
Society on Tuesday, March 16th. Mr. John MacGregor in the chair. 
The following Eeport of the Executive Committee was read and 

adopted : — 

"My Lords axd Gentlemen, — Your Committee, elected at the last 
General Meeting, held on June 24th, 1879, have, on resigning theii' 
trust, to render to you an account of their admuiistration during the 
months. 

1. The registration of the Society under the Companies Acts of 1862 
and 1867 has been since that day completed. 

2. This meeting is called in accordance with the rule in Article 21 of 
the Articles of Association. 

3. The Financial Statement, presently to be read to you, with a list 
of the assets and property of the Society, has been already sent to every 
member of the General Committee. 

4. The balance in hand this day is £1,114 63. 7d.; of this sum £186 os. 
is on deposit account, being the amount paid on account of the pro- 
posed Galilee Expedition ; £340 is on deposit account, being set aside 
to meet part of the cost of the small map ; £257 7s. is on deposit 
account, being the amount as yet paid up for the special edition of the 
memoirs and map. 

5. The large map is already printed and is now being coloured. The 
portfolios are in preparation. It will bo delivered to subscribers in the 
course of a tew weeks. 

6. The engraving of the small map is finished in outline; the hill 
shading is progressing. It is expected that this map wiU be ready 
about the end of the year. 

7. The American reconnoissance map of Eastern Palestine, in thirteen 
sheets, has also been photo-zincographed under the superintendence of 
the Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, and is now ready for issue. 

S. The first volume of Memoirs is printed and will be issued as soon 
as the engravings and illustrations are ready. 

9. Colonel Wilson having resigned his post as one of the Editors of 
the Memoirs, the Committee have invited Prof essor Paluicr to undertake 
the work in his place. The Committee are happy to report that ho has 
accepted the invitation. 

10. The Large Paper Edition of 250 copies has bion entirely taken 
np. About twenty names have been added to the list on the chance of 
copies falling in. 

11. The Committee have resolved on issuing, as soon as the Special 
Edition is in the hands of subscribers, another edition on smaller paper 
at twenty guineas a copy, including the largo map in twenty-six sheets. 

12. The Committee have accepted an offer made by Mr. Gro%'iUe 
Chester to undertake a journey of exploration among the Biblical sites 



72 MEETING OF GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

of the Delta wHle in Egypt. This journey, the cost of -which will 
be trifling, han probably been already completed. 

13. The Committee have to regret the loss of their Chairman, by his 
sudden death on December 26th, 1879. 

14. At a meeting specially called for December 30th, it was resolved 
that a letter of condolence should be written to Mrs. Dixon expressing 
the deep regret of the Committee at this lamentable event, and their 
appreciation of the constant and persevering attention, the tact and 
ability which Mr. Dixon devoted to the services of the Fund during the 
three years and a half of his chairmanship. 

15. At a meeting held on January Gth, the Committee proceeded 
to elect a successor. Mr. James Glaisher, F.E.S., was unanimously 
invited to accept thitt post. 

16. The Committee have to express their gratification at the appoint- 
ment of Dr. Barclay, for many years an active member of the General 
Committee, to the Bishopric of Jerusalem. 

17. As regards the present position of the Society and its future 
work, it seems well now, as at the meeting of the General Committee of 
1878, to recall the attention of the Committee to the original prospectus 
of the Society. Under the head of Archaeology, this prospectus 
said : — 

" Beyond the Holy City the country is full of sites which cannot fail 
amply to repay examination. Of these a few only may be enumerated : 
— Mount Gerizim, possibly the Ivloriah of Abraham's sacrifice, certainly 
the Holy Place of the Samaritans, containing the stones which they 
allege to have been brought up by Israel from the bed of the Jordan — the 
Yalley of Shechem, the earliest settlement of Jacob in the Holy Land, 
with his Well and the Tomb of Joseph— Samaria, with the traditional 
tombs of John the Baptist and others, and with the extensive remains- 
of Herod's edifices— the splendid Roman cities along the coast, Csesarea 
of Herod and St. Paul— Antipatris— the once-renowned harbours of 
Jamnia and Gaza— the mounds and other renwius of Jiljilieh, probably 
the Gilgal which contained the Great College of Prophets in the days 
Elijah and Elisha— the Fortress and Palace of Herod at Jebel Fureidis 
—the Tombs (probably those of Joshua) at Tibneh— the mounds at 
Jericho — the numerous remains in the Yalley of the Jordan — Bethshean, 
one of the most ancient cities of Palestine, with remarkable remains of 
Eoman, and probably still earlier, date— Jezroel, the capital of Ahab. 
and Jezebel— the Assyria a mound, called Tel e3 Salhiyeh, near 
Damascus," &c., &c. 

The Survey of Western Palestine, now happily completed, affords a 
basis, then wanting, for carrying out these and many other points of 
examination. The map now in our hands will be our guide to further 
exploration and excavation. The special jjlans will suggest the best 
spots for work. Our increased knowledge of recovered and ascertained 
sites will prevent useless and tentative shafts. We not only know what 
to look for, but wc now know where and how to look for it. 



MEETING OF GENERAL COMMITTEE. 73 

In the second section of the original prospectus, the Manners and 
Customs of the People, a good deal has been done by M. Clermont 
Ganneau, Lieut. Conder, Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake, and others. 

In the third section, that of Topography, the Society has quite fulfilled 
its programme so far as "Western Palestine is concerned. The Americans 
have executed a reconnoissanco map of Eastern Palestine, but it has been 
fotmd impossible to incorporate this map with our own exact survey. 
As a reconnoissance it adds considerably to our knowledge of the country, 
but it is only a preliminary, and not an accurate and exhaustive sur^-ey. 
Thus, while it has been issued separately, the Committee are advised 
that it cannot be reduced and engraved as part of their small map. 
What has been done for the west of the Jordan remains to be done for 
the east. 

Of Geology and Natural Science almost the same words may be used 
as in 1865. Canon Tristram has undertaken a paper on this subject for 
the Memoirs of the Survey. 

In 1878 the Committee recommended for the immediate work of the 
Society — 

1. Publication of the Map. 

2. Publication of the Memoirs. 

3. Either an expedition to Galilee or one to the Dead Sea. 

The publication of both Map and Memoirs is now fully provided for. 
It behoves the Committee, therefore, to proceed to their next work. 

They recommend, as the best way of carrying out the objects of the 
Society, the dispatch of an exploring party every year, at a cost of about 
£1,000, each party to have definite instructions and special objects. Thus 
the followdng might be taken up : — 

1. The Lake of Galilee, with excavations on the supposed site of 
Capernaum, Chorazin, Bethsaida, &c., and the eastern shoi-es of the lake. 

2. The Dead Sea and the Jordan Valley to be examined by a geologist. 
o. The Survey of Eastern Palestine. The attention of the Committee 

has been specially drawn to this district. It is proposed that a pamphlet 
be drawn up on the subject, which shall set forth the desiderata and 
points of interest, Biblical and otherwise, in this hitherto unexplored 
and little-visited region. 

4. Excavations in search of special points in Jerusalem. The return 
of Colonel Warren to England gives the Committee the benefit of his 
special advice as to Jerusalem. 

5. Excavation and examination of some of the places mentioned in 
the original prospectus, such as Mount Gerizim, the VaUey of Shechem, 
the Tomb of Joseph, Samaria, Csesarea, Jamnia, Gaza, Jebel Fureidis, 
Tibneh, Bethshean, Jezreel, and some of the places discovered and 
planned by Lieuts. Conder and Kitchener. 

6. The Negeb, or south country. 

7. The Lebanon and North Syria. 

8. Midian. 



74 MEETING OF GENEEAL COMMITTEE. 

Lastly, the Committee have to acknowledge the services of thoSQ 
gentlemen who have acted as their honorary secretaries, and to express 
their best thanks for the trouble they have taken ; the subscribers and 
donors of the Fund, who have had to wait in patience for the long- 
promised map, and to all who have aided them in their work." 

The Financial Statement of the Executive Committee, as follows, Avas 
then read and adopted. 

"The Palestine Exploration Fund having been incorporated by the 
Board of Trade for the purpose of being in a position to protect itself 
from j)iracy of its valuable copyrights, in accordance with the resolu- 
tions passed at the General Committee of Juno 24th, 1879, it becomes 
the duty of the Executive Committee to submit to the General Com- 
mittee, in addition to the usual Statement of Eeceipts and Expenditure 
for the year 1879, a General Statement of the Assets and Liabilities of 
the Fund. 

The Balance Sheet for the year ending Dec. 31st, 1879, will be found 
appended. 

The subscriptions show some falling off, due mainly to the fact that 
the work of the year has been entirely office work. The expenditure of 
the year has been marked by the payment of all the outstanding debts. 
The printer's bill almost wholly covers the balance of unpaid accounts 
which appear on the balance sheet. The management expenses are 
£168 less than in the preceding year. The exploration expenses are 
limited this year to a few bills which had not been received in time to 
be paid last year, and to a grant made to Mr. Grevillc Chester in aid of 
a journey of exploration among the Biblical sites of Egypt. 

The balance in hand at the end of the year was double that at the 
beginning. 

The assets of the Society are as follows : 

1. A valuable collection of ancient glass and pottery, including vases, 
lamps, etc., with inscriptions, casts, coins, and objects dug up during 
the excavations in Jerusalem, by Colonel Warren, E.E., and M. Cler- 
mont- Ganneau. The greater part of this collection is in the South 
Kensington Museum. 

2. A large number of photographs. The negatives are with Messrs. 
Vincent Brooks and Co. The stock in hand for sale is with the agent, 
Mr. Edward Stanford. 

.'1. The following copyrights : — 

1 . Eecovery of Jerusalem. In this work the Committee went on 

the system'of half profits with Messrs. E. Bentley and Son. 

2. Our Work in Palestine. 

3. Tent Work in Palestine. 

These two books are the absolute property of the Committee ; 
the latter being subject to a royalty paid to the author. 

4. The Quarterly Statement, now in its twelfth year. 



MEETING OF GENEKAL COMMITTEE. 



4. The maps, memoirs, plans, paintings, drawings, name-lists, note- 
books, observations, &c., belonging to the Survey of "Western Palestine, 
made by Lieuts. Conder and Kitchener, E.E. 

5. The maps and memoirs belonging to the American Reconnaissance 
of Eastern Palestine. 

6. The Eeduced Map of Palestine, for travellers and general use, now 
being engraved for the Committee by Mv. Stanford, on the scale of 
three-eighths of an inch to the mile. 

7. A very large collection of drawings and plans made by Colonels 
Wilson and Warren, Major Anderson, M. Clermont- Ganneau, M. Lecomte, 
Professor Palmer, Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake, &c. 

8. Instruments, &c., used in the various operations of the Committee. 

9. A collection of books belonging to the subject of Palestine Ee- 
search. 

It is impossible to estimate the value of these collections. If they were 
sold, the amount realised would depend entirely on the circumstances of 
the sale, and the amount of interest existing in the subject at the time. 
As regards the copyrights, that in the maps will certainly produce a 
steady revenue, but it is impossible to calculate, even approximately, 
what will be its amount. As to the value of the books, the returns for 
the last eleven years show an average income of £90 from this soui'ce. 

10. The office furniture, which with frames, photographs, cabinets, 
diagrams for lectures, &c., may be valued at about £100. 



Dec. 31, 1879. 



BALANCE SHEET, 1S79. 

Jan. 1, 1879. 



Subscriptions 1869 

Lecture Account 16 

Subscriptions to Special 

Edition of the Survey ... 185 

Publications 74 

Photographs j'nith Balance 
of Cost of Stock in 

Hand 47 

Unpaid Accounts 249 



s. 
3 
6 

17 




d. 
9 

4 



8 5 
IS 11 



£2,442 9 9 



a; s. 

Unpaid Ac- 
counts 855 5 

Less Balance 
in Hand at 
same date... 416 10 



d. 
10 



£ 5. d. 



438 15 
64 17 



Dec. 31, 1879. 

Exploration 

Eent, Salaries, Wages, 
Office Stationer}', Ad- 
vertising 649 1 

Printing and Lithography 291 13 

Postage and Carriage of 

Parcels 104 12 



Balance . 



£1,548 19 8 
893 10 1 

£2,442 9 9 



(Signed) W. Moerison, Treasurer. 
The following resolutions were then proposed and carried : — 
1. " That the following gentlemen be elected for the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Society : — 



76 



MEETING OF GENERAL COMMITTEE. 



Major AxDERSOX, C.M.G., R.E. 

J. D. Grace, Esq. 

F. A. Eaton, Esq. 

James Glaisher, Esq., F.E.S. 

George Grove, Esq., D.C.L. 

Samuel Gurney, Esq. 

Eev. F. W. HoLi^iND. 

Professor Hayter Lewis. 

John MacGregor, Esq. 

Walter Morrison, Esq. 

"William Simpson, Esq. 

Eev. Canon Tristram, F.E.S. 

W. S. W. Yaux, Esq., F.E S. 

Lieut.-Col. Warren, C.M.G., E.E." 

2. " That the Archbishop of York be the President of the Society; 
that Walter Morrison, Esq., be the Treasurer of the Society; that 
George Grove, Esq., and the Eeverend Frederick "^Tiitmore Holland be 
the Honorary Secretaries." 

3. " That the Executive Committee shall have power to fill up 
vacancies or elect additional members of its body by co-optation, not 
less than seven nor more than fourteen days' notice having been given 
to each member of the said Committee of the name or names of the 
person or persons proposed to be so added, provided always that the 
number of the Executive Committee shall not exceed sixteen." 

4. "That the Executive Committee shall have power to accept the 
resignation of any member or members of the General or of the Execu- 
tive Committees." 

5. " That the Executive Committee have power to fill up vacancies in, 
or to elect new members to, the General Committee to a number not 
exceeding five." 

The Chairman then stated that it had been the intention of the 
Treasurer to propose the election of Mr. Edward Atkinson, of Leeds, as a 
member of the General Committee. As Mr. Morrison was unavoidably 
absent from the meeting, the Chairman would himself propose Mr. 
Atkinson. He stated that during the existence of the Society this 
gentleman, their Honorary Secretary at Leeds, had raised for them the 
sum of nearly £600. 

Mr. Glaisher seconded the proposal, and it was carried unanimously, 
the Secretary being instructed at the same time to convey the thanks of 
the Committee to Mr. Atkinson and Col. Cooke. 

Mr. Glaisher then proposed that a vote of thanks be passed to Colonel 
Cooke, the Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, who was present 
at the meeting, for the kind assistance rendered to the Society by him and 
his Department, This was seconded by Mr. Henry Maudslay, and 
carried unanimously . 

After a vote of thanks to the Chairman, the Committee adjourned 
until their next regular meeting in June. 



77 



THE TYROPlEON VALLEY. 

The accompanying plan, embracing part of the city of Jerusalem, 
between Christian Street on the west and Valley Street on the east, and 
between the slope of Sion south of David Street on the south and the 
Via Dolorosa on the north, has been constructed with a view of showing 
how the observations of the levels of the rock beneath the surface may 
be used for the purpose of obtaining general results serving to elucidate 
he ancient topography of the city. 

The plan includes 56 actual observations of the rock, and is fairly 
representative of the kind of information obtained throughout Jerusalem, 
as the known points in other parts are, if anything, more numerous in 
comparison with the area— excepting always the ground immediately 
west of the Haram, where few measurements have been made — as appears 
on the plan published in the last Quarterly Statement. 

The area in the present jilan has, however, been selected because the 
accumulation of dsbris in this part of the city is greater than in almost 
any other part within the modern walls ; and for this reason the observa- 
tions of the rock have here given results of more imj)ortance than in 
other quarters of Jerusalem. By glancing the eye along the surface 
contour No. 2449, and then along the rock contour No. 2450, and 
observing the wide divergence between them, it is at once evident that a 
great alteration has taken place in the outline of the ground. 

The only method by which general results can be obtained from isolated 
observations of level is by the use of contours, or lines of equal level, the 
tracing of which indicates the relative positions of the features of the 
ground. By this method Colonel Wilson has delineated the supposed 
outline of the present surface beneath the houses of the modern city; 
and Colonel Warren has employed the same principle in his plan of rock 
surface in the Haram Area. In the case of the present surface the 
number of observations is of course considerably larger than it has been 
as yet possible to obtain by soundings of the rock, taken in deep excava- 
tions, or under the foundations of houses, or in cistern mouths. The 
surface contours are consequently more accurately traced, but all con- 
tours are by nature merely approximations to actual surfaces, answering 
to the lines which in section may be drawn to indicate the supposed lie 
of the rock between known points. 

It is not, however, on the known levels of the rock alone that the 
contours depend in the case of the present plan. They are controlled by 
two other considerations. In the first place by the surface levels and 
contours, for it is evident that the rock level must never be higher than 
the sm-fuce contour, except in cases where the rock is visible above the 
general surface. In the second place, the level of the floor of various 
vaults and cellars being known, it is practically almost certain that the 
rock in their \'icinity does not occur at a level higher than that of these 
floors. These negative observations are often very useful in determining 



78 THE TYROPCEOX VALLEY. 

the superior limit for the rock level, though they do not of course give 
an inferior limit. 

In order more clearly to show the manner in which the contours may 
be traced, it may be useful to follow one line across the plan. The 
contour 2,450 feet above the sea may be taken as a good specimen, and 
is, in fact, the master contour of Jerusalem, running through the heart 
of the city from the north-east to the south-west angle. 

This contour first appears on the present plan in the north-east 
corner, where a vertical scarp 20 feet high runs parallel to the Via 
Dolorosa on the north side of the street. Behind the Austrian Hospice 
there is a steep slope (from which we may fairly suppose the rock to be 
close to the surface), and the surface contour 2449 limits the devia- 
tion of our rock line on the south ; all the ground farther south bemg 
here not more than 2,339 feet above the sea. On the north an observa- 
tion occurs about 200 feet from the rock contour at a level 2477, thus 
confining the contour 2450 within a limit of about 70 feet north and 
south. As, however, the surface slope is much gentler to the north, the 
limit of deviation is probably in reality less. 

The rock contour 2450 reappears on the west side of the valley which 
runs down south-east from the Damascus Gate, the bed of which has an 
accumulation of some 40 feet of debris above it. We have here three 
observations in a line east and west, showing an even fall of the rock 
of 36 feet in 150 feet. The farthest east of the three observations 
has a level 2453, thus limitmg the position of our contour on the west, 
while on the east the surface contour 2449 ^occurs at a distance about 
100 feet from our rock line, and an observation (2402) of the rock is 
obtained 10 yards east again. 

These data practically limit the deviation of the rock contour 2450 
at this point within about 20 feet east or west, and its direction south- 
wards is controlled between the surface contour on the east and the 
observations (2455 and 2454) near the Via Dolorosa on the west. 

Proceeding southwards to the street called 'Akabet ct Taldyelt (the 
next parallel to the Via Dolorosa) we find that the surface contour 
2449 curves outwards to the cast, and that an observation (2444) west 
of et Talctycli shows rock above the gromid. The rock contour there- 
fore cannot here be far away from the surface contour, and its 
approximate direction is obtained by joining the point 2444 with the 
point 2477 at the top of the above-mentioned street, where also the 
rock is \'isible on the surface for a short distance ; by dividing this 
distance of 350 feet proi)ortionally (in the ratio 27 to 33) we obtain 
the point through which the contour should pass. 

The next observation, in the street south of the last, agrees with the 
preceding determination. The rock contour is here confined between 
the observation 2457 on the west and the surface contour 2449 on the 
oast — an extreme limit of 100 feet ; and on the supposition of an 
uniform slope the limit of deviation is not greater than about 30 feet 
at most. 



TIIE TYROrCEOX VALLEY. 79 

"Within 50 yards of the last point the line of the contour, which here 
begins to deviate considerably from that of the surface contour, is 
fixed within a limit of about 20 feet — passing between two observations 
of the rock, 2470 on the north, and 2440 on the south, at a distance 
apart of about 100 feet. A section of the hillside, extending over a 
length of 200 feet, is here obtained by aid of the observed lie of the 
rock in a great cistern discovered in 1876, showing a uniform slope of 
about 1 in 5, and defining in a satisfactory manner the northern bank 
of the great valley now hidden beneath 50 feet of rubbish. 

The rock contour 2450 now enters the area of the Muristan (the old 
Hospital of St. John), the surface of which, before the excavations 
undertaken by order of the German Government had been commenced, 
was an open field at a level about 2480 feet above the sea. The first 
observation (2438) gives the level of the rock under the south wall of 
the Church of St. Marie la Grande, where a rock-cut tomb (of 
Crusadmg date) was found in'\lS72. The next (2462), about 100 yards- 
farther west, shows rock 15 feet below the surface. In connection with 
these we must take the observations close to the Holy Sepulchre Church, 
where, |^in the vaults of the southern courtyard, the rock is found 
15 feet from the surface (2458). Under the belfry (2473) it is only 
7 feet from the surface, and in Mount Calvary it is about 10 feet 
above the floor of the church (2490). From these and the other neigh- 
bouring observations it is clear that the church stands on the hilltop, 
and that the gromid falls rapidly south of it. The contour which we 
are tracing therefore runs between the Holy Sepulchre Church and the 
south wall of St. Marie la Grande ; and on the supposition of a 
uniform slope its position"'is limited to narrow bounds, as the slope is 
about 1 in 4. 

It now becomes evident that the contour must again turn south, as 
there is an observation near the south-west angle of the Muristan of 
2478, while all the observations farther west are at yet higher levels. 
The ancient Byzantine Chapel discovered in 1840 at the corner of 
Christian Street and David Street, has its floor 25 feet beneath the 
surface, and the level of the rock seems thus to be about 2470 in this 
place. On the east our contour is limited by the level of the rock in 
the magnificent tanks excavated in 1872-3, where the bed of the 
valley was laid bare to the rock at a depth of 50 feet below the surface 
The rock was here found to be stepped down eastwards with a gentle 
fall, the mean level of the part measured being 2429. 

Crossing David Street we obtain further indication of the rock levels. 
The two ancient towers, which are now built into the cistern of the 
Jemsh Mission School, have their bases about 35 feet below tbe street. 
East of Dr. Chaplin's house there are also vaults below the street level, 
and at this point Colonel "Warren obtained an observation (2449) at a 
depth of 34 feet beneath the surface, under the so-called Gennath Gate. 
The ground at the present day falls northwards from Dr. Chaplin's house 
to David Street at a slope of about 1 in 14 ; but the fall of the rock 



80 THE TYROP(EON VALLEY. 

from the so-called Gennath. Gate to the great cistern in the Muristan is 
at a slope of 1 in 10. 

FoUoAVTJig our contour eastwards from the last point (2449) we find it 
controlled by another level (2457), where the thickness of debris is only 
12 feet. The last point is 400 feet from the preceding, and between them 
the line is not well defined ; but immediately east of the point 2457 we 
find the contour line almost absolutely fixed, the surface contour again 
approaching it, while four observations, at levels differing by nearly 50 
feet, occur so close together as to give evidence of the existence of a 
precipitous slope or rocky scarp, Avhich runs southwards until it becomes 
visible as a cliff some 20 feet high, facing the Haram opposite the south- 
west angle. 

From the detailed account of this important contour the reader will be 
able to judge the manner in which the other lines of level have been 
traced. The general results may, however, be perhaps more clearly ex- 
plained by means of sections of the ground. Three sections are accord- 
ingly given, one through the hill spur (east and west), a second along 
the valley bed (east and west), and a third across the valley and hill 
(north and south). 

From these it will be evident that there is only a very small accumula- 
tion of debris on the hilltop, whQe the valley bed has been filled up 
nearly to a level with the higher ground, or to a depth of 50 feet in the 
middle. 

The surface outline in these sections is traced in accordance with the 
contours given on the Ordnance Survey; and, with regard to the rock • 
outline, it should be noted that the line depends not only on the points 
marked Bock, where obversations occur on the cutting line, but also on 
other intermediate observations near the cutting line, and thus on the 
rock contours of the plan. 

Before the year 1872 scarcely anything definite was known with regard 
to the lie of the rock in the great valley delineated on the present plan. 
Colonel Warren excavated in the Muristan to a depth of 40 feet without 
finding rock. The contours sliow that it existed at probably 4 or 5 feet on 
the average beneath his trench. The small plan which he constructed 
(see " Eecovery- of Jerusalem," p. 303) shows the contour 2450 running 
approximately as it is now traced, but the great breadth of the valley 
was not as yet fully appreciated. 

In 1872 the great cistern in the south-east portion of the Muristan was 
excavated, and the bed of the valley laid bare. In 1870 the discovery of 
another tank north-east of the Bazaars gave a valuable confirmation to 
the correctness of the contour lines previously traced ; and although 
farther observations wotild be of great interest, the main fact of the 
existence of a valley some 10") feet deep and 800 feet wide (north and 
south) may now be considered definitely proved. 

It is interesting to compare our present information with the dis- 
cussions of earlier writers by whom it would have been considered 
invaluable. In 1838 Dr. Eobinson described the Tyroj)oeon Valley as 



ItiW 



zt^eo 



Section A.I 




!^»50 



UA40 



'M30 



'I't-ZO 



1410 



%H>0 Feel above Uve, Sew 



idn 




loch 



Section C.J 



Z'}^90 '- 



•^*so -^k^ 



1470 




T^eneni SuHace 



•I'teo 



MSO 




z^io 



Hoc- 



14O0 



1S90 



1380 



IS 70 



C 1 'Z660 Feety above Oie Sea- 




w^ 



SectioiL ^ 



Freserii Sitrrafe 



He--^ 



"^^WM^W^^^^ 



Mi?^ 



li^O '■" 



i. 



7^ 



^ 



p 



VUiO 



K 



/ 



■*^ 



-^rf*^- 



1^10 Feet cubove Oie Sea, ^^ 



f^^iiocic^, 






iock, 



Looking NoiHli. 



.'. • ••• • 

« • • • 
•, • • •• 
• « • • • 



^^255^^ 







• • • < 

• • • 

• • • 4 




B 



Looking Nor ill. 



w?^. 




Xookiae ^st 



^^?ft^ ^>%^p|^>:: 



'^J^y//,WyfV^j^^7r} 



ime 



VCK 



Jto<#iif '>;,. 



""^ 



/7f^ 



aK 



7 .-^X. 



— /<'^ 



THE TYROPCKON' VALLEY. 81 

commencing near the Jaffa Gate, and ijointed out tlie fact that there was 
a descent northwards to David Street from the so-caUcd Mount Sion 
("Bib. Ees." ii. 264). In 1849 Canon Williams writes: "I never 
could find any traces of the valley Dr. Eobinsou ca^ls the; Tyropoeon " 
(" Holy City," ii. 29). In answer to this Dr. Robinson was ordy able 
to point out the level of the old chapel of St. John 25 feet below the 
street ("Later Bib. Ees." p. 185). 

The earliest attempt to rebtorc on the ground the city of Jerusalem as 
described by Josephus, is that of Brocardus, who, writing in 1283 a.d., 
says of the valley under consideration : ' ' The ravine is now itself quite 
filled up, but nevertheless shows signs of its former concavity." Bro- 
cardus had visited Jerusalem, and possibly was aware of the existence of 
the great tanks subsequently filled up. His description at aU events 
now proves to be absolutely correct. 

By denying the existence of this vallev it became possible for the 
apologists of the traditional site of the Holy Sepulchre so to draw the 
line of the second wall as to pass entirely clear of the church on the east. 
It can hardly be now supposed that the city wall can have crossed the 
bed of so deep and wide a valley, leaving ground at an elevation 80 feet 
higher and only 100 yards to the wesf, on the outside. The determina- 
tion of the contour of the valley thus forces us to remove the line of the 
second wall farther west, where a saddle of higher ground forms the 
head of the great valley. 

The tracing of the rock also throws light on the description which 
Josephus gives of the ancient city, which was rendered obscure by reason 
of the filling up of the valley. 

Josephus (5 "Wars, iv. 1) speaks of the Tyropooon Valley as dividing 
the hill Akra from that of the Upper City, and describes Akra (which 
was separated from the Temple Hill by another valley) as being- 
" gibbous " in shape (afKpalKvpros), or like the moon in the fourth quarter. 
Nearly all authorities agree in placing Akra near the present Church 
of the Holy Sepulchre, and the gibbous shape of the spur on which that 
church stands is rendered conspicuous by the rock contours, but is not 
apparent from the surface contours. It will also be observed that a flat 
terrace is here foi-med with a steep slope on both the east and west (see 
Sect. A. B.}, and it seems possible that this marks the artificial levelling 
of the Akra hill by the Hasmoneans, as twice described by Josephus. 

The amount which would have been cut off supposing the original slope 
to have been imiform, is about 30 feet on the average, and if, as seems 
not improbable, there was here originally a knoll of higher ground, the 
amount cut do^vn wotdd have been yet greater. 

The rock contours have been traced all over Jerusalem (as shown in 
the small plan published in "Tent "Work in Palestine"), but with ex- 
ception of the Haram Area there is no part of the city where the results 
of a study of the original surface appear to be so interesting and instruc- 
tive. C. E. C. 



n 



S2 



REGISTER OE ROCK LEVELS, JERUSALE^I. 

1. Tnis register incltides all the recorded obsci'vations up to the 
piesent date — total 265. Tho?e marked (0), 22 in all, are taken from the 
Ordnance Survey Xotes and Plan, dating 1864-5. Those marked (W), 
76 in number, were taken by Captain Warren in 1867-70, as noticed in 
the "Recovery of Jerusalem." Those mai-ked (S), 139 in all, were 
collected by Herr Conrad Schick, in 1872. They are mainly the results of 
excavations for the foundations of houses. Those marked (C), 27 in all, 
were observed by Lieut. Conder in 1872-5. 

2. The levels depend on, and are referred to, the surface levels marked 
on the Ordnance Survey. 

3. Negative results of value have also been obtained, as noticed in the 
works above mentioned. In 1872 all the chambers under the platform 
of the Dome of the Rock on the south, and west were entered by 
Lieut. Conder. No rock Avas found in them, the general floor-levels 
being 2420 feet above the Mediterranean. 



^o, 



Position . 



(D CS 


dJ p-^' 


>» 














?^ s - 


■" 3 3 


^ 




o s ^ 






O o M 
^"3 


3 



Remarks. 



INTEEIOR OF HAEAM. 



1 i 


Kighost cref't of SalJirah ... 


2440 


... 





2"! 


Dome of the Rock ICO ft. E. of 










last 


2432 


3 


C 


3 


Kuobct el Aricah 


2435 




c 


4 


E. wall of platform 180 ft. N. 










of steps 


2421 


... 


c 


5 


E. wall of platform SO fc. N. 










of last 


2423 




c 


6 


Flat rock 50 ft. E. of last ... 


2419 


. . . 





7 


Flat rock 120 ft. S. of S.E. 










corner of jilatfrrm 


2420 







8 


K. wall of x.latform 50 ft. E. 










of top of N.W. stairs ... 


2432 




c 


9 


Flat rock N. of N.W. stairs... 


2430 


... 





10 


Top of rock scarp, E. wall of 










chambt-r Xo. 2-1 


2133 


2 


c 


11 


Bottoin of ditto (rock fulliu^' 










W. S0°) 


242 r, 


9 


w 


12 


Kiibbct d Ahudr ficior 


2426 




c 


13 


E. .side of N. door of last ... 


j 2426 


1 *" 


G 


14 


N.W. corner ontsi.le same ... 


2425 




c 


15 


Flat rock N.AV. cornor of 










i Haram 


; 2425 








5ft. 3in. above floor. 

Excavated, 1874. 
Surface. 

1ft. above base of wall. 

4 ft. above base of wall. 
SurfiTce. 

Surface. 

2ft. above surface. 
Surface. 

Examined, 1872. 

Rocov. Jcr., p. 214. 

Surface. 

2ft. above surface. 

Surface. 

Mean surface. 



REGISTER OF KOCK LEVELS, JERUSAXEM. 



83 











>» 








> a ^ a 


a J o 


;-. 




No. 


Position. 




o & t, 


o 


Remarks. 






rs"^ 


■St; 


a 








c4^ 


^ c 


•< 




16 


Highest point (at steps) of 
scarp in N.W. corner of 












Haiam 


2462 




s 


30ft. above interior. 


17 


E. end of same scarp 


2432-5 


> . ■ 


s 


13ift. above interior. 


18 


Scarp on W. Haram wall, 
highest point 80 ft. N. of 












Bab cs Serai 


2447 




s 


7ft. above interior. 


19 


S. face of same scarp at win- 












dow in Haram wall S. of last 


2434 




c 


3ft.aboveinterior(1873) 


20 


Under- sill of Triple Gate ... 


2378 


i 


w 


Kecov. Jer., p. 230. 


21 


W. wall of passage 60 ft. N. 








- 




of outside line of Triple Gate 


2388 




w 


Surface of floor. 


22 


W. wall 130ft. N. ofla.st ... 


2396 


• . ■ 


w 


3ft. above floor. 


23 


Cistern No. 1 


2427 


12 


w 


Recov. Jer., pp. 206-217 


24 


„ No. 2 


2429 


6 


w 




25 


„ No. 3 


2426 


9 


w 




26 


„ No. 4 


2417 


18 


w 




27 


„ No. 5, N.W. end ... 


2425 


10 


w 




28 


,, ,, S.E. entrance 


2408 


8 


w 




29 


„ No. 6 


2410-5 


5-5 


w 




30 


,, No. 7, average 


•2411 


5 


w 




31 


,, No. 8, average 


2411 


5 


w 




32 


„ No. 9 


2400 


15 


w 


Doubtful, p. 208. 


33 


„ No. 10 


2387 


31 


w 




34 


., No. 11 


2397 


19 


w 




35 


„ No. 12 


2406 




w 


Surface. 


36 


,, No. 13 


2409 




w 


Surface. 


37 


„ No. 14 


2409 


... 


w 


Surface. 


38 


,, No. 15 


■2393 


15 


w 




{t9 


„ No. 18 


•2414 


4 


w 




40 


„ No. 22 


2416 


4 


w 




41 


„ No. 23 


2429 


... 


w 


Surface. 


42 


,, No. ^25 


2416 


20 


w 




43 


„ No. 28 


2412 


3 


w 




44 


,, No. 29, top of scarp... 


2419 


10 


w 




45 


„ No. 31 


, . . 


... 




Doubtful. 


46 


„ No. 34 


2431 


4 


w 




47 


„ No. 35 


2429 


6 


s 




48 


,, No. 36 


2411 


5 


c 





OUTSIDE HAEAM WALLS. 



W. Haram wall at Wilson's 
Arch 

West pier (42 ft. ^Y. of last)... 

W. Haram wall, Tyropceon 
bridge 

Prophets gate 14 ft. W. of wall 
,, 7 ft. N. of N. jamb 

Hammum es She/a, S. end ... 

Eock surface at S. end of 
Aqueduct from Twin Pools 
(channel -lOo at bottom)... 



2339- 


75 


82-25 


W 


2347- 


25 


75 


W 


2325 




62 


W 


2320 




90 


W 


2320 




74 


W 


2339 




80 





2409 




22 


c 



Eecov. Jer., p. 81. 



p. 104 
p. 114. 
p. 115. 



Measuied 1873. 



84 



REGISTER OF ROCK LEVELS, JERUSALEM. 









th 

surf. 

mid. 








Wo. 


Position. 






.5 

-4^ 


Remarks. 








M^ 


< 






56 


S. Haram wall 90 ft. E. of 














S.W. angle 


2289 


85 


w 


Recov. Jer. 


p. 97. 


57 


S. Haram wall 213 ft. E, of 














S.W. angle 


2322 


52 


w 






58 


S. Haram wall 14 ft. S. of 














Single Gate 


2334 


35 


w 


>> 


p. 132. 


59 


S. Haram wall, S.E. angle, 














fallsE. Iin9 


2277 


80 


w 






60 


S. Haram wall 16 ft. W. of 














last 


2287 


73 


w 


>) 


p. 138. 


61 


E. Haram wall 15 ft. N. of 














S.E. corner 


2287-5 


70 


w 


>> 


p. 149. 


62 


E. Haram wall 18 ft. N. of 














S.E. corner 


2298-8 


60 


w 






63 


E. Haram wall 41 ft. N. of 














S.E. corner 


2279 


SO 


w 


>» 


p. 147. 


64 


E. Haram wall 162 ft. N. of 














S.E. corner 


2312 


70 


w 


j> 


p. 151. 


65 


Golden gate S. jamb 


2360 


33 


w 


J) 
Estimated. 


p. 97. 


66 


N.E. tower of Haram S. side 


2293-2 


112 


w 


Recov. Jer 


. p. 183. 


67 


200 ft. E. 


2317 


30 


w 


)> 


p. 176. 


63 


135ft. ... 


2317 


47 


w 


Falls S. 1 in 4. 


69 


N.E. angle of Haram 100 ft. 














E. of wall 


2341 


64 


w 


Recov. Jer. 

little N. 


p. 178. A 
of next. 


70 


N.E. angle of Haram 97 ft. due 














E. of wall 


2337 


59 


w 


Recov, Jer 


. p. 180. 


71 


E. wall of Haram 18 ft. S. of 














N.E. angle 


2330 


74 


w 


>' 


p. 181. 


72 


Outlet of Birket Isratl 


2344 


60 


w 


Estimated. 




73 


72|ft. S. of No. 66 


2282 


120 


w 






74 


45ft. „ „ 


2289 


115 


w 






75 


61ft. ,, ,, (rising N.) 


2278 


125 


w 


Greatest depth, p. 187 


76 


104ft. „ „ (risings.) 


2289 


115 


w 







MOSLEM QUARTER OF CITY. 



77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
86 
86 



87 
88 



256 ft. E. of Bdb Sitti Miriam 
162 ft. „ (scarp 20 ft. high) 
109 ft. „ (rising W. in steps) 
43 ft. N. of „ 

34 ft. S. of „ 

78 ft. „ 

Outside Ch. of St. Anne 
N.W. corner of Birket Isruil 

53 ft. E. of last 

Cistern 33 ft. W. of Tar'ik 

Biihintta, 61ft. N. of Tarik 

Bdb Sitti Miriam ... 

Top of 'Akabcb ct Taklyeh . . . 

Ecce Homo arch 



2370 


21 


W 


2379 


30 


W 


2388 


23 


w 


2400 


19 


w 


2390 


20 


w 


2377 


33-5 


w 


2410 




w 


2363 


15 


w 


2344 


30 


w 


2385 


36 


w 


2477 


• . . 


c 


2436 


9 






Recov. Jer., pp. 174-177 
Top of scarp. 



Surface, p. 198. 
p. 189. 



p. 195. 
Above surface. 



nEGISTER OF EOCK LEVELS, JERUSALEM, 



85 



No. 


Position. 


Level 
above the 
Mediteira- 

nean. 


Depth 

below auif. 

of prouiul. 


o 

< 


Remarks. 


89 


W. of St. el IVacl at Catholic 












Armenian Monastery- 


2378 


40 


w 


Scarped on "W. and N. 
Kecov. Jer., p. 281. 


90 


Scarp over Cotton Grotto . . . 


2524 







Average. 


91 


400 ft. W. of Bdh ez Zahrah 


2520 


>■ . 





>> 


92 


N.E. corner of city highest 












point of scarp 


2474 


. . 





Base of city wall. 


93 


E. side of Tarlk Bdb d 'AmM 












60 ft. N. oVAkahet Sh. ^"ad 


2420 


35 


s 




91 


"VV. end of Arch in alley E. of 
N. end of Silk cl 'AUartn 












close to B. M. 2472-5 


2470 




s 


Surface. 


95 


At arch E. of last 


2457 


10 


s 




96 


N. end of vault S.W. of last 


2440 


30 


s 


Discovered 1876. 


97 


S. „ 120 ft. S. of last 


2420 


50 


s 


1 1 a 


98 


N. side of street ISO ft. E. of 












last 


2400 


45 


s 


Surface marked 2415 on 
O.S. 


99 


K.E. of arch 60 ft. S. of last 


2400 


45 


s 




100 


Corner of Siik el Kattantn and 












el JFdd 


2390 


10 


s 




101 


80 ft. N. of Bdb el Madid in 












N.W. corner of court 


2365 


35 


s 




102 


100 ft. S.oiet TakUjeh 


2430 


7 


s 




103 


W. of last, S.W. ofctTaktyeh 


2444 


5 


s 




104 


" House of Dives " point 2412 












O.S 


2360 


52 


s 




105 


W. of last 130 ft., N. side of 












Via Dolorosa 


2374 


50 


s 




106 


S. of B.M. 2420-6, 17ft. W. of 












No. 89 


2400 


17i 


w 


Recov. Jer.,p. 281. 


107 


Opposite French Consulate 












onE 


2402 


45 


s 


Foundation. 


108 


N. side Via Dolorosa under 
wall of Austrian Hospice op- 
posite Armenian Catholic 












Monastery 


2420 


5 


s 




109 


W. end of scarp N. of Via 












Dolorosa 


2440 


5 


c 


Measured, 1874. 


110 


E. end of same scarp in chapel 












of Sisters of Sion 


2456 


... 


s 


The scarp is about 20ft. 
high (see No. 88). 


111 


Scarp at N. end of Twin Pools 


2454 


10 


s 


Scarp 37ft. high. 


112 


5 J *^« »> J> 


2458 


... 


s 


Surface of Barracks. 


113 


Rock bottom of Twin Pools 












on S 


2400 


48 


s 


TheS. scarp is 58ft. high 


114 


Rock bottom of Twin Pools 












on N. 


2417 


50 


s 


W. side of pool rock, 
2410 to 2420. 


115 


Arch in Tnrtk Bub cz Zahrah, 












N. of B.M., 2479-1 


2474 


12 


s 




116 


Second arch, 100ft. N. of last 


2489 




s 


Surface. 


117 


Tarik Sh. Rihdn E. of Eng- 
lish Consulate, opposite 












P.M., 2489-6 


2477 


12 


s 





86 



REGISTEK OF EOCK LEVELS, JERUSALEM. 




118 
119 

120 
121 
122 
123 
124 

125 

126 

127 

128 

129 

130 
131 
132 



Corner of same street, 50 ft. 

E. of B.M., 2442-1 
150 ft. K of B.M. 2462, 

which is opposite Austrian 

Consulate ... 
E. side of street N. of cZ Mala- 

wiyeh 
N.of last 50ft. S. of B.M. 

2525'2 
100 ft. W. of B.M. 2525-2 at 

2502 

N. side of Edrat Bah Hitta 

80 ft. W. of B.M. 2501-6... 
Alley N. of last, W. of point 

2508 

In garden 200 ft. N. of last... 
N. side of Hdrat Bah Hitta 

150 ft. E. of TarlkBdhez 

Zahrah 
Corner of Sikket Dcir el 'Adas 

100 ft. S. of Madeleine 

Church 

Same street, corner N. of 

Madeleine Church, near 

point 2483 

Opposite B.M. 2450-9 at 

250 ft. S. of, and 500 ft. 

W. of city walls 

At 80ft. S. of B.M. 2468-4 

and 180 ft. W. of city wall 
'Akahct Ahu Waly near point 

2441 

At 50 ft. IC. of arch in Sikket 

Deir el 'Adas in buildings 

between 'Akahct Ahu Waly 

and 'Akahct Sh. Hasan ... 



133 

134 

135 

136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 

142 
143 

144 



2400 

2471 
2503 

2504 

2503 

2496 

2498 
2522 

2497 

2474 

2487 

2446 
2440 
2399 

2457 



Remarks. 



40 

7 
3 
2 

8 
10 



s 

s 

s 

s 

s 

s 
s 



s 
s 

6 \ S 



1ft. above surface. 



Surface. 



420ft. S. of N. city wall. 



Surface of 

Haram 
At W . pier Tyropoeon Bridge 

41ift. W. of Haram wall 
285 ft. W. of Haram wall 

same line as last ... 
250 

216 ,, ,, >t 

182 ,, ,, }, 

132 ,, ,, )) 

92 „ „ ,, ,, 

Comer 180 ft. N. of W. Avail 

of German Jewish Hospital 
N. wall, same hospice 
Hdrat el Maslah, S. end, W. 

side of street 
Same street, 60 ft. N. of last 



4ft. above smrface. 



JEWISH QUARTER OF CITY, 
scarp opposite 



2430 







2345-5 


42 


W 


2379-5 


21 


AV 


23SS-6 


18 


W 


2377-5 


32 


w 


2383-5 


22 


AV 


2369 


30 


W 


2354-5 


40 


W 


2451 


45 


s 


2436 


10 


s 


2454 


36 


s 


2452 


38 


s 



General level. 

Recov. Jer., pp.95 — 99. 



BEGISTErv or ItOCK i.LVEI-S, JEItUSALEAl. 



87 



rosition. 



Corner, 90 ft. S. of N. ^vall of 

synagogue, No. 53 (O.S. )... 

soft. W. of last 

Under synagogue No. 58 

(O.S.) 

N. of last by point 250S on 

E. side Hdrat cl Jaicdni/... 
Under large synagogue, i^o. 

57 (O.S.) ^ ... 

"W. of arch in Hdrat el YclnlJ, 

near synagogue, No. 47, 

(O.S.) ... 

Hosh Aammer, middle of 

street on N. side ... 
In alley S.W. of Caraite Syna- 
gogue, near point 2497 ... 
Synagogue No. 48 (O.S.), S.E. 

corner 
Sjniagogue No. 48 (O.S.) 

N.E. corner 
Synagogue No. 48 (O.S.) 

N.W. corner 

Steps in Bdrat el Meidun, S. 

of northern arcli 

Corner S. of last 

150ft. W. of last, near No. 

(O.S.) ... 

Hdrat cl Mciddn, E. side, N. 

end of third arch from 

Temple .street 

At 70ft. E. of last 

Wall west of Wailing place... 
Gennath Gate (so-called) 



Level 
above the 
Meliteria- 

nean 


I" 5= !". 1 

'J (M 


2460 


36 


2455 


44 


2497 


2 


2480 


25 


2476 


17 


24CS 


30 


2472 


30 


2477 


20 


2464 


34 


24(35 


30 


2475 


25 


2412 


35 


2427 


32 


2457 


12 


245fi 


3 


2409 


40 


2323 


70 


2449 


34 



Remarks. 



3 



S 

s 



s 
s 

S 

S 

s 
s 

R 

s 
s 



s 
s 
s 
w 



Uecov. Jer., p. 276. 



ARMENIAN QUAKTER. 



N.W. angle Protestant 
Bishop's Palace 

E. M-alldo 

N.E. angle Bible warehouse 

W. wall English church 

N.W. angle do. 

S.W. corner courtyard, do.... 

N.W. corner of school, S. of 
church 

S.AV. do 

Cistern in barracks S. of castle 

David-st. S. side, E. end of 
arch E of Christian "st. 

Cistern N.E. corner of Ar- 
menian convent garden ... 

Cistern 100ft. S. oflast 

Cistern soft. S. oflast 



2500 


40 


2ol0 


SO 


2520 


20 


2.512 


38 


2509 


41 


2521 


22 


251 5 


28 


2536 


.10 


2537 


7 


2478 


40 


2527 


17 


2520 


24 


2517 


22 



s 
s 
s 

s 
s 

s 
s 

s 



s 
s 
s 



88 



r.EGisTEn OF r.ocic levels, jehusalem. 



i;o. 



Position. 



a cs 



Q> S 1*3 



> V 



GQ 



^5 5: 



17G 

177 

178 

179 

180 

181 

182 

183 
184 

185 

183 

187 
183 

189 
190 
191 
192 
193 



194 

195 
196 
197 
198 

199 



Corner of H'trat Deir es Suridn 
N. of B.M. 2505-5 

AV. end of alley S. oF Sj-rian 

convent 
S. side of same alley near 

point 2512 

W. corner of arch in front of 

synagogue No. 60 (O.S. ) ... 
H'lrat cl Jmruny, E. side 

point 2505 ... 
Hdrat el Armen, S.AV. corner 

of sontliern arch ... 
Cistern 100ft. N.AV. oiBdhen 

Nchy Di'nid 

Cistern 50ft. N.W. of last ... 
S. wall of building E. of ]>.M. 

2493-8 

Tarik Bah en Nehj DAiU, 
50ft. S. of southern arch, 
W. side 

At 100ft. S.W. of last 



2435 

2492 

2492 

2515 

2492 

2529 

2516 
2518 

2490 

2484 
2510 



25 

20 
20 
20 
13 
16 

11 

10 

10 



s 

s 

s 

s 

s 

s 
s 



20 S. 
20 S. 



CHRISTIAN QUARTER. 



200 
201 



Church of Holy Sepulchre, 

Tomb of Nicodemus 
Church of Holy Sepulchre, 

Chapel of Adam 

Church of Holy Sepulchre, 

N. of Latin Chapel 
Church of Holy Sepulchre, 
N.AV. corner, S. courtyard 
Church of Holy Sepulchre, in 
front of Convent of Abraham 
Church of Holy Sepulchre, 

"West door 

Church of Holy Sejiulchre, 

S. E. corner of courtyard, 

above Chapel of Helena ... 

Excavation No. VI. O.S. ... 

Kalat JalHd S. side 

,, city wall, N. of 

140ft. N. 
Outside city wall, 700ft. N.E. 

oi Kalat Jalnd 
Corner of Hdrat Istamhuliyeh 
250ft. E. of Kalut JalM, 
I liy Convent of St. ]5asil ... 
I N.wallLatinConvent(180.S.) 
I Udrat Istamhulhjch, founda- 
tions of Convent of St. 
Tlieodoro ... 



2485 

2490 

2479 
2473 
2458 
2495 



2-^80 
2470 
2580 
2576 
2470 

2527 



2567 
2549 



2565 



18 
S 



10 



C 

c 

c 

s 
s 
s 



s 
o 
o 
w 






s 
s 



Remarks. 



< ! 



S. side of Mission Hos- 
pital. 



400ft. N. of S. city wall. 



E. of Hdrat Bdh. Ncby 
DdiVl. 



Possibly higher. 

N.B. Floor of the Cal- 
vary Chapel, 2494. 



Top of ridge. 



Surface. 

Excavated 1864. 

Surface. 

Recov. Jer., p. 285. 

Average surface. 

Surface. 



Surface. 



TvEGISTEll OF ROCK LEVKLS, JEnUSALEil. 



89 



Position. 



229 
230 



W. of same street, 80ft. N. of 

Convent of St. Demetrius 
Latin Tatriarehate N. E. angle 
Latin Patriachate, 50ft, E. of 

last ... 
Latin Patriarchate, AV. wall, 

100ft. from N. W, angle ... 
Ch. of St. Saviour, under floor 
Handel Warlyeh, 140ft. N.E. 

of last 
Grounds of Patriarchate, S.E. 

corner 
At 50ft. N. of B.M. 2563 ... 
100ft. W. of Greek Catholic 

Convent 
W. side of Ha ratlstanibidhjeh, 

between St. Demetrius and 

Greek Catholic Convent ... 
Greek Catholic Convent (11 

O.S.) 

Pool of the Bath, middle of N. 

side 

,, ,, "W. side ... 

,, ,, S."\V. corner 

Mediterranean Hotel, S. AY. 

corner 
Gennan shop, N.W. corner, 

70ft. N.W, of last 

100ft. K.W. of W. door H. 

Sep. Ch 

N. of Holy Sep. Ch. S.W. of 

Klumkah .. 
Muristun N.W. corner 60ft. 

S. of Minaret Jumiii' cl 

'Omary 
Ch. of St. Mary Magna S.E. 

corner 
Cistern mouth, 120ft. N. of 

S.E. cor wev oi Muristun ... 
Bottom of large cistern S. W. 

of last 



Comer of Via Dolorosa and 
Khan ez Zeit, B.M. 2461 "9 

House W. of German Hos- 
pice of St. John 

Corner of Khot cl Khankah, 
and 'Akahct cl 'Asaftr 

50ft. N. of entrance to Ger- 
man Hospice 

E. of 'Akahet cl 'Asafir, 40ft. 
N.E. of No. 226 

In front of Damascus Hotel... 

N. wall 






.;: o 



2537 
2549 

2557 

2534 
2532 

2553 

2553 
2553 

2522 

2525 

2523 

2512 
2510 

2500 

2494 
2494 
2500 
2479 

2462 
243S 
2426 
2429 



2465 

2488 

2487 

2455 

2484 
2437 
2453 



13 

14 
20 



12 

10 

20 



12 
17 



9 
20 



32 

15 
30 

54 
31 
53 
50 



13 



24 
13 



S 
S 



S 
S 



S 
S 

s 

R 
S 

s 
s 
s 
s 

s 
s 
c 

s 

c 

s 

s 

s 

s 
s 
s 



Eeniarlcs. 



Approximate. 



Doubtful. 



Surface. 



Tomb under wall in rock. 



Visited by Lt. Conder, 
1872. Piock stepped 
and falling E. 



Surface. 



Surface. 



90 



KEGISTEK OF ROCK LEVELS, JERTJSALEil. 



No. 

231 
232 
233 

23 i 

235 

236 
237 

238 

239 
210 

241 

242 

243 

244 
245 



Position. 



iJ o ^ c 



W. of last, 70ft. from Tartk 

Babd'AmM 

'Akahct el BatiJch, W. of 

point 2494 

Between last and Convent of 
St. John Eutliymius, iS. of 

B.M. 2501-8 

Corner opposite St. Jolin Ea- 

thymius on nortb. 

N. of Khankab, E. of Deir es 

Seiyideh, and of Street ... 

Spanish consuhite, N. -wall... 

E. end of second alley, N. of 

last at point 2484 

E. end of next alley, K. of 

last at point 2482 

N. side of same alley 

Jew's House of Industry, 

B.M. 2490 

E. end of allev opposite No. 

Open ground near city wail, 
50ft. K.W. of point 2501... 

160ft. S. of last, in street, 
lOOfc. N. of B.M. 2502-1 
west of point 2499 

W. side of winding street SOft. 
N.E. oflast 

Corner of House 100ft. W. of 
B.M. 2517-2, which is on 
corner >".V>^ of Greek Con- 
1 vent of St. Catheiine 



2470 

2489 

2497 

2486 

2477 
2487 

2464 

2472 
2483 

2482 

2480 

2483 

2494 
2487 

2517 





o 


15 


S 


5 


s 


7 


s 


20 


s 



Remarks. 



30 ! S 
13 ! S 



20 

10 
8 



12 

18 



S 
S 

s 
s 
s 



5 i S 
15 S 

12 



Surface. 



OUTSIDE THE CITY. 



246 



247 



243 

249 
250 

251 



252 
253 
254 



240ft. E. of S.E. an^le of 
Haram (bed of the Kedron 
Valley) 

Golden gate 133ft. E. of S. 
side of gate, rock rising ^\ . 

1 in 4 

Ccenaculum, N. end of court- 
yard ... 
„ middle S. wall... 

,, at cro-^s roads, 

5ort. w. 

Rock tower foundation under 
Protestant School on Sion 

Rock platform W. of last . . . 
Scarp S. E. of tower (top) 



2171 



2312 

2504 
2479 



2483 

2447 
2485 



38-5 

SO 

15 
30 

25 
31 



Outside school washhouse on E. 1 2432 



W 



W 

S 
S 

s 

c 

c 
c 
c 



Recov. Jer.,p. 97. jrhe 
rock was traced 175ft. 
W. 

Recov. Jer., p. 15'4. 



Scarp is 36ft. high, 9ft. 
above passage. 

Average. 
Surface. 



NOTES ON MASONRY 01? HARAM WALL. 



91 







0) a 




i- 




No. 


Position. 


Lev 

3ove 
edit 
nea 




c 


Remarks. 






cS 




'5 
< 




255 


Back of shoemaker's shop, N. 










of last 


2467 


42 


C 


Eor these observations, 
250— 259,seeLt.Con- 
der'splauofthissca^|>. 


256 


N. end of scarp, N. of tower 


24S0 


... 


c 


10ft. above surface in 
cemetery. 


257 


ToAViT in S.E. corner Protes- 












tant cemetery (top of scarp) 


2480 




c; 




258 


Bottom of same scarp 


2435 


35 • 


c 




259 


Scarj) running N.E. from last 


2500 







Surface. 


260 


Cistern opposite last on S.E. 


2480 







Smface. 


261 


Rock 400ft. S.W. of No. 250 


2380 







Surface. 


262 


,, 400ft. S. of last 


2350 







Surface. 


263 


Scarp 200ft. W. of Pool of 












Siluam (top) 


2200 







Surface. 


264 


Scarp 300ft. £. of pool 


2160 







Surface. 


265 


Scarp 500ft. N. of Aceldama 


2180 







Surface. 



Claude R. Condek, Lieut., R.E. 
Nov. 1st, 1879. 



NOTES ON COLONEL WILSON'S PAPER ON THE 
MASONEY OF THE HARAM WALL. 

I. Dressing of the Drafted Masonry. 

The peculiar dressing of tlie Haram niasoury — wHcli is not mentioned 
in Colonel Wilson's paper — seems to be worthy of notice. The eight- 
toothed chisel described by Colonel Warren (Recov. Jer. p. 138) was used 
in two directions at right angles, making a regular criss-cross pattern. 
This dressing has been found at the south-east angle in the courses near 
the base of the wall, and it has also been specially noted, 1st, on the stones 
of the Master Course ; 2nd, on those at the Wailing Place ; 3rd, at the 
south-west angle ; 4th, on the voussoirs of the Tyropoeon bridge. This 
dressing distinguishes the finished masonry of the Haram from other 
drafted masonry of later date. The stones in the wall east of the Holy 
Sepulchre, for instance — supposed by Du Vogiie to be part of the pro- 
pylcea of Constantine's great Basilica — are finished almost as finely as 
the Haram stones, but have no criss-cross dressing. The inferior Byzan- 
tine drafted masonrj^ (as for instance in Justinian's Church on Gerizim) 
is dressed with a toothed chisel used in various directions, but the regular 
criss-cross pattern of the Haram work is never found on it. 

On the supposition contained in Colonel Wilson's paper this dressing 
would have been first used by Nehemiah, and four centuries later by 
Herod, and again six centuries later by Justinian, a result which it 
seems difficult to adopt without hesitation. As far as our information 
yet goes it appears that the method of dressing masonry is as a rule very 



92 >-OTES 0^' HASO^'RY OF HARAM "^ALL. 

distinctive of the period to Avhich the masonry belongs. Possibly, tben, 
all the stones with criss-cross dressing may belong to one period 

The present arch of the Tyropoeon bridge seems, as Colonel Wilson 
points out, plainly attributable to the time of Herod the Great, and the 
voussoirs, as above said, are all dressed criss-cross, like the stones round 
them. I would suggest that it is possible that the more ancient masonry 
of the Temple Area was removed by Herod, who * ' took away the old 
foundations " (Ant. xv 11. 3) and built the cloisters " from the founda- 
tion," (Wars i. 21. 1). 

II. Dressing of the Byzantine Masonry. 

The large plain masonry which stands immediately above the drafted 
stones is found in many parts of the Haram occurring in connection 
mth round arches having this special characteristic, that the keystones 
are very narrow and that the voussoirs graduate in width to the haunches 
where the proportions are more cubical. The size, shape, and dressing 
of these stones, together with this peculiarity of the arches, are archi- 
tectural features which occur throughout Palestine in the interiors of 
Bj-zantine convents between the fourth and seventh centuries. In earlier 
Eoman work the voussoirs are of even width, as in the aqueducts at 
Ceesarea; and the style of building described seems distinctive of 
Byzantine period. For this reason it would appear that Wilson's Arch, 
which consists of voussoirs so graduated, cannot probably date earlier 
than the Byzantine period. The same kind of vaulting occurs in the 
passages from the Double and Triple gates in the roofs of Cisterns Nos. 
1 and 3, and in the passage from the Prophet's Gate. The walls and 
vaults (where not of later construction) in the Twin Pools present the 
same peculiarities in the proportions and finish of the stones and in the 
vaulting. The dressing is with a toothed chisel used irregularly, and 
the finish is generally coarse and uneven when compared with the 
Crusading work, which is distinguished by careful tooling, smaU stones, 
and masons' marks. 
III. North-West Angle. 

The general conclusions of Colonel Wilson's paper confirm those advo- 
cated in my paper on the Haram read to the Eoyal Institute of British 
Architects (Transactions, 1S79, No. 1, p. 27). The discrepancy in the 
level of the aqueduct under the scarp, as given by Mr. Schick, may be 
due to the fall iji the channel from north to south. It does not appear 
where the level 2,412 was taken, but the following was that which I 
obtained in 1873 : — 

Level of Haram at window 2431 

Height of Aqueduct, 6 feet 6 inches "> ^ ^ 25 

From roof to Haram floor, 18 feet 6 inches j 

Level of the bottom of the Aqueduct channel west 

of the win\dow -*^" 

The rock at this point is 3 feet higher (2409), the channel being 3 feet 
deep. 



NOTES ON MASONEY OF IIARAM WALL. 93 

The level 2429 is not that of the window, but of the floor of the 
chamber outside the Haram wall, in which I discovered the buttresses 
shown in my sketch (P. E. F. Quarterly, 1877, p. 136). The level of the 
sill of the old window is the same as that of the Haram inside — i.e., 2,431, 
according to the Ordnance Survey. 

The reason why the scarp found running from the window westwards 
to the aqueduct could not be traced farther west is that the upper part 
of the aqueduct consists of a masonry wall and arch which could not at 
the time be broken through. It should also be observed that close to 
the point where the aqueduct is intersected by the Haram wall there are 
two large tanks on the interior (Nos. 18 and 22). 

The level of the aqueduct is 2406, that of the bottom of Tank No. 
18 is 2391. Thus the aqueduct might probably have entered the tank 
15 feet above the bottom. The total depth of the tank is 34 feet 6 inches. 

The height of the scarp at the window is 25 feet above the exterior, 
and 3 feet above the interior of the Haram. 

IV. North Wall of the Haram. 

It should be noted that some of the stones of the south wall of the 
Bu'ket Israil have fallen out, and that a second row of similar masonry, 
with wide joints packed in a similar manner, is visible behind. Taking 
this in conjunction with the fact that the vaults inside this wall are not 
earlier than the twelfth century, it seems highly improbable that any 
drafted masonry like that of the other walls of the Haram exists here. 

V. East Wall. 

The level of the highest course of rough drafted stones is 2346, which 
appears to be that of the rock just north of the Golden Gate, at about 
1,090 feet from the south-east angle. The rough masonry would pro- 
bably not extend farther south, judging from the similar case on the 
south wall. 

It should be noted also that the line of the ancient rock scarp found 
by Colonel Warren to form the north wall of the platform on which 
stands the Dome of the Eock would strike, if produced eastwards, the 
same point, 1090 feet from the south-east angle. These two indications 
perhaps point to an ancient corner as existing near the Golden Gate. 

The suggestion that the city wall did not extend farther north than the 
present north-east angle of the Haram seems open to the objection that 
the north-east portion would in this case rim nearly at the bottom of a 
valley, and that it would be entirely commanded from the hUl (Bezetha) 
on the north side of the valley. The disappearance of the ancient 
masonry farther north seems, as in other parts north of the city, to be 
due to the fact that the rock is at no great distance below the surface, 
and that there is no great accumulation of rubbish on this side of Jeru- 
salem. 

It appears that the foundations of almost the whole of the third wall 
must have been dug up and reused in buQding the later walls, which 
have been renewed seven times since the great siege, and now consist to 
a great extent of ancient materials. The rock scarp at the north-east 



94 3S-OTE3 ON MASONRY OF HARAM WALL. 

angle of the modern city runs in line with, the east wall of the Haram, 
and turns north at the top of the hill. I would suggest that it repre- 
sents the original line of the third wall on this side, as previously pro- 
posed by Colonel Warren and other authorities. 

VI. Soiith-East Angle. 

Whatever be the reason for the straight joint on the east wall of the 
Hai'am, there seem to be objections to the supposition of a tower un- 
connected with the western part of the south wall which are worthy of 
consideration. 

1st. Josephus states that the Ophel wall joined the east cloister of 
Herod's Temple (Wars, v. 4. 2), just as the wall discovered by Colonel 
Warren on Ophel joins the east wall of the Haram. Josephus makes no 
reference to any large tower at this point, and the supposed dimensions 
of 108 feet side would represent a tower considerably larger than the 
largest of the three Royal Towers which the historian describes so 
minutely. 

2nd. Although the inner side of the ancient masonry of the east and 
south walls is visible in the great vaults at the south-east angle, no 
remains of the north and west walls of the supposed tower can be seen 
in them. The substructures extend 200 feet either way along the walls, 
so that the foundations of the tower ought, if they still existed, to be 
visible within them. 

3rd. There are no remains of any ancient comer at the Triple Gate, 
or of any wall like that of the Haram running northwards from that 
entrance. 

In the absence of a complete examination of the foundations of the 
south wall the best indication obtained seems to be that afforded by the 
Master Course. Colonel Wilson appears to follow Mr. J. Fergusson in 
attributing this course, which is visible between the Single and Triple 
Gates, and appears to connect the south-east corner with the rest of the 
south wall, to Justinian. Against such a view it may be urged that 
at the south-east angle this course, standing on twenty -seven courses of 
drafted stones, and apparently I'n situ, has seven courses of the same 
masonry above it ; that the dressing of the stones in the Master Course 
is the same as that of the other courses of drafted masonry ; that it is 
not a dressing iised in any building of the Byzantine period as yet found, 
but occurs on the Herodian masonry of the south-west angle of the 
Haram. Immediately west of the Single Gate, the level of the bottom 
of the Master Course is about 6 inches above the surface, and another 
course of drafted stones is then visible beneath. 

I would suggest that the undrafted masonry which occurs on all the 
walls of the Haram in connection with details of architecture plainly 
Byzantine is attributable to Justinian, and that it is impossible to 
separate the Master Course from the other courses of drafted masonry 
with which it is identical in character and dressing. 

The tabular statement (page 64) of the levels of courses E and H 
might perhaps give rise to an impression that a break must occur in the 



NOTES ON MASONEY OP IIARAM AVALL. 95 

line of the beds of these courses between the Triple Gate and the south- 
east angle. The difference of 1 foot 6 inches is, however, apparently due 
to the fact that the courses were here not built quite horizontally, as 
Colonel Wilson so clearly explaius in speaking of the great course 
(p. 55). 

It is Avorthy of remark that all the dimensions of the Ilaram — angular, 
horizontal, or vertical — are apparently so rude as to suggest very im- 
perfect means of mensuration. The same nideness of measurement 
characterises even the finest specimens of the Jewish tombs. 
VII. Identijjcations, 

Some of the identifications proposed in Colonel Wilson's paper appear 
to be open to further consideration. He supposes that the expression 
used by Josephus (Ant. xv. 11. 5) as to the first gate on the west refers 
to the viaduct over the pool el Burah. The late date of this viaduct has, 
however, been already indicated. Josephus, speaking of foiu- western 
gates, says : "The first led to the king's palace, and went to the passage 
over the intermediate valley" (Ant. xv. 11, o). He again mentions " the 
passage to the upper city " above the Xystus, where was Agrippa's 
palace (Wars, ii. 16, 3), which seems probably the same place. In this 
case the first gate led out by the Tyropoeon Bridge, but in no case could 
it have well led to Wilson's Arch, which is intermediate between the 
two gates or passages (Tanks Nos. 19 and 30), and would therefore, had 
the viaduct then existed, have occurred second or third in the enumera- 
tion of the gates. 

It is not clear why Colonel Wilson supposes the bridge broken down 
dtiring Pompey's siege to have been of wood. Josephus does not say so, 
and the bridge in question may possibly be recognised through the older 
voussoir lying beneath the pavement of the Tyropceon biidge (Ant. xiv. 
4. 2 ; Wars i. 7. 2). 

The suggestion of the existence of the original wall of Solomon's 
Temple east of the Cistern No. 19 (see Quarterly Statement, Jan., 1880, 
p. 20) is also, ai)parently, merely a speculation, as there is no literary 
evidence as to the line occupied by the west wall of Solomon's Temple, 
nor are any remains of an older rampart knoA^Ti to exist within the 
present Haram walls. 

The identification of the aqueduct west of the Temple enclosure with 
that constructed by Hezekiah is in the same way hardly satisfactory. 

According to the A. V., Hezekiah's Conduit was on the west side of 
the City of David, which Josephus identifies with the Upper City of his 
own time (cf. 2 Sam. v. 7-9; Ant. vii. 3. 1 ; Wars v. 4, 1). According 
to Keil and other scholars the Hebrew words should be rendered, 
" westwards to the city of David." Neither rendering would admit 
of an identification with the aqueduct just mentioned, which is east 
of the upper city, and which runs north and south. The great rock- 
cut tunnel running westward from the Virgin's Spring seems more 
probably the work of Hezekiah, for the Gihon, or "fountain head," 
whence it brought water, was in the Nal-JiaJ, or valley, a title which 



96 KOTES ON MASONRY OF IIAEAM WALL. 

seems to be invariably applied to the Kedron Valley (2 Chron. xxxii. 30) 
wliere the Virgin's Spring wells up. 

The identification of the supposed tower at the south-east angle of 
the Haram is also open to remark. 

The "tower that lieth out" (the "projecting tower") was on 
Ophel, between the Water Gate and the Horse Gate (Neh. iii. 26-28). 
The Horse Gate, by common consent of various authorities, has been 
placed south of the Temple. It was at a corner, and apparently close 
to the Eoyal Palace of Solomon (Neh. iii. 28 ; Jer. xxxi. 40). The 
"Water Gate may probably be placed near the great shaft discovered by 
Colonel Warren leading down to the Virgin's Spring, and the Horse 
Gate at the angle of the Ophel wall south of the Haram. Between these 
two points Colonel Warren discovered the great outlying tower which 
he identifies with that mentioned in the Book of Nehemiah as the 
"tower that lieth out." The supposed tower at the south-east angle of 
the Haram would seem to be too far north to be identified with the 
" tower that projected," and moreover it was according to its proposed 
reconstruction almost flush with the wall, and projecting inwards instead 
of outwards. 

Nothing short of a complete examination of the Haram walls by 
galleries extending their whole length would suffice to prove definitely 
the continuity of their structure, and even if such proof Avere obtained 
the objection might be raised that the masonry was not in situ. How- 
ever puzzling the minor differences in the masonry may be, and how- 
ever difficult it may be to explain the reasons for straight joints or 
sudden changes in the finish of the stones, certain important indications 
will be acknowledged as controlling any conjectures on the subject. 

1st. The dressing of the finished stones on the west, south, and east 
walls is the same, and serves to distinguish the Haram drafted masonry 
as a whole from drafted ashlar of the Byzantine period. 

2nd. The existence of the north-west rock scarp ; of the Tyropoeon 
bridge; and of the Ophel wall joining the east wall of the Haram, 
corresponds in a most marked manner with the description of the 
rock of Antonia; the bridge leading to the Royal cloister; and the 
ancient wall joining the east cloister of Herod's Temple ; and affords 
strong indications of the identity of the three angles of the modern 
Haram with the corresponding angles of Herod's Temple enclosure. 

3rd. The alterations effected in the Temple Area by Herod the Great 
were so considerable that any theory based on a reconstruction of the 
site as described in the time of Solomon or Nehemiah must be con- 
sidered unsatisfactory if it is not in accordance with the descriptions of 
the site as existing at the later period of the Herodian edifice. It should 
not be forgotten that between the time of Solomon and that of Herod, 
a period of time elapsed equal to that separating the reigns of Alfred 
the Great and Victoria. 

VIII. Plans. 

The plans are of great value as preserving drawings previously 



NOTES ON MASONRY OF THE HARAM WALT.. 97 

•unpublished. They appear, however, not to have been finally checked 
by Colonel Wilson, owing pi-obably to his'absence abroad. 

In No. 1 (page o) a certain number of the observations which I 
obtained from Mr. Schick are inserted, but this plan is not complete. 
In addition to the observations outside the cast wall of the Haraiu, 
which arc beyond the margin, several have been omitted, viz., those 
bearing the numbers 2, 3, 12, 14, 15, 19, 20, 21, 22, 3G, 39, 40, 41, 47, 
49, 50, 53, 56, 57, 58, GO, 86, 88 in the Eegister. The observation No. 
56 is also given 2287 instead of 2289; and No. 55 appears as 2400 
instead of 2409. These omissions do not affect the contours, but obser- 
vation No. 20 is given as 2420 itisteai of 2408 (Warren), which 
materially alters the contours. The observation 2370 west of Wilson's 
Arch does not agree with contours. It is not in the Register. 

The contours appear to be taken from the unpublished plan sent home 
in 1873 from Jerusalem. The name " Convent of the Sisters of Sion " 
has been written by mistake to the Barracks farther south. 

It does not appear why an area is shaded in the south-west angle of 
the Haram, while the north-east angle, where no observations have 
been taken, is not shaded. It should be noted that negative observa- 
tions have been made in tanks Nos. 19 and 30, and in all the chambers 
in the south-west part of the platform of the Dome of the Eock, which 
serve to control the contours in the shaded portion. The question of 
the lie of the rock in this part of the Haram is, however, fortunately, 
of very little practical importince, as it is kuown to be nowhere higher 
than 30 feet below the level of the Sakhrah rock. 

In Plan Ga B\iidJm should be written Beidha (" white ") according to 
the Arabic of Dr. Sandretzky. There is no Ain in the word. 

On Plan 9 the level of the equeduct at its south end should, as above 
explained, be given as 240G instead of 2412. At the point B, the 
aqueduct should also be shown as cut in rock on both sides, as the plan 
gives the impression of a rock buttress which does not exist. 

It is to be regretted that the valuable sections of the east wall have 
not been published, and an elevation of the Antonia scarp seems also much 
wanted, which I hope to be able to supply from a sketch made in 1873. 

January, 1880. Claude E. Coxder, Lieut. E.E. 

[The contour map was taken from the plan sent home by Lieut. 
Conder, dated July 29, 1873. It was inserted without instructions from 
Colonel Wilson, in order to show approximately the lie of the "-round. 
The name of Lieut. Conder ought to have been affixed to the plan, which 
is due to him, and for which he is responsible. It must, however, be under- 
stood that its appearance in the Quarterhj Statement does not mean that 
these contours have been adopted by Colonel Wilson. The reason for 
shading the south-west corner will be apparent by comi^aring Colonel 
Wilson's with Colonel Warren's lie of rock in Plate 6. Lieut. Conder, 
in his plan of 1873, differs from both. The observation 2370 west of 
Wilson's Arch appears on Lieut. Condor's plan, if not on the Eegister 
—Ed.] 



98 



LEXGTH or THE CUBIT. 

In the Quarterhj Statemnd for October, 1879 (p. 181), Mr. S. Besmck 
raises this interesting question, and advocates a length of 17 '7 inches, 
which is very close to the length 17'-± inches proposed in an article on 
Jerusalem in the Edinburgh Beview, 1873. The paper is, however, open 
to some objections, which may be briefly stated. 

The Tyropoeon Bridge. — The existing arch is 50 feet broad, and 
measures 38 feet 9 inches from the south-west corner of the Haram. 
The accord between this and the dimensions of the Eoyal Cloister of 
Herod's Temple is striking, but Mr. Bes-svick omits all consideration of 
the thickness of the Haram wall, which is at least 8 feet when measured 
at the north-west corner, and assumes that Josephus was thinking of 
17'7-iuch cubits, and translated them into feet. As regards the diameter 
of the piUars of the Eoyal Cloister, they may, no doubt, be assumed at 
about 6 feet, which is about the diameter of the existing monolith at 
the Double Gate. The measurements of the Cloister will then be — 



Josephus' s Measurement. 

Wall (thickness) 
South Walk of Cloister 
Pillar (diameter) 
Central Cloister 
Pillar (diameter)'?] ... 

Total 



6 feet \ 
45 feet [ 52 feet. 
6 feet ) 



90 feet. 



Actual Measurement. 

From south-west corner to south side of 

Bridge .. 38 feet 9 inches- 

Breadth of Bridge 50 feet. 



Total 88 feet 9 inches. 

This is as near as we can go \vithout actually Imowing the diameter 
of the pillars, which coxild hardly be spanned by three men (Ant. xv. 
11. 5). If we reduce the diameter to 5 feet 6 inches, the result will 
agree with actual measurement within 3 inches. This question has, 
however, no bearing on the length of the cubit. 

Length and Width of El Alcsa. — The attempt to deduce the length of 
the cubit from the fifteenth centui-y Arabic MS. is unfortunately based 
on a very grave error. The word which the translator renders " cubit " 
is the Arabic dhr'a, a very well known measure, equal to the Turkish 
pic, and as nearly as possible 2 feet 3 inches in length. The measure- 
ments given are those of the Musjid el Aksa, which, as is well known, 
was the old Arab name for the whole enclosure now called Haram esh 
Shenf. The Arab writer gives the breadth along the north wall as 
455 dhr\i, which is just the length of the north wall of the Haram, 



LENGTH OF THE CUBIT. 99 

1,042 feet. The length, 784 dhra, which he gives, is equally close to 
the length of the west Haram wall, 1,601 feet. 

The measurements of the Masjid given in the same century by Mejr 
ed Din (Hist. Jerusalem, chap, xx.) are equally exact. He makes the 
length of the east wall from Bah el Ashdt to the Mihruh Ddud (south- 
east corner) to be 669 common architectural dhr'a, which agrees with 
the length of the present cast wall, 1,joO feet. The v/idth he gives is a 
mean measure from the outside of the wall at the Bah er Rahmeli, 
(Golden Gate) to the opposite cloisters. This he states at 406 dhr'a^ 
agreeing very closely with the actual measurement of 970 feet. 

Mejr ed Din adds, " Should any one else find it one or two dhr'a more 
or less, it must be put down to the difficulty of measuring. I measured 
it twice myself before I obtained the true measure " (chap. xx. sec. 20). 

Mejr ed Din also gives the size of the Jami'a d AJxsa, or mosque, on 
the south Haram wall. He makes it 100 dhra long by 77 dhr'a wide. 
The measm-ements are exact, without including the porch outside on the 
north, the dhr'a being 2'3 feet. 

These measurements are of value as showing that the area of the 
Haram was the same in the fifteenth century as it now is, and that 
Mejr ed Din, who took the mean width, was aware that the area was 
not rectangular. Mr. Beswick, however, misled by the very loose 
translation " cubit," has endeavoured to apply the measure to a 
17'7-inch cubit. This question also h^s, therefore, no bearing at all on 
that of the length of the Hebrew amch. 

The Digit. — Mr. Beswick enters upon a very difficult question, for 
there are two elements of incertitude in the matter. 1st. "Whether the 
Jews were accustomed to great exactitude in measurement, such as we 
now require, or whether their measures were rude and inexact, like 
those of the modern Arabs and ancient Egyptians. . 2nd. Because the 
exact ai3plication of the Hebrew terms rendered "digit," "hand- 
breadth," &c., has never been minutely described by any ancient 
author. 

Two standard examples of the small and medium ameh are said in 
the Mishna to have been preserved at the Gate Shushan, which was 
due east of the Holy House. This gate, though known to Mejr ed Din, 
has not yet been rediscovered. "When it is, let us hope the standard 
measures (Kelim xvii. 9) will also be found. 

The Jews had at least three measures called ameh. The smallest, 
of five handbreadths, measured the vessels of the Temple ; the medium, 
of six handbreadths, measured its buildings (Tal. Jer. Menakhoth 97a). 
The medium cubit consisted of two spans [sit). 

It must not be forgotten, in dealing with this matter, that the Jews 
were not a tall people, and that their hands were probably as delicate 
as those of the present Jews and Arabs. "W'e may therefore take the 
measures of an EngHsh gentleman's hand as not being less than those 
of a Jewish hand. 

Taking, therefore, the cubit of forty-eight barleycorns (Maimonides, 



100 LENGTH OF THE CUBIT. 

Sepher Torah ix. 9), and tlie barleycorn as equal to our English long- 
measure barleycorn — as results from actual measurements of barleycorns- 
in Syria made in 1872 — we obtain 16 inches for the medium cubit, 
and the span is consequently 8 inches, which is the extreme distance- 
which can be stretched from the thumb to the small finger of an 
ordinary hand. A hand spanning 9 inches is a large one. 

The zereth, rendered " handbreadth," will in this case be 5"33 inches, 
which is the ordinary span of the four fingers. As to the smaller 
divisions, there is great difficulty in ascertaining how the measurements 
are to be made, and the determination of the larger ones, sit and zereth, 
is of course more conclusive in the matter. The details will be found 
in the new Handbook to the Bible just issued by Messrs. Longmans, 
page 79. As regards verification from monumental remains, I have 
already pointed out that in the Synagogue of Umm el 'Amed the pillars 
are ten cubits high, with bases of one cubit and capitals of half a cubit, 
the cubit being taken as sixteen inches. 

The satisfactory determination of the levels of the Temple Courts 
from the same hypothesis has also been explained in " Tent Work in 
Palestine" (vol. i. p. 3o9). 

In the Haram itself there are several other similar indications. Thus, 
at the north-west corner of the Area, the chamber which I explored in 
1873 shows piers projecting from the wall at an interval of 8 feet 8 inches, 
Avith a face of 4 feet 8 inches, giving a total of 13 feet 4 inches as the 
distance from centre to centre of the piers. Ten cubits of sixteen inches 
is equal to 13 feet 4 inches, giving an interval of ten cubits for the piers 
from centre to centre, while the piers are three and a half cubits broad. 

The average height of a course of masonry in the Haram walls is 

3 feet 4 inches, or two and a half cubits of sixteen inches. The lintel of 
the Single Gate is eighty-two inches high, which is within two inches of 
five cubits. The master course on the south wall is 6 feet in height, or 
four and a half cubits of the sixteen-inch dimensions. Three consecutive 
stones in the second course of the east wall, as measured by Colonel 
Warren, are respectively seven cubits, three and a half cubits, and four 
and a half cubits in length. Colonel Warren has remarked that the 
dimensions of the Haram masonry are generally multiples of the 
English foot. The explanation is perhaps to be found in the relation of 

4 to 3 between the foot and the cubit. 

It may be that this accumulation of coincidental indications is not 
conclusive, but at least no such evidence has been collected in favour of 
a longer dimension for the cubit. 

The ameh was the length of the fore-arm to the first joint of the 
fingers. It requires a long arm to make this equal to eighteen inches. 

C. R. C. 



101 



NOTES OX JERUSALEM. 

In tlie Quarterly Statement for October, 1870, Mr. Bircli advocates th 
prosecution of further excavations in Jerusalem as soon as funds will 
allow. Whether the present administration of the country offers greater 
advantages than of former years is only known to residents, though the 
reports which reach us are far from encouraging. I beg, however, to 
offer a few suggestions, which may be possibly of service. 

Tomhs of the Kings.— ^Yhi[e agreeing with many of the general results 
of Mr. Birch's papers— papers which have, I think, done service to the 
cause of Jerusalem topography— I would point out that there were two 
Tomhs of the Kings in Jerusalem. The sepulchres in which the nine 
most famous monarchs were entombed Avere in the " City of David,' 
and according to the Talmud, within the walls of the town. But there 
was also a Eoyal Garden, or "field of burial of the kings," in which 
TJzziah, Manasseh, and Anion were buried, which seems to have been 
a distinct place. This second cemetery is mentioned in connection with 
the Eoyal Palace, which stood south of the Temple, and it seems 
probably to be the tomb of the House of David on Ophel, which is 
placed by Nehemiah near Siloam, as mentioned by Mr. Birch. Near to 
Siloam, also, the King's Garden (the Garden of Uzzah) and the King's 
Winepresses were to be found, the recess between Ophel and the upper 
city being apparently a royal domain. 

The tombs of the nine famous kings were in the City of David, but 
their position is not clearly indicated. I do not think that the view 
that Ophel was the City of David— which, though often put forward, 
has never been accepted by the great authorities Eeland, Eobinson, &c. 
— will be found capable of proof, for Josephus (Wars v. 4. 1) distinctly 
identifies the " citadel," or Metzad Zion, which was called the " City 
of David," with the Upper Market of his own time, the Suk ha 'Aliun 
of the Talmud. Millo or Akra was also in the City of David, but the 
Ophel wall west of Gihon ('J/n Unvm ed Dcraj) is distinctly stated to 
have been without the City of David. 

It remains, then, to look for these tombs on MiUo, a site not among 
the nine enum.erated by Mr. Birch, as proposed by various authorities. 

The ground in which the present Church of the Holy Sepulchre stands 
is now known to be the summit of a kind of knoll, which slopes steeply 
down on every side, and is divided from the modern Zion by the deep, 
broad valley which, from the twefth century down, has been generally 
recognised as the Tyropocon. This northern knoll or hill is the site, 
according to Eobinson and the majority of authorities, of the Akra of 
Josephus, and Akra, according to the Septuagint, was Millo, and Millo 
was in the City of David. 

Now, immediately east of the so-callod Holy Sepulchre is an 
ancient Jewish tomb with Ao/n'm— the only undisputed specimen of 
a Jewish tomb within the wal's of modern Jerusalem, and a tomb which. 



102 NOTES ON JERUSALEH. 

as placed on Akra or Millo, would liave been within the circuit _ o^ 
the ancient city also. 

This tomb, minutely described by Colonel Wilson in a former number 
of the Quarterly Staiemetit, and now called the Tomb of Nicodemus, I 
would propose to identify with the long-lost tombs of the nine famous 
kino's of Judah. Any one who studies Colonel Wilson's plan will see 
that the tomb had originally nine kokim, or graves for nine bodies, and 
it is yet more remarkable that some of these are sunk below the level of 
the chamber floor, reminding us of the expression of Josephus, that the 
sepulchres were underground, and could not be seen even by those who 
stood within the monument. 

The reasons, briefly recapitulated, for this identification, are — 

1st. The tomb is undoubtedly ancient and Jewish. 

2nd. It is in the City of David. 

3rd. It is within the probable circuit of the old walls. 

4th. It contains graves^ for nine bodies, according to the number - 
of kings enumerated in the Bible. 

oth. Some of these graves are concealed beneath the floor. 

6th. It is the only undoubted Jewish tomb in Jerusalem. 

If the Holy Sepulchre were really an ancient tomb, we might identify it 
with the tomb of Huldah, the only other sepulchre within the walls, 
according to the Talmud. 

Those who arc interested in this question will find it fully worked out, 
with all the references, which time does not allow of my now giving, in 
" Conder's Handbook to the Bible," just published by Messrs. Long- 
mans, page 341. 

The Stone hat Taim. — I woidd suggest a few notes on the interesting 

paper by Prof. Sepp. 

It is evident that the stone in question was in a high jaart of the city,, 
or itself elevated to some height, from the following passage :— 

"The showers came down abundantly until all Israel went up from 
Jerusalem to the Mount of Olives because of the rains. They came and 
said to him (Honi), ' As thou hast prayed that the rains may fall, so 
pray that they may cease.' He said to them, ' Go and see if the Stone 
of Proclamation (Eben hat T'aim) be covered.' " — Taauith iii. 8. 

It is curious to see the same differences of opinion arising in the 
nineteenth century which can be traced in the fourth and twelfth in the 
conflicting accounts of various writers, and v.'liich are due to the brevity 
of the Gospel narrative. It must, however, be pointed out that Herr 
von Alten, though condemned by Prof. Sepp, is correct in stating that 
the Temple guards occupied Antonia, as the fact is expressly stated by 
Josephus (Wars v. 5. 8), 

Prof. Sepp seems also to have fallen into a misconception in supposing 
that the footprint of Christ, mentioned by Antony of Piacenza, was in 
the Dome of the Eock. Such a footprint was indeed shown in the 
same building in the twelfth century, probably the present Kadam 
en Nehy, or " Footprint of the Prophet." But Canon Williams 



THE GOLDEX CAXF AT BETHEL. 103 

has sliowu tliat Antony of Piacenza refers to a place in the present 
Mosque el Aksa, which is stni called Kadam Aisa, or the " Footprint of 
Jesus." The point may have no practical valae except as an instance of 
" transference of tradition " by the Crusaders— one of many. 

Prof. Sepp appears also to confound the place where the Jewish 
Sanhedrin sat with the Prajtorium of . the Eoman Governor. With 
regard to the site of the former, it is distinctly stated in the Mishna that 
the Beth Din, or Smaller Sanhedrin, sat in the chamber Gazith ("cut 
stone"), also called Balutin ("pavement"), which was at the south- 
east corner of the Court of the Priests. To this, of course, the Eoman 
Governor can never have had access. As to whether the place Litho- 
stroton, or Gabbatha, was in Antonia or on Zion, the writers of fourteen 
centuries have been constantly of different opinion, there being nothing 
in the Gospel narrative to fix the site. C. E. C. 



THE GOLDEN CALF AT BETHEL. 

Any theory stalking through these pages is for the time a Goliath 
deliberately inviting an attack. Josephus is like Saul's armour, too 
clumsy to be used with effect. I wish [Idem non vitrei culminis immemor) 
to sling a few smooth stones. 

The Samaritans indulge in most extravagant pretensions ; they assert 
that Gerizim is the scene of Abraham's sacrifice of Isaac. " The Land 
and the Book" disposes of the claim at once by a reminder that no 
ordinary Syrian ass would be cajoled into performing nearly a four days' 
journey in two days and a part. The distance from Beer-sheba to 
Gerizim is too great, while that to Jerusalem suits the narrative very 
well. The minor objections against Mount Moriah, named in "Sinai 
and Palestine," (251) — viz., that "there is no elevation, nothing cor- 
responding to the place afar off to which Abraham lifted up his eyes," 
vanish when it is pointed out that — 

(1) There was afar off' place (Ht. house ? Araunah's) on the west side 
of the brook Kidron, not half a mile from Jerusalem (2 Sam. xv. 17). 
Miriam also watched the ark afar off (Exod. ii. 4). A few hundred yards 
would suffice." 

(2) The expression " lifted itp his eyes " hardly requires the existence 
of an elevation in Gen. xxii. 13, which is not admissible in hotli cases in 
Gen. xxiv. 63, 64, and contrary to fact in Numb. xxiv. 2. 

The soul of Simon Magus must have migrated into the dark-eyed and 
fascinatmg Jacob, now high priest of the Samaritans, and "custos 
rotulorum," for Lieut. Conder, after seeing him, was actually inveigled 
into seriously advocating the claim that the Bethel where Jeroboam set 
up a golden calf was immediately west of Gerizim, at the ruins called 
Lozeh (Luz). 

Seven points in favour of the claim are given in Quarterly Statement, 
1S78, p. 28, and condensed in " Tent Work," vol. ii. 107 ; but not one of 
the seven appears to me able to stand scrutiny. 



104 THE NAMELESS CITY. 

The fact that some declare that these pages instead of dispelling un- 
certainty only throw them into a fog, leads me to drop a stone on this 
claim, and to answer the points seriatim. 

(1) If Amos -vii. 13 indicates that "the calf was close to the king's 
palace," then it was not close to Shechem, but to Samaria or Jezreel, 
since Jeroboam II., not I., is referred to. 

(2) Abijah, on taking (the true) Bethel from Jeroboam, would hardly 
be driven by his conscience to destroy "the calf temple," since he per- 
mitted worse things in his own kingdom (2 Chron. xiv. 3, 5). 

(3) The southern (or true) Bethel, though allotted to Benjamin, was 
from the first seized by Ephraim (Judges i. 2j), and is reckoned to it in 
1 Chron. vii. 28, and therefore it is not " strange that it was chosen as 
a religious centre" by Jeroboam, being not "beyond the bounds of his 
own kingdom." 

(4) " The prophet that came out of Samaria " (2 Kings xxiii. 18) died 
long before the city of Samaria was built. The word is obviously used 
proleptically either of the kingdom of Israel or of the district described 
as the cities of Samaria (1 Kings xiii. 32; 2 Kings xvii. 2G). Further, 
Samaria is mentioned (Amos iv. 1, 4 ; v. 5, 6) in connection not only 
with Bethel, but also with Gilgal and Beer-sheba. Are the two latter 
places, therefore, to be looked for close to Samaria (? Shechem) ? 

(5) "The Samaritans in Shechem having been plagued with lions," &o. 
Shechem is here introduced inadvertently, not being mentioned in 2 Kings 
xvii. The colonists were placed in tJie cities of Samaria — i.e., the cities 
of the captive tribes. 

(6) Surely not more than one Luz was likely to have had the alterna- 
tive name of Bethel. 

(7) (The true) " Bethel was the seat of a school of prophets." Bnt 
still the children of the city mocked EUsha, an act quite consistent with 
the worship of the calf. 

(rt) D&nivas " consecrated by the memories of Jewish history " (Judges 
xviii. 30). 

(&) Bethel, as shown in (3), was luithin " the bounds of Jeroboam's 
kingdom " when the calves were set up. 

Scrutiny thus shows that the seven notes are invalid and unable to 
disturb the common opinion that one golden calf was set up at Jacob's 
Bethel (Beitin), possibly within sight of Solomon's Temple. 

W. F. Birch. 



THE NAMELESS CITY. 
[See Quarterly Statement, 1879, p. 130, 171.] 
I HAVE not yet learnt as a fact that the Mount of Olives is visible from 
some spot on the Bakoosh hill below the summit.* That it really is so I 

* The Survey Triangulation diagram shows that the neighbcurhood of Jeru- 
salem is visible from the top of the lllis Sherifeh, but it is hidden lower down by 
the intervening ridges.— C. li. C. 13ut see Fiun, pp. 445, 44'J. — W. F. B. 



THK NAMELESS CITY. 105 

feel certain ; but as the point is essential to showing satisfactorily that 
the nameless city was on the Bakoosh hill, it seems desirable to secure 
all the voussoirs before beginning to build the arch. Accordingly the 
proof promised will be kept back for the next number. 

Still, as Lieut. Conder has raised objections, they shall have immediate 
attention. He suggests Bethlehem as an alternative position. Establish- 
ing an alibi will best disestablish all rival sites, so that to this reply is 
deferred. His other objections, however, must be met at once, as they 
directly controvert point (3) — viz., that " the hill {Gibeah) of God (1 Sam. 
X. 5, 10) is the place of the Upper City of Jerusalem (Gabbatha, John 
xix. 13)." He urges — 

(1) "The name Gibeah is nowhere connected with Jerusalem." In 
reply it is enough to quote Isa. x. 32 : " The mount (of) the daughter of 
Zion, the hill {Giheah) of Jerusalem." Here the earlier words represent 
the eastern hill, the italicised words the south-west hill, the site of the 
Upper City. 

(2) " Jerusalem was at that time held by the Jebusites, whereas the 
hill of God was a garrison of the Philistines." This is the common (and 
I think erroiifO ts) opinion ; for I consider it demonstrated (in Quarterly 
Statement, 1878, page 182) that the stronghold of Jebus, i.e., the city of 
David, was on Ophel, so called. 

Therefore it was quite open to the Philistines, who had a garrison in 
Geba, to put one also on the south-west hill {Gibeah) of Jerusalem, even 
even if it partly belonged to the city occupied in common by the 
Israelites and Jebusites. 

The statement of Josephus (Ant. vii. 3. 1) that " David took the lower 
city by force'" now seems to me one of his frequent misapprehensions of 
the Bible. 

(3) "Gabbatha .... applies to the Court of Antonia." I did not 
mean to connect Gabbatha philologically, but topographically with the 
Gibeah of Jerusalem. Hebrew scholars must decide the former question ; 
as to the latter, Lewin seems to me to prove conclusively that Pilate's 
palace was not Antonia, but Herod's palace, in the Upper City, where 
Florus (Jos. Wars ii. 14. 9), before his tribunal, crucified Jews of the 
highest rank, on the very spot (I believe) where some of them had years 
before raised to Pilate the cry against Jesus, " Crucify Him I " 

I gladly accept the correction that the cairn is named Eujm el Kabtan 
(Captain's Cairn), the Arabic equivalent for " Conder's Cairn," which 
originally stood in the proof and was at the last moment altered to 
*' Salami's Cairn." 

Though Lieut Conder reports that he did not find any traces of anti- 
quity among the ruins on Eas Sherifeh (identical, I assume, with Dahar 
es Salahh), I am not persuaded that Mr. Finn was mistaken about what 
he did see. 

Seventeen years in Palestine must have taught him something about 
ruins, and his words (" Byeways in Palestine," 442) are these : " On the 
mountain top is a large oval space, which has been ivalled round; frag- 



106 THE KOCK OF RIMMON. 

merits of the enclosure are easily traceable, as also some hrohen columns, 
grey and -weather-beaten. This has every appearance of having been 
one of the many sun-temples devoted to Baal by early Syrians.* 

By temple I mean a succession of open-air courts, with a central altar 
for sacrifice ; a mound actually exists on the highest spot of elevation, 
which may well have been the site of the altar." 

The italicised words seem to me to indicate an antiquity greater than 
that of a modern hamlet. Indeed I shall be greatly surprised if a great 
cistern is not to be found hereabouts, described in 1 Sam. xix. 22 as " a 
great well in Sechu." A comparison of the different versions, Arabic, 
Syriac, &c., leads me to think that SecJiu has been substituted for 
Shefi, = a hare place on a hill, and in "Tent Work," vol. i. 279, the 
position is said to be "a bare and rocky hill." "VV. F. Birch. 



THE EOCK OF KIMM0:N^ OE THE POMEGEAI^ATE. 

Mr. Eawnslet's recovery of the name Pummon in Wady er Ritmman, 
and of the tradition that the vast cavern Mugharet el Jai holds six 
hundred men, makes the Benjamites' actual place of refuge to coincide 
with the obvious position in a way seldom attained in disputed questions of 
topography. 

A further test of the correctness of the identification is afforded in the 
points proposed for consideration by Lieut. Conder in Quarterhj State- 
ment, 1879, page 170. In reply to — 

1' and 6, Migron is allowed to mean a precipice. The difficulty about two 
Migrons, one north, the other south of "Wady Suwcinit, seems to me to 
vanish if we take the word to mean the wall of rock forming the north and 
south boundary of the passage of Michmash (see Quarterly Statement, 1877, 
piage 55). That Saul was on the south side of the gorge, opposite to the 
Philistines, seems clear from 1 Sam. xiv. 6, " Let us <jo over, &c.," and id. 
17, "See who is gone from us." Therefore the pomegranate-tree, which 
is in (so A. V. rightly, not hy ; see below, 2) Migron, cannot be " a tree 
in Ramah," if Lieut. Condor means us by Ramah to understand er Ram, 
distant nearly three miles to the west. Further the latter is literally 
''the tamarisk'' (1 Sam. xxii. G), and so could not be a pomegranate- 
tree. 

2. It is true the Biblical narrative says nothing about a cave, but a 
little reflection shows that such a shelter would be desirable (not to say 
necessary) during a four months' stay in the hold, and large caves were 
frequently used as places of refuge (1 Sam. xxii. 1 ; xxiv. 3). 

Lieut. Conder objects on principle to great caverns, such as 
that at Khureitum (called also Mugharet M'asa = cave of refuge), and 

* The circular depression mentioned by Mr. Finn I have seen, but do not 
consider it very ancient. It looks like an old lime-kiln. The place is fully 
described in the Memoir to Sheet XVII. of the Survey. The columns intended 
seem to be the Roman milestones close by. — C. R. C. 



THE ROCK OF RIMMON. 



107 



says that tliey are "never inhabited in Palestine" (" Tent Work," ii. 
159). Mr. Eawnsley, however, was informed that the cave near Rimmon 
"had been used time out of mind for refuge by the neighbouring 
villagers when pcsecuted by the government." 

Mr. Drake {Quarterlij Statement, 1874, p. 26) reported that the so- 
called (and, in my opinion, true) cave of AduUam is " dry and airy, and 
admirably adapted for an outlaw's hold." The little caves at Aid el 
Mieh do not at all satisfy the Biblical requirements for the famous cave 
of AduUam, which was one, and necessarily large, and a real hold. 

If there had been no cave " in the EockEimmon," the rendering " in " 
might have been misleading, but "in" is the commonest meaning of the 
Hebrew "Bi," though it also means " by or near." The quotation is 
wrong in Judges xx. 47, ''unto the rock is "Al;" "m the rock" is 
" Bi," as in xxi. 13. 

(3) Naarath was certainly not the border town of Benjamin and 
Ephraim, since it was on the northern, not southern, boundary of Ephraim, . 
as Mr. Kerr showed in Quarterly Statement, 1877, p. 44. His line for the 
northern boundary of Benjamin seems to me to be drawn correctly up 
" the ravine on the north of Jebel Kuruutel," and it gives Eemmoon to 
Ephraim. Of course with this line Taiyibeh cannot be Ophra (Josh, 
xviii. 23), an identification which strains the order of the places named 
in that passage. The same error has crept into " the Handbook," and 
the conclusions dravni from it are consequently wrong. 

(4) " The Eock Eimmoon was apparently not far from Shiloh (Judges 
xxi. 12, ? 13), which is an argument in favour of the northern site." I 
fail to see this m the words, "They sent ... to the children of 
Benjamin ... in the rock Eimmon." Of two places, four or five miles 
apart, how is it thus implied that they sent to the nearer one ? 

(5) The sting of course in the tail. If Sela necessarily means a 
precipice (see Lieut. Conder in "Tent Work," II. 91, "A narrow but 
deep chasm, impassable except by a detour of many miles . . . ' Cliff 
(sela) of Division ' . . . cliffs, such as are to be inferred from the word 
Sela") then Beit Atab cannot be the rock (Sela) Etam as proposed by 
the same writer. The two points cannot both be held together, and so 
Lieut. Conder ri<jhtly abandons one, but retains, I think, the wrowj one. 

The meaning of the Hebrew Sela is not to be settled by its ejeneral 
(N.B., not universal) modern use, but by Biblical com-parison. The 
standard of measurement for Sela seems to be Petra (ha-Sela, the cliff) 
Avith its well-known precipices (Sinai and Pal. 499). " The shadow of a 
great roch " (Isa. xxxii. 2). This must mean a rock more or less perpen- 
dicular. "A sharp rock" (lit., tooth of a Selq) surely means in 1 Sam. 
xiv. 4 a cliff, so precipitous that Jonathan had to " climb up upon his 
hands, and upon his knees." These passages, as well as those previously 
quoted, seem sufficient to show that Sela is only applied to a rock when 
it is precijjitous. Height alone does not entitle to the name. 

W. F. B. 



108 



GEBI]\I. 

Is once mentioned in the Bible, in Isa.x. 31, " The inhabitants of Gebim 
gather themselves to flee." It seems to have been visible from and east 
of Geba {Quarterly Statement, 1877, 56; 1879, 103). 

The name apparently survives in Goba (Captain "Warren's letter, 29), 
otherwise called El Kuba' or Kub'a (1879, 125, 127). It is not far from 
the cave of the six himdred Benjamites, to which place the men of 
Gebim doubtless carried oflf their worldly goods on the invasion of 
Sennacherib. Genesius says the full idea of the words above is, "they 
hurry off to conceal their treasures ;" and where, if not in their great 
cave ? One of the traditions collected by the Eev. H. B. Eawnsley 
seems to me to refer to this period, viz. (1), " That the Christians used 
it a long whUe ago, when God sent an evil wind to destroy them." 

Time, I venture to think, has substituted Cliristians for Jeics, and tliem 
for the Assyrians. The legend hardly disguises the sudden destruction 
of Sennacherib's great host, foretold in the words, "I will send a blast 
upon him" (2 Kings xix. 7). It is probable, therefore, that the cave 
(Mugharet el Jai) again did good service to Benjamin in Hezekiah's 
time, and that the feet of the inhabitants of Gebim helped in ages past 
to polish the descent to Ain Suweinit {Quarterly Statement, 1879, p. 123). 

I find that twelve years ago Captain Warren obtained a trace of this 
spring, since he says (Letters, 19), "The wady which runs from Beitiu 
between Mukmas and Jeba is first called Towahin, and .... becomes 
W. Shiban, then "W. Ain, Suweinit, and then TV. Farah." 

M. Ganneau also appears to have recovered a name indicating that 
"W. Suweinit was used as a place of refuge, Avhen he states (Letter, 
Jiuie, 1879) that "the wady rtmning from the west to the east, imme- 
diately north of Jeba, is called Wady el 3Ieysa." This word seems to 
Eie to represent in Arabic the Hebrew word Mahseh, translated 
"re/age" in Ps. civ. 18, "The rocks (lit. Selas = cliffs) are a refuge 
for the conies." The same name curiously clings to the traditional 
and true cave of Adullam, now called not only Mugharet Khureitun, 
but also M. el M'asa (Drake and Conder) ; M. el Misa (Ganneau). The 
wady below bears, I believe, also the same name. 

W. F. B. 



THE PLACE CALLED BETHSO. 

" But if we go the other way westward (first wall), it began at the same place 
<Tower Hippicus) and extended through a place called Bethso to the Gate of the 
Essenes."— Josephus, Wars v. 4. 2. 

Dr. Eobixsox, in his Bib. Eesearches, has a note in relation to this 
piece called Bethso which needs correction, as other eminent critics have 
adopted his opinion. He says: "Bethso, which Josephus does not 
tniaslate, seems to be the Hebrew Bethzoah, dung-place, and not im- 



EPIPHAXIUS ON GOLGOTHA. 109 

properly marks the spot where the filth of this part of the city was 
thrown down from Zion into the valley below. From this circumstance 
the adjacent gate might naturally receive the synonymous name Dung 
Gate." 

Mr. W. F. Birch has adopted the same opinion, for he says: "The 
Dung Gate, near south-west comer of the Upper City. Here apparently 
was 'the place called Bethso' (= dung-place)." — Quarterly Statement, 
Oct., 1879, p. 178. 

I have seen the same identification assumed several times in the same 
periodical by different writers; and it has crept its way into some 
standard works on Jerusalem topography. 

It is much more likely that Bethso comes from Beth-tzo, " Interdicted 
Place," or a place from which persons are prohibited and excluded, 
such as we may very naturally suppose the military parade-grounds of 
the Three Eoyal Towers to have been, lying along the fortifications of 
the west wall from Hippicus to the Tower and Gate of the Essenes. The 
Hebrew word Beth-tzo means a place over which persons are forbidden 
to pass or trespass. It was doubtless the royal parade-grounds for the 
soldiers in the Three Eoyal Towers, which were located on this spot. 

In the form Beth-tzoh it literally means the House of the Commander. 
And the title of commander, which is used only once in the Bible, is 
tzoh in the original (Isaiah Iv. 4). In this form it would mean the Com- 
mander-in-Chief. But the name, in all probability, was not applied to 
the house, but to the district, grounds, or surroundings of his place of 
residence, and be in the form Beth-tzo— the interdicted and forbidden 
place. 

Whenever a positive command, injunction, or precept — in the form of 
a forbiddance, prohibition, ordinance, or interdiction — is given in the 
Bible, this word has the form of tzo, as iu Isa. xxviii. 10, 13, where it reads, 
" precept upon precept, precept upon precept." The word is invariably 
used for the Ten Commandments, or Interdictions and Precepts (Exod. 
XX. 6 ; xxiv. 12 ; xxxiv. 4, 32, 34 ; Deut. iv. 13 ; v. 31 ; x. 14 ; xi. 12). 
Dr. Eobinson's explanation of the word, and its derivation, almost forces 
a smUe. Its identification as the site of the Dung-ijate is equally as 
absurd. We cannot for a moment suppose that the Dung-gate wotild be 
located on the highest point of Zion, and in the very neighbourhood of 
the royal towers, gardens, and palace. S. Beswick. 

Canada, Oct., 1879. 



EPIPHANIUS ON GOLGOTHA. 

Having lit upon the following passage in Epiphanius on Heresies, 
treating of the locality of Golgotha, I thought it would be interest- 
ing to the friends of the Palestine Exploration Fimd to present it to 
them : — 



110 THE COLONISATION OF PALESTINE. 

"Wlierefore lie may wonder -wlio learns, as I liave by books, tliat 
our Lord Jesus Christ was crucified in Golgotha, in the very spot where 
the body of Adam was laid. For after leaving Paradise, and dwelling 
opposite it a long while, he at length left it, and having died in this 
gpot — Jerusalem, I mean— there he was buried in Golgotha. Whence, it 
is probable, that the place took its name, being translated, ' the place 
of a skull,' while the outline of the i^lace bears no resemblance to a 
skull. For neither is it situated on any height, so that it should be 
called a skull, answering to the place of the head in the body, nor is it a 
place of outlook ; for neither is it situated on an elevation beyond other 
places For opposite it is the Mount of Olives, which is higher, and 
Gabaon, eight miles farther on, is also loftier. Moreover the height 
which once existed on Mount Zion, but has now been scarped, is also 
loftier than that sj)ot. 

"Whence then has it derived its name — 'the Skull'? Because the 
skull of Adam, the first created man, was found there, and his mortal 
remains were laid there, therefore the spot was called ' the Place of a 
Skull.' "— Epiph. i. iii., Ha?r. xM. cap. 5. 

E. GOVETT. 



THE COLONISATIONS^ OF PALESTII^E. 

We are indebted to the courtesy of the editor of the Jeivish Chronicle 
for permission to reproduce the following letters on a subject in which 
many of the subscribers to the Palestine Exploration Fund are deeply 
interested. It may be remarked that some very important communica- 
tions have lately appeared in the pages of this paper on the present 
condition of the Jews in Constantinople, Eussia, and Syria, together -with 
articles, letters, and notes on the future of the Holy Land : — 

" Sir, — ' The Jews Eegaining their Land' is the title of a paragra^^h 
going the round of the papers, to the effect that ' owing to the Jewish 
immigration the population of Palestine has more than doubled during 
the past ten years.' As a resident of this country since 1867, I can 
positively deny this statement. Many Jews, it is true, have come to live 
in Jerusalem, not in other places, or rather to lay their bones in the 
valley of Jehoshaphat, during the jjast decade ; but it is utter folly to 
declare that ' the population of Palestine had been doubled ' by such 
immigration. The population of Palestine was reckoned at 1,200,000 
ten years ago, and to maintain that it has doubled would give us an 
influx of 1,200,000 Jews. The truth is that about 5,000 Jews have come 
to tliis land during the j)ast ten years, and this fact is the origin of 
much exaggeration. Of these a large number have died, but others , 
may have taken their i)laces, leaving the number about the same. Nearly 
aU live in poverty, and make appeals from time to time to their wealthy 



THE COLONISATION OF PALESTINE. Ill 

brethren in Europe and America for means to maintain themselves and 
their families. The immigration is vii'tually a pauper influx, who ex- 
pect to live in idleness upon the hard-earned savings of their coreligionists 
abroad. Some are eventually disgusted at the penury which the rabbis' 
strict rule often enforces, and return to the countries whence they came. 
A few weeks ago I helped a poor American Jew to return to New York, 
and the United States Consul at Jerusalem has given assistance to many. 
A number of new houses have, indeed, been built outside the walls of 
Jerusalem by both Jews and Christians, follo-wTug the example of the 
Russian and Protestant missions, which first began to do so. These 
houses, being built over cisterns of rain water, are for the most part 
nests of typhus and malarial fever, and, instead of contributing to the 
health of the city, have materially added to the prevalent insalubrious- 
ness of Jerusalem. In the city itself the soil is so saturated with the 
impurities of jjast generations that any disturbance of the ground for 
building purposes invariably engenders malignant fevers. Captain 
Warren, E.E. and his corps of assistants, while making explorations and 
excavations in and about Jerusalem, suffered terribly from this cause. 
The scarcity of pare water is another source of evil at the Holy City, 
and although an abundant supisly could be brought from the ancient 
Pools of Solomon, yet all efforts to repair or rebuild the aqueduct are 
thwarted by the fanaticism of the Moslem rulers. 

" The land of Palestine is extremely productive, and were colonies 
planted here as they are in Australia, New Zealand, and the United 
States, there is no reason to doubt their success. The Rev. James Neil, 
B.A., formerly incumbent of Christ Church, Jerusalem, gives the follow- 
ing reasons why farming should be profitable in Palestine : — 1. Labour 
is extremely cheap. The wages of ordinary labourers are— men, 5s. to 
6s. a week ; women, 3s. ; boys and girls, 2s. These are considred good 
wages, and are amply sufiicient to enable them to live. 2. The ]3lou»h 
is extremely light. A man can carry it on his shoulders, and walk miles 
•with it to his home. Two diminutive oxen, or one mule, are amjily 
sufficient to draw it. 3. There is no expenditure whatever for manure. 
No artificial manure or any requiring carting is ever employed. That 
deposited by the beasts as they graze over the fields, and the ashes of 
whatever stubble is afterwards left to burn appear to be all the manure 
the rich Syrian arable lands have ever needed or received. 4. Horses, asses, 
oxen, and farm stock generally are very cheap. Horses cost from £3 to 
£10; mules, £12 to £15; camels, £8 to £20; asses, from £3 to £6; 
oxen, from £6 to £15 ; full-grown sheep, from 2s. to 8s. ; and goats still 
less. 5. The keep of animals is very trifling. Their food consists chiefly 
of barley and chopped straAV. Four horses can be kept at an anniial 
cost of £30. For oxen very rich oil cake is abundant, but for the most 
part of the year they live and work on little else beside chopped straw. 
This is explained by the fact that animals, like their masters, require 
only the lightest and simplest food in a hot country. 6. Harvest 
can be gathered in without injury from wet, Eain is never known at 



112 THE COLONISATION OF PALESTINE. 

harvest time. The weather in May is wann and dry, and remains so 
until the next October. 7. There is no need of stacting the crops. All 
the sheaves are carried on the backs of camels or asses to an open floor, 
some smooth rock surface, in the middle of the fields, and are threshed, 
winnowed, &c., in the open air at leisure in the course of three or four 
months of uniformly hot weather, during which no rain falls. 8. No 
farm buildings of any kind are required, except the roughest and 
simplest cattle sheds, and no hedges, ditches, walls, or enclosures of any 
kind around the fields. The only storehouses needed are undergrotmd 
cisterns. These are alluded to in Jer. xli. 8. The lands are vii'tually 
undrained, and one farm or one field marked off from another only by 
large rough stones placed here and there along the boundary line. 9. 
The total amount of taxes is only a tithe of each year's produce. 10. The 
gi-eat fertility of ordinary arable lands. The heavy lands in some j)arts 
yield a hundredfold — at Siloam, for instance, and to the south of Gaza, 
in the region where it still retains the character it bore when ' Isaac 
sowed in the land, and received a hundredfold ' (Gen. xxvi. 12). 11. The 
still geater fertility of irrigated lands. These jdeld four crops a year, 
and bear the combined products of England and Italy. 12. The 
immense productiveness of fruit trees. The olive, vine, fig, apricot, 
and mulberry tree in the high lands are excellent examples of the 
wealth that must have once been derived from this source. The \'ine, 
which is carelessly left to train along the ground, seems in some 
instances, as in the neighbourhood of Hebron, to turn into one huge 
mass of white grapes. In the hot plains oranges of very many kinds, 
lemon, citi'on, and banana, yield most abundantl3\ 

"I can corroborate from personal observation the truth of the foregoing 
description, and believe that a European immigration on a large scale 
woidd be a valuable means of regenerating Palestine. A judicious out- 
lay of capital in planting orange orchards and vineyards would yield a 
return in three years' time. Farming is lucrative ; and native labourers 
must be employed when long exposure to the direct rays of the sun is 
required, but Europeans can readily oversee their labourres without 
suffering from the summer sun. The autumn and winter and spring 
months are charming ; the summer heat can be diminished by building 
houses, as I have done, with verandahs and Venetian blinds, and placing 
doors and windows opposite each other to facilitate cool ventilation. — I 
am, &c., " John B. Hay, late United States Consul General. 

"Jaffa, November 6, 1879. 

" P.S. Since writing the foregoing I have seen the o6th annual report 
for 1878 of the Berlin Society for Promoting Christianity among the 
Jews. The population of Jerusalem is given as 7,000 Mahometans, 
5,000 Christians, and 13,500 Jews. There were 8,000 or 10,000 Jews in 
Jerusalem ten years ago, and the increase of about 5,000 corroborates 
the statement of my letter as above." 



THE COLONISATION OF PALESTINE. 113 

To the Editor of the " Jeivish Chronicle." 
*' Sir, — To Mr. John B. Hay's interesting letter I am enabled to 
add the following from the same pen. ' The German settlements at 
Jaffa, Mount Carmel, and Jerusalem are successf al as far as they go. 
They are, however, possessed of very limited capital, and confine 
themselves chiefly to trades ; their colonies can scarcely be called 
agricvdtural. The success which has attended their cultivation of 
the vine at Carmel, their soap factory, tannery, and brewery, show 
that European energy avails much in spite of all obstacles. Religious 
views induced them to come to Palestine, and they make no aggres- 
sive attempts to evangelise the natives, holding that example is 
better than precept, and thus they will become a power for good in 
the land. They have a school and hospital at Jaffa, and own thirty- 
six houses, and a steam flour mill, also threshing machines, a large 
number of carts and waggons, and improved agricultural imple- 
ments. Their spring waggons ply regularly between Jerusalem and 
Jaffa, conveying passengers. At Jerusalem they own about five acres 
and thirteen dwelling-houses. At Mount Cannel they possess sixty- 
eight dwellings and many vineyards. Leather and soap have been con- 
siderably manufactured by the Carmel colony and even exported. The 
importing firm of Duisberg, Breish, and Co., of Jaffa, have been success- 
ful in introducing Marseilles tiles for roofing, and dealing extensively 
in Asia Minor and Austrian timber, besides supplying Palestine with 
European, and chiefly German, commodities and manufactures. In 
view of these facts, it is reasonable to surmise that Anglo-Saxon energy 
and enterprise, aided by judicious outlay of capital, woiild accomplish as 
much, and even greater things, in Palestine.' 

" "Would that religious views could induce some of our millionaires to 
expend a few pounds out of their millions on practical undertakings 
such as the above." "Yours obediently, 

"December 1st, 1879." " H. Guedalla." 

To the Editor of the " Jewish Chronicle." 
"Sir, — In conversation, at Constantinople, with Mr. Lawrence Oliphant, 
that gentleman was kind enough to confide to me, for publication in 
your columns, the hitherto unpublished details of a scheme wliich he 
has been maturing for a long time past, which is known only to a 
select few. His scheme has received the (unofficial) approbation of 
Lords Beaconsfield and Salisbury, and that of several of our co-ro- 
ligionists. So far Mr. Ohphant has been delayed by changes of 
Government and by political crises, but the approximate probability 
that the Sultan will see his way towards encouraging an enterprise Avhich 
can only redound to his credit, by securing him a large share of public 
sympathy all over the world, which will tend to dissipate the growing 
impression that he is opposed to all reforms, even when they in no way 
interfere Avith his sovereign rights, and are attended with no political 
danger, has induced Mr. Oliphant to break the silence which he has 

K 



114 THE COLONISA.TION OF rALESTINE. 

hitherto preserved, and to give me the following outline of his plan, 
fuller details of which will appear in the introduction to his forthcoming 
book of travels in Palestine. There can be no doubt but that the 
Sultan's firman will shortly be given to a scheme, which can only be a 
source of profit to his Government in its great financial extremity, and 
of strength to his empire at large. 

"Every scheme in which the welfare of the Jews is involved, which 
emanates from external sources, is, not unnaturally, regarded by our 
coreligionists with suspicion. I may as well, at once, state that Mr. 
Oliphant is actuated by no kind of religious feeling in the matter. 
Anxious to discover a means by which the Sultan might show that pros- 
perity is possible under his rule, he has, after mature deliberation, hit 
upon the colonisation of Palestine by the Jews — a people composed of 
varied nationalities — as the only possible solution of his problem which 
should not offend political prejudices. Whether the success of his 
scheme may not pi-ove to be the corner-stone, thus fortuitously laid, of 
the great restoration which we all hope for, it would be premature to 
judge. In any case, Mr. Oliphant was good enough to read to me the 
complete mles for the government of his projected colony, as well as the 
whole of the introduction to the book, before alluded to, and anything 
more matured, clearer, or more intelligent, it has rarely been my lot to 
listen to. Such details as Mr. Oliphant allows me to lay before your 
readers are given, as nearly as memory will permit, in his own words. 

" ' A great opportunity,' Mr. Oliphant said, ' is now being afforded to 
the Sultan of manifesting the sincerity of his desire to introduce reforms 
into one of the Asiatic provinces of his empire, which stands in much 
need of it. I have submitted a scheme to the Turkish Government for 
the colonisation of the fertile and unoccupied tract of land lying to the 
east of the Joi-dan, now sparsely inhabited by tribes of nomad Arabs. 
This tract, Avhich I myself have visited and examined, consists of the 
land of Gideon and of the northern portion of the Plains of Moab, which 
formed the former heritage of the tribes of Gad and Reuben. This 
country is far superior in productive capacity to the territory on the 
Avost of the Jordan, the moimtains of Giload rising to a height of 
upwards of 4,000 feet above the level of the sea, and being heavily 
timbered, well watered, and susceptible in the highest degree of agri- 
cultural development. They can scarcely be said to be inhabited, the 
plains in the south forming a lofty plateau about 2,500 feet above the 
sea-level, consisting of rich arable land, cultivated, in patches, by the 
Arabs; but, with the exception of the town of Es Salt, there is no 
resident population, nor landowners. The whole tract belongs to the 
Government, which, omitting only a small sheep-tax levied on the 
Arabs, derives no revenue from it. The entire region proposed for 
colonisation comprises an area of about a million and a half acres, which 
should become the property of an Ottoman company, through whose 
ngency, in conjunction with the Turkish authorities, it should be 
administered. The advantages to the Turkish Government of the 



THE COLONISATION OP PALESTINE. 115 

proposed scheme are as follows. It would bring into cultivation a 
rich tract of country, at present tinproductive. It would be a reform, 
involving no expense to the Porte, but, on the contrary, be the means 
of providing it with an immediate sum of money to be derived from the 
sale of the lands. It would prove to Europe that the Jews found greater 
facilities for toleration and protection in Turkey than in some Christian 
countries. It woidd in no way interfere with the sovereign rights of 
the Porte, as the administration would be under the auspices of an 
Ottoman * Compagnie Anonyme," and the colonists woidd become 
Ottoman subjects, while good government woidd be guaranteed to 
them by special regulations having the Imperial sanction. It is pro- 
posed to constitute the district set apart for colonisation into a separate 
Sarjah (province). The emigrants would not be exclusively Jewish, 
but an asylum woidd be afforded to many Muslim refugee families from 
Bulgaria and Eoumelia, who have proved by the character of their 
farms, which they have been obliged to abandon, that they are excellent 
farm -labourers. The fellaheen would also flock over to be employed 
from Western Palestine, where they are in a state of extreme poverty. 
It is not intended, in the first instance, to utilise Jewish labour on the 
sod, but it is anticipated that out of the 200,000 Jews in Asiatic Turkey 
(to say nothing of the millions in Europe) enough men of more or less 
capital could be found to become landlords. As an investment, farming 
in Palestine, when properly conducted, is most remunerative. The 
colony could be connected by rail with the port of Haifa, by way of 
the Yalley of the Jordan, which has a good incline the whole way, pre- 
senting no engineering difficulties.' 

" It will at once be seen that Mr. Oliphant has hit upon the only present 
practicable plan of colonisation by the Jews. In their present condition 
of insufficient acclimatisation, they would only be capable of directing 
the economical labour of the fellaheen. Later on, practice and eastern 
might make them agricultviralists j^e?" se. But when the whole of Mr. 
Oliphant' s regulations come to be known, they will be seen to be replete 
with correct appreciation, and to be eminently practical in their 
character. 

' ' The Sultan would clearly be conferring a great favour upon the Jewish 
race, for which they would be very grateful, in granting a concession of 
this nature. All they need is some kind of guarantee for protection and 
good government. They would, in all probability, resj)ond to his 
invitation, and they would do their utmost to prove, by luaking their 
colony a success, that his generosity was not thrown away; and they 
would make it into a model of a peaceful and prosperous province, Avhich 
might be imitated elsewhere, and be the beginning of a system which 
should extend throughout Asia Minor, and strengthen and consolidate 
the empire. The difficidty of dealing with the Arabs will not be found 
(Mr. Oliphant who has visited the district and dwelt amongst them 
says) to be as great as it would appear. The; present comparative security 
which reigns there proves the beneficial results of the presence of a few 
troops. 



116 THE COLONISATION OF PALESTINE. 

" The fact that the Jews, as a race, are interested in the success of the 
project divests it of a British character. It is essentially of an nnpolitical 
character in its bearings, and, inasmuch as the Jews are not struggling 
to acquire an independent national existence, it can be accompanied by- 
no danger to the integrity of the Turkish Empure. Mr. OHphant greatly 
hopes that when his proposed company is brought out, our co-religionists 
■vvHl show, by the liberality of their support, that they are not dead to 
all efforts which tend to secure some occupation by them of the land of 
their fathers, without involving any question of immediately charitable 
support of the occupants. 

" Yours obediently, 

"Odessa, December 21st, 1879." "Sydney M. Samuel." 

To the Editor of the " Jewish Chronicle." 

" Sir, — Having read with much interest the account which appears in 
your columns of Mr. OHphant's scheme for the Colonisation of Palestine, 
I should be glad to be allowed to contribute a few facts connected with 
the question. 

*' The character of the district selected for Colonisation, also gives good 
reason to hope for success. The plateau of Mount Gilead, elevated 2,500 
feet above the Mediterranean, is always considered to surpass Western 
Palestine in the healthiness of its climate. Well supplied with water 
and with a rich arable soU, it also possesses considerable forests of oak 
trees towards the noi-th, whUe a sub-tropical climate, giving facilities 
for the cultivation of almost every kind of fruit and vegetable, exists on 
the lower slopes above the Jordan. The country, though now entirely 
deserted, proved, as we know, once so attractive as to be preferred by 
some of the tribes of Israel to the Promised Land itself, and it is covered 
■with the ruins of cities which continued to flourish even as late as the 
fourth century of the Christian Era. The ruins of Gadara, Gerasa, Hesh- 
bon, Madeba, &c., surpass in importance any remains existing West of 
Jordan. 

" The district is bounded on the north by the plains of Hauran and 
Bashan, which are inhabited by the Druses. The corn of this northern 
district is of remarljably fine quality, and there seems no reason why 
crops equally magnificent should not be produced on Mount Gilead. 

" The details of Mr. Oliphant's scheme will, no doubt, show that the 
undertaking is founded on principles as safe as that which is laid down 
in your correspondent's letter, one which I have already had the oppor- 
tunity of noticing in your columns — the employment of the native popu- 
lation under Je\vish landlords. I may however be, perhaps, permitted 
to point out one or two of the principal difficulties which are likely to bo 
encountered, and of the evident dangers to be guarded against. 

" In the first place the constitution of a New Sanjak or ' Standard ' — a 
Government whoso ruler would be directly responsible to the governor 
of Syria, Midhat Pasha, should give the ojiportunity for instituting a 
reformed systoni of administration. 



THK COLONISATION OF PALESTINE. 



117 



" It does not yet appear whether the governor would of necessity be a 
Turk or (which would appear possible) a member of the Colony, but it 
is evidently of the greatest importance that the choice of the officials 
working under him should depend in great measure on the Colonists, 
and that the laws regulating the levying of the taxes should be modelled 
on European custom, rather than on the unjust and ruinous practice of 
the Tm-kish administration— that the Colonists, in short, should be pre- 
served from the official corruption and licence which are so rapidly re- 
ducing the Syrian peasantry west of Jordan to a condition of desperation. 

" A difficulty which would not be experienced west of Jordan arises on 
the east, namely, that of deahng with the Bedawin or nomadic Arabs 
who roam over the deserted country. The great tribes of the Sukr, the 
Anezeh, and the Beni Sakhr, have for so long remained undisturbed occu- 
pants of the country ' beyond Jordan,' that they are in the habit of affi:x;ing 
their tribe marks to all buildings where treasure is thought to lie hid, 
a simple indication of their claim to the possession of the country and 
all its products. 

" These warlike tribes will resent and possibly resist the incursion of 
Colonists. The attempt forcibly to expel them would lead to long feuds 
and constant guerilla warfare, which would prove very damaging to 
agricultural prosperity. On the other hand, the Arabs have learned the 
value of money. It is not beyond the bounds of possibihty that many 
might be induced to settle down as cultivators, while others would 
become breeders of cattle in pastoral districts. There is plenty of room 
for the Bedawin farther east, but it must not be forgotten that they are 
a distinct race from the Fellahin, a race always nomadic, never agricul- 
tural, and claiming a hereditary right to the country which it is pro- 
posed to colonise. 

"The construction of a railway from the port of Haifa is one of the 
first requisites for the success of the scheme. The Colonists would find 
themselves in the first instance almost entirely dependent for supplies 
on the country nearer the coast. Caravans of camels might no doubt 
be at first organised to communicate with the interior, but the com- 
petition with the country already cultivated would only be possible 
through the existence of rapid means of communication. 

" The railway presents some engineering difficulties connected with the 
passage of the Jordan valley, but they are comparatively unimportant. 
From Haifa in 15 miles it would rise gradually only 250 feet. In the 
next 15 it woiild fall about 900, following the broad passage down 
the valley of Jezreel to the Jordan. Thence by the line of the ancient 
Hieromax river it Avould ascend 3,000 feet in about 30 miles. The 
Jordan once crossed branches to Damascus on the north, and along the 
pilgrim route southwards to Moab would in time be made with the 
greatest ease. Haifa has long been proposed as a terminus for the 
Euphrates valley railway, and although the northern line from the 
Orontcs possesses more imi)ortant advantages, there is no doubt that a 
railway from Haifa might easily be extended northwards to Aleppo, 



118 THE EMPIRE OF THE HITTITES. 

and from the main line of communication throughout Syria, north and 
south by Damascus and Hamah. 

" I may perhaps note that, in the opinions of engineers, a light steam 
tram is considered far better fitted in the first instance for a semi- 
civilised country than a heavy line reqiiiring greater initial expenditure. 
" Heartily wishing success to a scheme which appears to be founded on 
sound principles, and supported by influential and able men, 
"I remain, your obedient servant, 

" Claude E. Conder, Lieut. E.E." 



THE EMPIEE OF THE HITTITES. 

Eeprintcd from tlie Times of Jamuiry 2drd, 1880. 

One of the most curious results of modem research has been a belief 
iu the existence of a great and influential Empire in Western Asia, the 
very existence of which had been forgotten in the days of classical 
antiquity. Even the name of the people who founded it, the Hittites, 
was known only from a few stray notices in the Old Testament, and 
none suspected that it had once been a name of power and terror to the 
nations of the ancient East. We hear in Genesis of a small and obscure 
Hittite tribe which inhabited the south of Palestine in Patriarchal times, 
and whose literary character might perhaps have been guessed from the 
title Kirjath-Sepher, or " Booktown," given to their capital Debir, west 
of Hebron. Twice, again, in the Book of Kings is mention made of the 
" Kings of the Hittites" — once as purchasers of the horses imported 
from Egypt by the merchants of Solomon (1 Kings, x. 29), and once 
as the dangerous rivals of the Syrian Monarch (2. Kings, vii. G). So 
little, however, was known of their history, so utterly ignored was their 
existence by Greek and Latin writers, that Professor F. Newman once 
urged these two references as evidences of the unhistoiical character of 
the passages in which they occur. 

But the very statements which Professor Newman believed to damage 
the truth of the Biblical narrative have been turned into arguments in 
its favour. The kings of the Hittites not only existed, but were power- 
ful enough to threaten Assyria on the one hand and Egypt on the other, 
and to carry the arts and culture of the Euphrates to the Euxine and 
^gean Seas. The Hittites, called Kheta by the Egyptians and Khatti 
by the Assyrians, first appear on the monuments of the Egyptian 
monarch Thothmes III., in the 16th century before the Christian era. 
Thothmos had reduced the greater part of Western Asia beneath his 
rule ; Nineveh and Babylon paid him tribute, and the Hittites, who 
occupied the north of Syria, formed part of his empire. It is probable 
that they had but recently established themselves so far to the south ; 
at all events their place is taken by the inhabitants of Aram-naharaim 
or Mesopotamia in the wars of Thothmes I., and by the Rot^nnu or 



THE EMriRE OF THE HITTITES. 119 

Semitic Syrians in the wars of Thotlimes II. Henceforward for several 
centuries they are the most formidable antagonists of the Egyptian 
monarchy. 

The two centres of their power were Carchemish on the Euphrates 
and Kadesh, the "Holy" City, on the Orontes. Amen-em-heb, an 
officer of Thothmes III., tells us how he had brought spoil and captives 
from the land of Carchemish and Aleppo, and how, during the siege of 
Kadesh, he had killed " a mare" sent by the King of Kadesh against 
the besieging forces, and had led the Egyptians through the breach they 
eventually made in " the new walls " of the town. The Hittites, too, 
took their share in the great confederacy which was defeated by Thoth- 
mes at the battle of Megiddo— an event which laid the whole of Palestine 
at the feet of the Egyptian conqueror. 

The conquests of Thothmes, however, were not permanent. About 
two centuries afterwards, his successor, Seti I., was confronted by a 
formidable league of Syrian and Canaanite tribes, under the leadership 
of the Hittites. Once more the arms of the Egyptians triumphed, but 
the triumph was only momentary. Eamses II., the Sesostris of Greek 
historians, whose accession may be placed about 1400 B.C., found him- 
self attacked in the fourth year of his reign by a wide-reaching con- 
federacy of Asiatic nations, who all owned the supremacy of the Hittite 
princes of Carchemish and Kadesh. The Hittite monarch had gathered 
under his ilag the tribes of Mesopotamia, of "Western Armenia, and of 
Asia Minor. The story of .the struggle has been recorded in a long epic 
by the contemporary court poet Pentaur. Eamses is there invested with 
the character and prowess of a divine hero ; like the demigods of Homer, 
the gods fight on his behalf, and the fate of the whole war is made to 
depend on the might of his single arm. The battle raged round the 
walls of Kadesh till the Hittites, terrified by the superhuman deeds of 
the Egyptian monarch, fled precipitately and agreed to terms of peace. 
Such at least is the account of the epic writer ; as a matter of fact, 
however, the contest was not decided till the 2l8t year of Eamses, when 
both sides, wearied out by the varying fortunes of a long war, determined 
to conclude a treaty. The Hittite text of this treaty was engraved on a 
silver plate and sent to Eamses by "the Grand-Duke of the Hittites, 
Kheta-Sira, by the hand of his herald Tartisbu and his herald Eames." 
The Egyptian translation of the treaty has been preserved, and we learn 
from it that an offensive and defensive alliance was formed between the 
rival monarchs, each of whom promised to come to the other's assistance 
in case or foreign attack, and to deliver up all political offenders or other 
criminals who may have fled from the one country into the other. The 
treaty seems to have been observed for about a century, when we find 
the Hittites and Egyptians again engaged in hostilities. Eamses III. 
(about 1280 B.C.) led the Egyptians as far as Carchemish itself, and 
returned home with spoil and prisoners from various Hittite towns. 
But the Hittites were no longer so powerful as they had been. The 
central authority had disappeared, and each of the chief cities was ruled 



120 THE EMPIRE OF THE HITTITES. 

by an independent prince. Kadesh, too, seems to liave passed into the 
hands of the Syrian, Carchemish from henceforth becoming the sole centre 
of the various Hittite tribes. Situated as it was on the Euphrates, it 
commanded the high road of commerce and war which led from Baby- 
lonia and Assyria into Asia Minor on the one side, and Palestine -on the 
other. Driven back from the south by the rising Semitic kingdoms of 
Syria, the Hittites were forced to compensate themselves by conquests in 
the north and west. In the reign of the Assyrian monarch Tiglath- 
Pileser I. (b.c. 1130), they were still paramount from the Euphrates to 
Lebanon. They had subdued the Aramean tribes of Syria ; Pethor, the 
home of Balaam, at the junction of the Sajur and the Euphrates, had 
become a Hittite city, and their sway extended as far as the Euxine. 
The Colchians and Urumians, who inhabited Western Armenia or Cap- 
padocia, were tributary to the King of Carchemish and furnished him 
with troops, 4,000 of whom were defeated by the Assyrian invader. 
But from this time onward the power of the Hittites was on the wane. 
Threatened by the Arameans on the west and by the Assyrians on the 
east, they became more and more confined to the territory immediately 
surrounding Carchemish. The two Assyrian kings, Assur-natsirpal 
(B.C. 883—858) and his son Shalmaneser II. (b.c. 858 — 823), overthrew 
them and their allies, captured their cities, seized Pethor and the ford it 
commanded, and exacted an enormous tribute of gold, bronze, lead, 
precious stones and stuffs, and other objects from the wealthy inhabit- 
ants of Carchemish. After a respite granted by the temporary weakness 
of Assyria, the Hittites were once more attacked imder Sargon ; their 
last monarch, Pisiris, was defeated and slain (b.c. 717), and Carchemish 
made the seat of an Assyrian governor. The wars carried on by the 
Assyrians against Phoenicia soon afterwards caused the stream of trade 
to be diverted to the old Hittite capital, where merchants from all parts 
of the world met together. The maneh or maund of Carchemish became 
a standard of weight and money, and it was not until the fall of Assyria 
that ttie decline of the city can be said to have begun. At any rate, it 
was stiU considered the key of the countries beyond the Euphrates at the 
time when the ambition of Pharaoh Necho was overthrown by Nebuchad- 
nezzar, It seems to have been known in G-reek times under the name of 
Hierapolis, the Sacred City of the Asiatic Goddess. 

The site of Carchemish was long a hotly-debated question. Circesium 
was the spot usually selected, but the selection threw the geographical 
statements of the Assyrian inscriptions into hopeless confusion. M. 
Maspero next proposed Mumbij , the ancient Bambyce, a little to the 
east of Aleppo, but this site also, though better agreeing with the data 
of the inscriptions than Circesium, was not entirely satisfactory. The 
discovery of its real position is due to Mr. Slcene, at that time British 
Consul at Aleppo, and the verification of the discovery was the last 
achievement of Mr. George Smith, the lamented Assyrian decipherer. 
On the western bank of the Euphrates, midway between the village of 
Sajur and Birejik, which now overlooks the ford over the Euphrates 



THE EMPIRE OF THE IIITTITES. 121 

traversed by the caravans, is a huge mound of earth, covering an area 
as large as that of Bloomsbury, and composed of the crumbling remains 
of the Hittite capital. The ruined walls and towers which still surround 
the mound, as well as fragments of masonry and sculpture found upon 
its surface, had struck Pococke and some others of our older travellers, 
and the ruins had been supposed to mark the site of Gerrhfe or Europus. 
We now know that they represent a far richer and more famous city 
than either of these, and that the relics preserved among them belong to 
a much more remote age than that of any Greek town. They go by the 
name of Jerabis, and the excavations which are at present being con- 
ducted in them under the direction of Mr. Consul Henderson have already 
resulted in the discovery of several interesting monuments, two of which 
may now be seen in the British Museum. A writer in the Cologne Gazette, 
quoted by us in our impression of January 1, says of the most recent 
excavations ; — 

" I have seen on the spot the following three monuments : — First, a 
large square limestone block ; upon it is a high relief representing a lion 
stretched out at length, against which two persons are advancing. 
Secondly, the lower halves of two great basaltic blocks, representing in 
high relief the lower halves of three persons. Thii-dly, a column-liko 
stone of a similar kind, with an inscription on one side and on the other 
apparently the figure of a woman. The inscription is perfectly clear, 
and consists of the pictures of animals, animals' heads, and many other 
signs or characters which for the present are quite enigmatical. In spite 
of some similarities with the writing on the often-mentioned stones from 
Hamath, now preserved in the Stamboul Museum, the above inscription 
is not all in the same character or language as the latter. At first sight 
the costumes appear purely Assyrian, but on careful inspection numerous 
details are discovered which are not at all Assyrian. These monuments 
will probably soon be floating on rafts do^vn the Euphrates, and then 
find theii- way over the sea to the British Museum. Mr. Henderson has 
broken new ground of the highest antiquity. We wish him every suc- 
ces'^in his further efforts." 

'j-'he recovery of Carchemish and the resuscitation of the Hittite 
Empire have led to results unexpectedly important to the history of 
Western writing and Western culture. Carchemish was a centre from 
which the art, the religion, and the civilisation of the East may have 
been carried through Asia Minor to the JEgean, and thence to Greece. 
Its inhabitants could further boast of belonging to a race which had 
achieved what it has been granted to but few to achieve — the invention 
of a system of \vi'ituig. They used hieroglyphic characters for this 
purpose, some of which preserved their primitive pictorial forms, while 
others ceased to bear more than a faint resemblance to the objects they 
originally denoted. The characters are always engraved on stone in 
relief, from which we may infer that the first materials employed for 
writing were fusible tablets of metal, such as that on which the treaty 
of peace with the Egyptians was inscribed, or those which must once 

L 



122 THE EMPIRE OF THE HITTITES. 

have filled the niches observed by M. Eenan in the cliffs of Syria. Among 
the clay impressions of seals inscribed with Egyptian and Phoinician 
legends which were found by Mr. Layard in the record chamber of 
Sennacherib's palace were some which bore characters unlike any ever 
noticed before. For many years these attracted little attention. In 
1870, however, certain curiously inscribed stones (one of which had been 
observed by Burckhardt as far back as 1812) were discovered built into 
the waUs of the bazaar at Hamah, the ancient Hamath, and partially 
published in the first statement of the Palestine Exploration Society. 
Squeezes and photographs of them were taken in the following year by 
Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake, copies of which were published in Burton and 
Drake's " Unexplored Syria," together with an account of their history 
and character. Five short inscriptions were altogether brought to light, 
three of which are practically duplicates. In consequence of the dis- 
covery having been made at Hamah, the hieroglyphs of which the in- 
scriptions consist were termed Hamathite, and it was found that they 
were identical with the mysterious characters on the seal impressions 
from Nineveh. Subsequently another inscription in the same characters 
was discovered at Aleppo, while a missionary — Mr. Davis — copied yet 
another, which was accompanied by a remarkable sculpture, in a wholly 
difi'erent part of Asia, the ancient Lycaonia. It thus became evident 
that the so-called Hamathite system of writing was not confined to 
Hamath and its neighbourhood, but must have been carried beyond the 
confines of Cilicia. This and other facts led to the belief that it was 
really of Hittite origin, and marked the j)resence of Hittite influence 
wherever it was found. The literary character of the Hittites was known 
from the Egyptian monuments, wliich, for instance, make mention of a 
certain " writer of books of the vile Kheta." 

The discovery of Carchemish came most opportunely to confirm the 
behef . On the summit of the mound which covers its remains Mr. Smith 
noticed a broken statue, resembling in both dress and style of art the 
figures copied by Mr. Davis on the rocks of Ibreez in Lycaonia, and 
bearing an inscription in what we may now term Hittite hieroglyphs. 
Subsequent excavations on the same site have proved beyond question 
that these curious characters were the peculiar property of the Hittite 
race. The two monuments sent a few months ago from Jerabis to the 
British Museum are thickly covered with them, and show that the forms 
found on the stones of Hamath arc later modifications, having somewhat 
the same relation to the older and more perfect forms of Carchemish 
that running hand has to printed type. What gives additional interest 
to these still undociphered hieroglyphs is the probability that they are 
the source of the syllabary in the characters of which a large number of 
Cyprian Greek inticriptioiis are writtdi as well as the legends on the in- 
scribed objects found by Dr. Schliemann at Troy. This curious Cypriote 
syllabary, as it is called, must once have been widely used throughout 
Asia Miiuir, until superseded by the simpler Phconiciau alphabet. The 
lucdl alphabets of Lycia, Caria, and other districts, however, continued 



THE EMPIRE OF THE IIITTITES. 123 

to use some of the older claaracters, for which there were no equivalents 
among the Grseco-Phoenician letters. 

If the origin of the Cypriote syllabary is to be sought in the hieroglyphs 
of Carchemish, the presumption arises that Hittite influence must once 
have extended into Asia Minor. This Mr. Sayee has lately proved to be 
the case. He has pointed out that certain remarkable sculptures at 
Eyuk and Boghar Keui (possibly the ancient Pteria), on the Eastern 
bank of the Halys, are shown by their style, dress, and general charac- 
teristics to be of Hittite derivation. What is more, they are accompanied 
by hiscriptions in Hittite characters. The Hittite sculpture discovered 
by Mr. Davis Ln Lycaonia has already been noticed, and two more Hittite 
monuments are now known to exist in the same locality. The sUver 
mines near which they are found were probably the attraction which 
brought their engravers to the spot. Another Hittite monument was 
met with by Perrot, forming part of an old fort which commanded the 
ancient road from Pessinus to Ancyra. But the most remarkable dis- 
covery of all still remains to be mentioned. The famous figures sculp- 
tured above the roads from Ephesus to Phoceea and from Smyrna to 
Sardes, which Herodotus (II., 106) believed to represent the Egyptian 
Sesostris, turn out to be memorials of his enemies, the Hittites. The 
figures were set up at the place where the two roads met, in a ravine now 
called Karabel, and the spears they had in their hands served as signposts, 
the one pointing to Ephesus, the other to Smyrna. One of them has 
been known for more than forty years ; the other, which is the one more 
particidarly described by Herodotus, has been but recently brought to 
light. Both, however, are equally Hittite, and the inscription which 
still remains on the first of them is written in Hittite hieroglyphs. 

Here, then, we have evidence thai the Hittites once made their way 
as far as the iEgean. We can trace them by the monuments they have 
left behind to the Black Sea on the one hand, and to Lydiaou the other. 
In moving westward they followed two paths, the northern one along 
which Croesus afterwards marched against Cyrus, and the southern one 
subsequently traversed by Xenophon and the Ten Thousand. Both met 
in Sardes, and here in the capital of Lydia was the centre from which 
Hittite influence in the west may have radiated, if it ever did so at all. 
But of this there can be no doubt. The peculiar art of Asia Minor has 
long excited the interest and curiosity of archieologists. It is based on 
the art of Assryia, but has undergone certain changes and modifications 
which give it a very special form. In the opinion of some its origin has 
been discovered. They allege that it was introduced by the Hittites, 
and that the spot where it first took its peculiar shape was the Hittite 
capital Carchemish. Here Assyrian and Egyptian styles met together, 
and were modified by the genius of an alien people. The sphinx and 
solar disk were borrowed from Egypt, almost all else from Nineveh. 
Perhaps one of the most curious inventions of the Hittite artists was 
the double-headed eagle, which may be seen among the sculptures of 
Eyuk and Boghar Keui, and which after becoming the symbol of the 
Seljuk Sultans is now the crest of two Teutonic Empires. 



124 THE EMPTTJT, OF THK HITTITE8. 

But the influence of Hittite art was not confined to Asia Minor. It 
spread from thence to the islands of the Ai-chipelago and to Greece 
itself. There is much in the art of early Greece, more especially as dis- 
played in objects lately found at Mycenee and elsewhere, which cannot 
be derived from a Phoenician source, and it is just this element which 
resembles the Hittite art of Asia Minor. The old legends which brought 
Pelops and his riches from the banks of the Pactolus had, after all, a 
grain of truth at their bottom. The germs of Greek art may have all 
come from Assyria ; but they came by two different paths, partly through 
the hands of the Phoenicians, partly through those of the Hittites. 

What they were in race and language is still unknown, and can only 
be determined when the excavations at Jerabis have been carried further, 
and the discovery of more inscriptions has furnished us ^vith means of 
deciphering them. Mr. Dunbar Heath, indeed, fancies that they spoke 
an Aramean language, but their proper names as recorded on the 
monuments of Assyria and Egypt are, as Brugsch Bey has already ob- 
served, not Semitic. Am inspection of the inscriptions, however, seems 
to show that they marked the relations of grammar by the aid of suffixes, 
and beyond this we cannot at present go. It is possible that, like the 
dialect of the mysterious cuneiform inscriptions of Van, the language 
they spoke belonged to a family of speech now represented by Georgian. 
In the words of an eminent Egyptian scholar, " future discoveries will 
afford convincing proofs " that this Empire, " in the highest antiquity, 
was of an importance which we can now only guess at." 



ERRATA—" QUARTERLY STATEMENT," 1879. 

V. 128, line 2Q, for "haroob" read ♦'karoobali." 
V. ,, „ Z9, after ''fixes" read "in." 
r. ,, ,, 41, for " risk " read " tlie risk. " 
P. 129, „ 36, /o/ "best" rcac? "lirst." 



THE 



PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND: 

A SOCIETY FOR THE ACCUEATE AND SYSTEMATIC INVESTIGATION 
OP THE ARCHiEOLOGY, THE TOPOGRAPHY, THE GEOLOGY 
AND PHYSICAL .GEOGRAPHY, THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OP 
THE HOLY LAND, FOR BIBLICAL ILLUSTRATION. 



HER 



PATRON : 

MAJESTY THE QUEEN. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE: 
ARCHBISHOP OP YORK, President. 



De. H. W. Acland, P.R.S. 

Ret. W. Lindsay Aiexandee, D.D. 

Eev. Henet Allon, D.D. 

The Peesident of the Ameeican Asso- 
ciation. 

W. Amhuest T. Amheest, Esq., M.P. 

Majoe Anderson, C.M.G., R.E. 

Eev. Joseph Angus, D.D. 

DuEE OF Aegyll, X.T. 

Edward Atkinson, Esq., F.R.C.S. 

James Bateman, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Rea\ Canon Biech. 

Samuel Biech, Esq., LL.D., D.C.L. 

Eev. W. p. Biech. 

Rev. H. M. Butlee, D.D. 

Maequis of Bute, K.T. 

Aechbishop of Canterbuet. 

Eael of Caenaeyon. 

T. Chaplin, Esq., M.D., Son. Sec. for 
Jerusalem. 

Bishop of Chestee. 

Dean of Chestee. 

Dean of Cheistchuech. 

LoED Alfeed Chuechill. 

LoED Cleemont. 

J. D. Ceace, Esq. 

Lieut. Condee, R.E. 

Colonel Cooke, C.B., R.E. 

John Cunliffe, Esq. 

Duke of Devonshiee, K.G., P.R.S. 

Eael of Ducie. 

Peofessor Donaldson. 

Eael of Duffeein, K.P., KC.B. 

Bishop of Dueham. 

F. A. Eaton, Esq. 

S. Jackson Eldeidge, Esq., Set/rout. 

SiE HowAED Elphinstoxe, K.C. B. 

Bishop of Exetee. 

Rea^ Canon Fareae, D.D. 

James Feegusson, Esq., P.R.S. 

A. Lloyd Pox. 



H. W. Peeeland, Esq. 

M. C. Clermont-Ganneau, 

P. Waymouth Gibbs, Esq., C.B. 

Rev. C. D. Ginsbueg, LL.D. 

Cyeil C. Geaham, Esq. 

Geoege Geove, Esq., D.C.L. (Ron. Sec.) 

James Glaisher, Esq., P.R.S. 

Samuel Gurney, Esq., P.R.G.S., F.L.S. 

Rev. H. Hall-Houghton. 

H. A. Harper, Esq. 

Rev. J. C. Harrison. 

Rev. p. W. Holland (Ron. Sec.) 

A. J. Beresford Hope, Esq., M.P. 

Sie Joseph D. Hooker, K.C.S.I. 

Holman Hunt, Esq. 

Bishop of Jeeusalem. 

Lieut. H. H. Kitchenee, R.E.,F.R.G.S. 

E. H. Lawrence, Esq. 

Eight Hon. Sie A. H. Layaed, K.C.B. 

Sie p. Leighton, P.E.A. 

General Lefeoy. 

Peofessoe Haytee Lewis. 

Bishop of Lichfield. 

Dean of Lichfield. 

Bishop of Llandaff. 

Samuel Lloyd, Esq. 

Bishop of London. 

John MacGeegoe, Esq. 

W. McAethue, Esq., M.P. 

Duke of Marlborough, K.G. 

Eev. Samuel Manning, LL.D. 

Mastee of University College, 

OXFOED. 

R. B. Maetin, Esq. 

Heney Maudslay, Esq. 

Edward Miall, Esq. 

Eev. Dr. Moffatt. 

Sir Moses Montefiore, Bart. 

Noel Temple Moore, Esq., E.B.M. 

Consul, Jerusalem. 
Samuel Moeley, Esq., M.P. 

M 



General Committee (contimied). 

W. MOERISON, Esq. {Treasurer). 

John Mtjkeat, Esq., F.E.G.S. 

Sir Chaexes Nicholson, Bakt. 

Duke of Northumberland. 

Dean op Norwich. 

Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommannet. 

Professor Owen, C.B., E.R.S. 

Professor E. H. Palmer. 

Sir S. Morton Peto, Bart. 

Eet. Prof. Plu.mptre. 

Eev. Prof. Pritchard, E.R.S. 

Eev. Prof. Puset, D.D. 

The President, Queen's College, 

Belfast. 
Eev. Prof. Eawlinson, 
Henry Eeete, Esq., C.B. 
Marquis of Eipon, K.G-. 
Bishop of Eipon. 
Bishop of Eochester. 
Dr. Sandreczky. 
Et .Hon. Yib count Sandon, M.P. 



M. De Saulct. 

Lord Henry J. M. D. Scott, M.P. 
Earl of Shaftesbury, K.G-. 
William Simpson, Esq., F.E.G.S. 
William Smith, Esq., LL.T). 
W. Spottiswoode, Esq., F.R.S. 
Major E. W. Stewart, E.E. 
Eev. John Stouohton, D.D. 
Viscount Stratford de Eedcliffe, 

E.G., G.C.B. 
Duke of Sutherland, E.G. 
Lord Talbot de Malahide. 
William Tippino, Esq. 
Eev. Canon Tristram, LL.D., F.R.S. 
W. S. W. Vaux, Esq., F.E.S. 
The Marquis de Vogite. 
Lieut.-Col. Warren, C.M.G., E.E. 
Dean of Westminster, F.E.S. 
Duke of Westminster, E.G. 
Lieut.-Col. Wilson, C.B., E.E., F.E.S. 
Bishop of Winchester. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: 
CUirman— JAMES GLAISHEE, Esq. 



Major Anderson. 
Samuel Birch, Esq. 
J. D. Crace, Esq. 
F. A. Eaton, Esq. 
George Grove, Esq. 
Samuel Gurney, Esq. 
Eev. F. W. Holland. 



Professor Hatter Lewis. 
John MacGregor, Esq. 
Walter Morrison, Esq. 
William Simpson, Esq. 
Eev. Canon Tristram. 
W. S. W. Yaux, Esq. 
Lieut.-Col. Warren. 



Banlcers — Messes. Coutts and Co., 59, Strand. The Union Bank of London, 
Charing Cross Branch, 6G, Charing Cross. 

Treasurer — Walter Morrison, Esq. 

Hon. Secretaries — Eev. F. W. Holland, and George Grove, Esq. 

Acting Secretary — Waxter Besant, Esq. Office, 11 and 12, Charing Cross, S.W. 



Cheques and P.O. Orders payable to order of Walter Besant, Esq. It is particularly 
requested that both cheques and orders may be crossed to Coutts and Co., or to the 
Union Bank of London, Charing Cross Branch. Post Office Orders may be mad© 
payable at Charing Cross. 



NOTE.— The Price of the "Quarterly Statement" is 
Crown. Sent free to Subscribers. 



Half-a- 



Quarterly Statement, July, 1880.] 



THE 

PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND 



On and after July 30th, the Offices of the Society will be 
at 1, Adam Street, Adelphi. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



The first instalment of the " Survey of Western Palestine" in the shape of the 
Grreat Maps in 26 sheets has now been delivered to all subscribers of the Special 
Edition. The first Volume of the Memoirs is far advanced and will be issued in 
the summer. The succeeding volumes will follow at short intervals. 



A few copies of the map have been issued to subscribers. Those who have 
put down then- names may expect their copies in the coui-se of the month. 
They will be sent out in order of application, and payment should be made in 
advance. 



The Committee are anxious that as many of their subscribers as possible 
should have the opportunity of seeing the Great Map. They have, therefore, had 
the sheets put together so as to form a map about 18 feet long, on rollers, which 
can be sent to any Honorary Local Secretary to the Fund, for exhibition to 
his subscribers, or to any subscriber to the Fund wlio may wish to show it to his 
friends and '\^ill pay the expenses of carriage. The map has already been shown 
at Edinburgh, Manchester, Leeds, Stroud, Hereford, Ledbury, and one or two 
other places. 

The " sj3ecial papers" promised for the Memoirs 'sviU probably consist of 
three volumes containing (1) an account of research and discovery in Jerusalem 
by Colonel Warren, E.E., including his own excavations and all subsequent work 
in the city, illustrated by plans. (2) Professor E. H. Palmer's Journey through 
the Desert of the Tih. (3) Papers on various prints, from the Qxiarterly State- 
ment (1869-1880), and others specially written for the work by the Rev. Canon 
Tristram, Colonel Wilson, Major Anderson, Mr. Glaislicr, M. Clermont 
Ganneau and others. (4) The name lists, which will include not only aU those 
obtained by the officers of the survey, but also those not in that list, given in 
Sepp and elsewhere, and found by Rosen, Guerin, Ganncau, and other travellers. 

m2 



128 NOTES AND NEWS. 

Colonel Warren has joined Major Anderson as Editor of tlie Maps ; Professor 
Hayter Lewis has undertaken the supervision of the plans and architectm-al 
drawings ; Mr. Walter Besant has been associated with Professor Palmer as 
Echtor of the Memoirs. The Memoirs and maps will be published when 
subst^ribers of the Special Edition have had their copies, at Twexty Gfiseas 
inclusiye ; a limited number only will be printed. A Subscription List is lying 
at the office of the Eund. 



The publication of the Large Map has been placed in the hands of Mr. 
Edward Stanford, 55, Charing Cross, who issues it at the price of Three Guineas. 
Subscribers to the Fund who wish to have it at the reduced price of Two 
Guineas, should apply to the Secretary of the Society at the new office, 1, Adam 
Street, Adelphi. 

It has been resolved for the eonrenience and help of students to issue at the 
same time as the reduced Map of Modern Western Palestine, two Biblical Maps of 
the same country in sis sheets on the same scale, viz., gth of an inch to a mile, 
(see p. 131). There will thus be three maps : — 

(1) Western Palestine, illustrating the Geography of the Old Testament 
within the limits of the Map. 

(2) Western Palestine, illustrating the Geogi-aphy of the New Testament 
■within the hmits of the Map. 

(3) Modern Western Palestine. 

The preparation of these maps has been offered to, and accepted by, Mr. 
Trelawny Saunders. 

No part of Eastern Palestine will be engraved for these maps. It should be 
mentioned, to save disappointment, that the sheets sent over by the American 
Society are not offered as a survey, but as a reconnaissance. They are a valuable 
addition to our knowledge of that region, but the survey has yet to be 
undertaken. 



The price of the reduced maps to subscribers will be as low as possible ; 
until they are ready, however, no decision can be arrived at. 



A meeting of General Committee was held on Tuesday, June 15th, in 
accordance with clause 22 of tlic Articles of Association. The Chair was taken 
by Mr. James Glaisher, but as the business of the meeting had all been 
transacted at the extraordinary meeting of March 16th, 1880, tlie proceedings 
were merely formal. 



In order to meet a desire expressed by many correspondents, the Committee 
have in preparation a pamphlet on the gains to the knowledge and better 
understanding of the Bible resulting from llic survey of Western Palestine. A 
copy will be sent to every subscriber to the Large Map who wishes to have it. 



The Committee have also resolved upon issuing a general index to the papers 



NOTES AND NEWS. 120 

and subjects treated of in tho Quarterly Statement from its commencement 
to October, 1880. The work has been undertaken by Mr. W. S. W. Yaux, 
F.E.S. 



Colonel Warren has in tho press a work entitled " Temple or Tomb ? " lie 
maintains in this book that his explorations at Jerusalem tended to confirm the 
autlienticity of the traditional sites of the Holy Sepulchre and Temple of the 
Jews. He shows that the Zion to which the ark of the Lord was brought by 
King David was a totally distinct hill from Moriah, on which the Temple of 
Solomon was built, and will point out that the confusion existing in the minds of 
many on the subject arises from the fact that, of the principal poetical works, the 
psalms referring specially to Zion were composed by David during the period 
when Zion was the Holy Hill, while the psalms written after the building of the 
Temple only refer to Zion in parallelisms. He also shows that of three hills on 
which Jerusalem is built, there is a general concurrence between the Bible, 
Josephus, and IVfaccabees that Moriah, the Temple mount, is that to the east ; 
that to the south-west is the upper city of Josephus, and that to the north-west 
is the Akra, formerly the city of David (Zion), which was cut down by the 
Maccabees to prevent it dominating the Temple. He is of opinion that the 
west, south, and east walls of the Temple, together with the northern edge 
of the dome of the rock platform, indicate tlic limits of the Temple courts of 
Herod ; the large marginal drafted stones of which formed the actual walls that 
existed or were built in his day. He maintains that the threshing floor of 
Araunah the Jebusite, was on the top of the hill of Moriah, and that the position 
of the Temple was in the main, identical with that indicated by the common 
tradition of Jews, Christians aud Mohammedans. 



Mr. Laurence OKphant, who has recently returned from a journey in 
Eastern Palestine, will publish in the Autumn a work entitled " The Land of 
Gilead." His expedition, which was undertaken in the interests of the 
project which we described in the last number of the Quarterly Statement, led 
him to many places never before described, even if they have been visited by- 
European travellers, and was rich iu geographical and archaeological results. 



"When the Memoirs aro completed it is proposed by Mr. Walter Besant to 
prepare a translation of the early travels in Palestine. This will include, besides 
those accoimts published by Tobler, the description of Jerusalem on the arrival of 
the Crusaders, which has never hitherto been translated from the Norman French, 
and a chapter on the Arabic historians, which will be contributed by Professor 
E. H. Palmer. Colonel Warren has promised to add a running commentary and 
short notes to the text. This book will probably be pubUshed next year by 
subscription. 

We promised to give Professor Palmer's translations of the Arabic inscrip- 
tions in the Cubbet es Sakhrah in this number of the Quarterly Statement. 
He has, however, been unavoidably prevented from completing them. 



130 KOTES AXD NEWS. 

Mr. G-reTille Chester's report of his jouniey througli the cities of the Delta 
and the shores of the "Lacus Serbonicus" will be found in this number. He 
points out serious errors in the revised maps and differs altogether from the 
theory of Brugsch Bey. 

A cheap edition of " Tent Wort in Palestine " will be published in the 
autumn. Its price will probably be 7^. 6d. A few copies still remain of the 
Library Edition. 

The income of the Fund from all sources, from March 20th, 1880, to June 
28th, 1880, was £1,048 14*. 8d. The general expenditure on rent, parcels, postage, 
printing cf Quarterly Statement, of Mcmou-s, &c., during the same period has 
been £528 1*. The amount in hand at the Committee meeting of June 28th 
was £1,432 2*. lid. 



It is suggested to subscribers that the safest and the most couTcnient manner 
of paying subscriptions is through a bank. Many subscribers have adopted this 
method, which removes the danger of loss or miscarriage, and renders unneces- 
sary the acknowledgment by official receipt and letter. 



Subscribers who do not receive the Quarterly/ Statement regularly, are asked 
to send a note to the Secretary. Great care is taken to forward each number 
to all who are entitled to receive it, but changes of address and oihcr causes 
give rise occasionally to omissions. 

The publications of the Society now in print are : — 

1. The Recovery of Jerusalem. Third Thousand. Ids. to Subscribers. 

2. Our Work in Palestine. Isvaih Thousand. 3*. (5d. 

3. Tent Work in Palestine. Second Thousand. 17*. Gd. to Subscribers. 

4. The Quarterly Statement. 

The second of these contains a popular account of the excavations in 
■Jerusalem, with the reasons and aims of the work. 

A few copies still remain of Lieutenant Kitchener's Guinea book of Biblical 
Photographs. It contains twelve views, with a short account of each. The 
TJCMS are mounted on tinted boards, and handsomely bound. 



Cases for binding the Quarterlt/ Statement can be obtained of the Society's 
pubHshers, Messrs. R. Bentloy and Son, at cightcenpence each. They are in 
green or brown cloth with the stamp of tlie Society. 



The following arc at present Representatives and Lecturers of the Society, in 
addition to the local Honorary Secretaries : — 

Archdeaconry of Hereford : Rev. J. S. Stooke-Yaughan, Wellington Heath, 

Vicarage, Ledbury. 
City and neighbourhood of Manchester : Rev. W. F. Birch, St. Saviour's 

Rectory. 
Lancashire : Rev. John Bone, St. Thomas's Vicarage, Lancaster. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 131 

London ; Ecv. Ilonry Groary, 16, Somerset Street, Portman Square. 

Norwich : Rev. W. F. Crceny. 

Peterborough : Eev. A. J. Foster, Famdish Rectory, Wellingborough. 

Worcester : Rev. F. W. Holland, Evesham (Member of General and Executive 
Committee, and one of the Hon. Secretaries to the Fund). 

Diocese of Ripon : Rev. T. C. Henley, Kirkby Malham Vicarage. 

North Wales : Rev. John Jones, Pwllheli, Noi-th Wales. 

Yorkshire, Durham, and the North : Rev. James King, St. Mary's Vicarage, 
Berwick. Mr. Eing lias recently returned from the Holy Land ; commu- 
nications for lectures, &c., can be sent to the Office at Charing Cross. 



While desiring to give every iDublicity to proposed identifications and other 
theories advanced by officers of the Fund and contributors to the pages of the 
Quarterly Statement, the Committee wish it to be distinctly understood that 
these rest solely upon the credit of the respective authors, and that by 
]K;blishing them in the Quarterly Statement the Committee neither sanction 
nor adopt them. 

Annual subscribers are earnestly requested to forward their subscriptions for 
the current year when due, at their earliest convenience, and without waiting for 
application. 

The Committee are always glad to receive old numbers of the Quarterly 
Statement, especially those which have been advertised as out of pi'int. 



THE REDUCED MAPS. 

The following correspondence more fully explains the statement made above 
as to the reduced maps : — 

To the Editors o/" The Leeds Mercury:' 
" Gentlemen, — Having recently written to the Secretary of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund relative to the exhibition of the great map on G.'hursday last, 
and mentioned the criticism of several subscribers that so few of the biblical 
names of places were introduced — many even of important towns being marked 
only by their modern names — I have received the accompanying letter in reply, 
which Mr. Besant asks me to publish, hoping that the subscribers wiU be satisfied 
with the action of the Committee in meeting their objections half -way. — lam, &c., 

"Ed. Atkinson. 
" Leeds, 10th June, 1880." 

" Palestine Exploration Fund, 
"11 and 12, Charing Cross, June 7th, 1880. 
Dear Sir, — I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this morning. 
The Committee have already considered the questions raised by you in this com- 
munication as to the scriptural names, and are fully awake to the importance of 
making the results of the survey more widely useful to bibUcal students than is 
possible with tlie great map alone. With this object in view they have resolved 
upon issuing, as soon as they can be prepared, throe maps of Western Palestine, 



132 NOTES AND NEWS. 

reduced from the large map which you have seen, to three-eighths the original 
size. The first of these -n-ill contain as many of the modern names now in the 
large map as can be found room for, and vrUl form a trustworthy map for the 
trayeller and geographer of modern Palestine. The second will.be a map of the 
country in the time of Our Lord, forming an accurate map (so far as the identi- 
fications are accepted) to illustrate the New Testament and Josephus. The third 
wiU be a map of the country in the time of the Kings, illustrating the whole of 
the Old Testament narrative so far as Western Palestine is concerned. In 
addition to this, we have now in hand, and shall shortly publish, a pamphlet 
on the principal gains to Biblical knowledge from the survey. I have to add 
that the price of these reduced maps to subscribers will be fixed at the actual 
cost-price of then- production. They will all be ready, I think, by February next. 
It is a great satisfaction to the Committee that their subscribers in Leeds have had 
a chance of seeing how their money has been expended, and of reaUsing that they 
have contributed to the completion of the most important work ever undertaken 
in illustration of the Bible. I have only now to convey to you the thanks of the 
Committee for yom- own exertions and trouble in the cause. 

" I remain, dear SiE, faithfully yours, 

"Waltee Besant, M.A., Secretary. 
"Edward Atkmson, Esq., F.R.C.S." 



13 



?. 



A JOURNEY TO THE BIBLICAL SITES IN LOWER 

EGYPT, ETC. 

By Greville J. Chester, B.A., Member of the Eoyal Archaeological 

Institute. 

The work of the Palestine Exploration Fund could scarcely be deemed 
complete if Egypt were left out of the scope of its investigations. In the 
very first Book of the Old Testament, we read of Abram going during a 
famine to sojourn in the rich and fertile land of Egypt, and of his 
deceitful dealings with the king of that country, and on the very 
threshold of the Neio Testament, we are told of the flight of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary and St. Joseph with the Holy Child to the same place of 
refuge, and how it was that "out of Egypt God called his Son." In 
addition to this, much of the Old Testament relates to Egyi^tian trans- 
actions, and there is, in point of fact, scarcely a better or more striking 
commentary upon the inspired Prophets than the present state and aspect 
of the ancient Biblical cities of Lower Egypt. 

So far as the writer can discover, there are no Arabic or Christian 
traditions in Egypt, relating to the visit of the Patriarch Abram, and. 
Brugsch's identification of a place called in the monuments T-en J/osh^, 
the Island or Eiverbank of Moses, with the name of the great deliverer 
and law-giver, must at the best be considered very doubtful. (" Hist, of 
Egypt," ii, 112). With respect, however, to the "Flight into Egypt," and 
the sojourn of the Infant Christ in that ancient land, four traditions 
prevail to this day amongst the Copts, who are the representatives of the 
ancient Egyptians, and the inheritors to some extent of the traditions, as 
they are j;he actual possessors of the jaroperty of the ancient orthodox 
Church of Egypt. 

The first of these traditions relates to the Crypt Church of Sitt Miriam, 
the Lady Mary, under the fine and curious Church of Abou-Sirgeh in the 
ancient Roman fortress of Kas'r or Dayr-esh-Shemmah at Mis'r Ateekeh, 
(Old Cairo). The church in question is a small subterraneous building of 
very eai-ly type, perhaps as early as the sixth or seventh century. It has 
three aisles, each side aisle being separated from the nave by two pillars 
taken from some earlier Greek or Roman structm-e. In the eastern, 
northern, and southern walls respectively, there is a niche with a slab 
sculptured with a cross at the bottom of each, and according to Coptic 
tradition, the Virgin and St. Joseph reposed in the side ones, and the 
Divine Child in that in the centre. His Holiness Kyrillos, the present 
Patriarcli of the Copts, whom I questioned on the subject, declared that 
this tradition is at least as old as the crypt to which it relates. 

The three other traditions are connected with the fountain and tree at 
Matai'eeyeh a few miles from Cairo in the immediate neighbourhood of 



134 NOTES ON THE BIBLICAL SITES IN LOWER EGYPT, ETC. 

the ruins of Heliopolis (On). In a garden a little to the right of the 
road, presented with characteristic bad taste by the ex-Khediv to the 
Empress Eugenie, and now 23rofaned by a French cafe, is a venerable 
Gemase/i, or sycomore-fig tree, under whose branches the Holy Family are 
traditionally i-eported to have rested at the time of the Flight. Another 
tradition relates that the Blessed Virgin concealed the Holy Child in a 
hole in the trunk, and that a spider spun its web over the apertui-e so as 
to conceal Him from His pursuers.* The present tree is said to be the suc- 
cessor of one which died some two centuries ago, but there is nothing in the 
appearance of the tree itself to militate against the idea that it is of a much 
greater antiquity, and the extreme longe'saty of the sycomore-fig is well 
known. Hard by is a fountain with a sakieh, fed probably by percolation 
from the Nile, but said to have been brackish until the Virgin bathed 
therein, when it became sweet. To these stories, I may add that it was 
interesting to one who in childhood in his native Norfolk had heai-d the 
legend which connects the white sjDots on the leaf of the " Blessed Thistle," 
with the milk of the Blessed Virgin, to find the road in the neifjhbourhood 
of Matareeyeh, bordered on both sides with luxm-iant tufts of that beautiful 
plant. 

Thus much being said about the local traditions, the writer would remark 
that the following notes are the result of a journey undertaken in the eai'ly 
part of the present year at the request of the Committee of the Palestine 
Exploi-ation Fund, to visit the j^iincipal Biblical cities of Lower Egypt, and 
the places on the route of the Israelites at the Exodus, as proposed many 
years ago by Eichter and Schleiden, and advocated afresh by Brugsch 
Bey, who, it must be confessed, has made but slight acknowledgment of 
the labour of his predecessors. The writer, in what he has to relate, has 
himself no particular theory to advocate with regard to the Exodus ; all 
theories at present jjromulgated, presenting in his opinion, almost insujier- 
able difficulties. His sole object has been to search after truth, and to 
relate as plainly as ])ossible what he saw, in the hojie that others may be 
aided in drawing safe conclusions from the facts stated and the observa- 
tions made. He has not shrunk, however, from noting in passing anything 
which in his opinion makes for or against a theory, which most people will 
allow to be a brilliant one, and which, at all events jor2.V/i«/acie, has much 
to commend it. 

U2:)on one point, indeed, Herr Brugsch seems to have laid too 
little stress, although it tells in his own favour. It sin-ely seems 
unlikely in the extreme that a multitude of people whose main object 
was to get out of the country as fast as possible — to go out into the 
wilderness or desert to sacrifice unto the Lord — a multitude laden, moreover, 
with rich plunder, and encumbered with flocks and herds — it surely seems 
unlikely in the extreme that they should, in the first instance, have gone 
utterly out of the way in the direction of Suez, and that through a hostile 
country, and through the very midst of their former enslavers, when they 

* Bocdckcr's Handbook. 



IIELIOPOLIS. 135 

might have gone out straight and by a